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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine November 1983"

November 1983 USA $4.00 





A WAYNE QREEN PUBLICATION 



the magazine for TRS-80* users 



Demystifying 

BAR CODES 



Also Inside: 

Color Graphics 
On Your Epson 

Build Your Own 
Home Controller 

All About Unix — 
A New Series 

The World*s Best 
n One-Line Games 





-^si?^ "74470"65947' 
.HhCr A DIVISION OF lAHOV COUP. 



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VF.t(bARE.CEIVAW.Li'" 15 a Complete menu driven accoonls receivaNe. invoicing, and 
monthly sia I emen i general ing sy^it^m li keeps iTack o( all inltitmalion related 10 who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide aulomadc bilbng (or past due ac- 
counts V^saRecEH.'AEILES'' pnnls alt necessaty slalements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked *nth VtFSALELKJER II" and VtRSA INVENTORY". 

VeRSAPaYABLES*" $99.95 

VEHSaPavabi f.S" IS designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding hou; much money your company owes, and to 
whom WrsaPavables" maintains a comiriete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, traruaction reports, aged payables reports, verxiot reports, 
arxl more Wtih WrsaPavaheS", you can even let your computer automatically select 
which touchers arc to be paid. 

VERSAPaYROLL'" $99.95 

VlhsaPA'iHOU."' is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track iif all government required payroll information Complete emptayee records 
are maintained, and all rtecessary payroll calculations are performed automatic- ally, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll can be run totally, automah- 
cally. or the operator can intervene to prevent a check Irom beirig printed, or to alter 
inlnrmalmn on it U desired, totals may be posted to the VehsaLedgek IP system 

VERSAINVENTORY™ $99.95 

Vf.RSAhVFNlOR^"- IS a complcle inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. VtRSA INVENTORY" keeps tracli of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out ol stock, on backorder. etc , stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item tails below a preset reorder point, artd alktws you to enter arid print 
invoices directly or to link with the Versa Receivables- system. Versa IfjvtNiOKY- prints 
all needed inventory bstirigs. reports o( items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, penod and year t&dare sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc 



VersaLedger ir $149.95 

Versa 1-EL>ger 11" is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows, VersaLedger IV can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
eKparxled to a srriall business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VbisaLedgER ir" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10.000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks. 

• hairwUes multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger 11™ comes with a professionally written 160 page manual de- 
signed lor firsl-time users. The VersaL^DGER if" manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VersaLedger IF", using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



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includirK) ol course IBM PC, APPLE ' )l and TRS-80 ' , Percoin Data s innovations 
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having a reliable hard disk system is as easy as hooking up a cable 
A PercOTi Data PHD ' wilt interlace with your present system . and your tuture system . . 
so it you do change computers, you can still keep your m<ist important investment . 
your Percom Data Hard Disk Drive 
Because Percom Data helped create the industry standards of today new designs in software 
and tiardwaro will make your selection of a Percom Data Hard Disk Drive pay off 
tomorrow through system compatibility 
A Percom Data PHD works to capacity because we take the time to correctly develop interlace 
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Percom Data knows software lunctionalily is the key to hardware performance 
Today, Percx)m Data PHD supports a variety of software to match your computer: 
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■'nii.jn T'R(,i>'i Ml <iM ivviAi i.>H>'oi</\ik^ 



Features 



94. Helki Barcodes, 

(ioodbye keyhoard? 

Optical scanning for accurate data 
entry— grocery stores are only the 
beginning. 
Hermes S. Mendez 



Articles 



Business 



242. Stmddlc the Market 

Challenge Wall Street with this in- 
troduction to stock options. 
John Bell 



IKif. 




look at industrial bar codes, with 
three popular styles lor your Model 
III and Epson MX-80. 
Davey S. Thornton 



114. Check-Oui IPCs 

■^ Print out UPC codes with your Mod III 

Davey S. Thornton 

128. Decoding Har Cftdei! 

Lj^l Not only can your III print bar codes. 
it can read them with these 
DOSPLUS 3,5 programs for RS-232 
data transmission. 
Robert S. Craft and Richard G. 
Beplat 



140. Graflnu An Paktte 

II and an Epson can 
team for full-color printouts. 
Francis S. Kalinowski 



^ Your Model 



212. Using L nU-Xenix— Part I 

First of a series on the 16-bit multi- 
user standard. 
James Hawkes 

216. RMO-Worid Control— Part I 

Make your Model III into a home safe- 
ty watchdog. 
David Englehardt 

296. CJife l-lxprR«o 

One-line games that astounded the 

judges. 

The Gamer's Cafe 



Games 

244. I>epth Charxc 

Destroy undersea bases in under 2K 

RAM 

LB Cebik 

256. Prime Mission 

^~ If you hated prime numbers in math 
class, here's your chance to gel even 
Jeffrey O. Fisher 

Review 

176. I)ala-haw Duo 

Header's Digest's ListMaker and 
SofTrends' Promise!: two in-mem- 
ory DBMS programs for fast filers. 
Wynne Keller 

Technique 

234. Scrambled Alphabets: 
Cnplulogj- Fart V 

Instead of changing letters, our 
cryptologist turns his hand to rear- 
ranging them. 
Karl Andreassen 

Tutorial 

228. Basic, KiLster and 
Readable— l>ari 111 

Save time by speeding up Basic 

loops. 

John Corbani 



Model n/12/16 



IK. Space Maker 

234. Scramhkd Alphabets: 
toplolop— Part V 

238. RKM Remover 

2&. Diredon A.sssUnce 



Utilities 

186. Space Maker 

Spread out Model Il/12yi6 Basic 
listings tor easy reading. 
Jim Barbarello 

202. ImUh- C'nnection 

A test pattern program for accurate 
color reproduction. 
Danley E. Chnstensen 

204. Make Your WonKs) Count 

!i«iik *^°* '"^"^ '^ '^^' Scripsil file? Now 
you can know in words instead of 
characters. 
Charles Knight 

238. RKM Krmo\er 

Take back your remarks to save 
Model II diSK space. 
Charles R. Perelman 

248. Kxtend Radio Shack's 
Kditur '.Assembler 

Check your object code while using 
EDTASM. 
Robert J. Fleck 

260. Dim-ton A»astancf 

A cure for vanishing IL'12/16 disk dtrec- 

tofies. 

Les N Delmaner 



Departments 



6. Side Tracks 

Why the Big Four are the Big Four, 
Eric Maloney 

8. PnKjf Soles 

How to catch bar code fever, 

12. Input 

Tandy s cash registers. Reviewer and 
designer discuss TRSDOS 6,0, CRT re- 
assurance. Fixing Model I displays. 
Kepner on piracy. STAR-DOS defense. 
AIDS-HI addenda. 

20. Glossan 

22. Aid 

CoCo RTTV wanted. Can you convert 

Profile to Profile III Ptus? Model I 
RSCOBOL expansion. 



4 • 80 Micro, November 1963 



24. Debug 

Tidying up Pascal, ending "La Plume 
de Ma Tante," and completing Model 
II Casino. 

26. The Next Step 

Dent forget variables and arrays. 
Hardin Brothers 

36. The Color Key 

Virtual disk programs for 64K cassette 

users. 

Scoff Norman 

44. Reviews 

Tandy's PC4. The Banner Machine. 
LDOS utilities. Gridstar. DMP-2100 
printer. TRSDOS SpeedJJp Kit. Finger 
Print. Quill. Softcomm. Benchmark. 
Draw and Kwikdraw. Electronically 
Speaking. Games at a Glance. 

89. Review Digest 

Others' opinions of TRS-80 products. 

264. C*Note$ 

A portable bonanza: Nag Analysis, 
songwriters' aid, robot control, daily 
numbers, and Model 100 correspon- 
dence. 

277. Calendar 

278. News 

Revised Radio Shack management: 
an exclusive Inten/iew. Continued mi- 
cro industry chaos. Oklahoma mo- 
dem blues. A different kind of termi- 
nal package. Radio Basic. Computer 
haute couture. 





■TRS-80, Scripsit, and 
TRSDOS are trademarks 
of Tandy Corp. 



294. The Gamer's Cafe 

Reunion in Baltimore and a Silver 

sibling. 

Rodney Gamblcus 

199. Young Programmer's Contest 

Last call to send In your masterpiece. 

300. Fun House 

Basic animation: growing trees and 
playing games. 
Richard Ramella 



310. Fecdbadc Loop 

Expert answers to techie questions. 
Terry Kepner 

322. Reload 80 

Now Load 60 speaks both source and 

object. 

Amee Eisenberg 

324. New Products 

Model III/4 Pascal graphics. RSM3 
monitor. 11/12/16 Profile transfer. 
DOSPLUS IV. Using Scripsit. DBLTalk 
for CompuServe. Surge Sponge. 
PowerMall Plus. The Circuit Judge. 
RS-232 Analyzer. New Tandy printer. 
WordStar for LDOS. Strap your 100. 



PUBUSHEFVPRESIDENT 
Wayne Qreen 

VICE PRESIDENT/GENERAL MANAGER 

Debra Wethsrtiee 

VICE PRESIDENT/FINANCE 

Roger Murphy 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENTWP 

Matt Smith 

ASSISTANT TO VP/FI NANCE 

Dominique Smith 

DWECTOfl OF MARKETING & SALES 

David Schlftsler 

CinCULATlON 603^4-9471 

BULX & NEWSSTAND SALES MANAGER 

Glnnie Boudiieau 

1-80034*0728 

ADVEmiSlNG, 603^4-7136 

SbMb l^nager Edward Bornzo 

Sales: Mary Hsrlwoll 

Ad Coordinator Betty Butler 

PUBUC RELATIONS 

James Leonard 

PRODUCTION 

Manager Nancy Salmon 

Assistant'. David Wozmak 

Michael Ford. Marjorle Gillies, 

Alfred Huston, Klmberly Nadeau, 

Anne Rocchio, Kenrwth Sulci Ida, 

Karen Wozmak; 

Film Productlor\; Donna Hartwell, 

Theresa Vervllle. Robert M. Vllieneuve; 

Ad Coordinators: Palrlcia Bradley, 

Paula Ramsey; 

Assistant: Taylor Morris; 

Adverllalng Production: Jane Preston, 

Fiona Davles, Bruce Hedin, 

Scott Phllbrick 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Supervisor: Thomas Vllleneuve; 

Sartdra Oukette, Nathaniel Haynea. 

Laurie Jennlson. Sturdy Thomas 

TYPESETTING 

Supervisor: Sara Bedell; Darlene Bailey, 

Prem Gonga|u, Lynn Haines, 

Cynthia Leiourneau, Llndy Palmlsano, 

Heidi Thomas, Sue Weiier 

DESIGN 

Supervisor: Joyce Plllarella; 

Susan Donohoe, Holly Fuette, 

Howaid Happ, Beth Krommes, 

Dion Owens, Dianne Rilson, 

Patrice Scrlbner, Susan Stevens, 

Suzanne Torsheya, Sarah Wernlnger, 

Donna WohKanh; 

Copywriters: Louis Marlnl, Gall Morrison. 

Dale Tietfen, Steve Tripp 

DESIGN DIRECTOR 

Christine Destrempas 



Cover by Ertck Ingraham 



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dO M/cro, November 1983 • 5 



SIDE TRACKS 



by Eric Maloney 



The microcomputer market has de- 
veloped a reputation for shifting 
like a sand dune. Certainly, the sum- 
mer's shake-up in the low-end market 
and accompanying dip in high-tech 
stocks reinforces that impression. 

But you get another perspective if 
you step back and view the situation in a 
historical context (however short that 
history may be). The fact is that the 
companies who were on top three years 
ago are still there. And everyone else is 
still scrambling to get a decent share of 
the market. 

In 1980, the leaders were Tandy, Ap- 
ple, and Commodore. The only com- 
pany since then to take a significant 
portion of the market is, of course, 
IBM. Others— Sinclair, Atari, Texas 
Instruments, and Osborne, to name a 
few — have had their chance. None has 
done too well. 

What's the secret? Why do the Big 
Four enjoy continued success while 
the rest flail around in apparent help>- 
lessness? 

To begin with, the leaders offer fun- 
damentally sound machines that prom- 
ise a certain amount of longevity. Note, 
for instance, the number of TRS-80 
Model I's still in use. Nearly half of 80 
Micro's subscribers still own Tandy's 
original micro, which hasn't been made 
since 1981. Some of these machines are 
six years old. 

Contrast this with the fate of the 
Timcx-Sinclair 1000, one of the hottest 
consumer products of any kind in 
1982-83. The odds are that most will be 
junked or k)st in a closet within a couple 
of years. 

Second, the successful companies an- 
ticipated and addressed future markets. 
Tandy's Model 100 is an example; Tan- 
dy saw the need for a truly portable 
micro and filled the void. The 100 was 
an instant success, both critically and 
commercially. 

Osborne, on the other hand, failed to 
follow up quickly enough on their initial 
success. They put out a transportable 
that begged to be made obsolete, and 
didn't have anything to take its place 
when interest sagged and sales dropped. 
Third, Tandy et al know how to mar- 
ket their products. Say what you want 
about Tandy's chintzy newsp^jer in- 
serts — the bottom line is that the com- 
pany has sokl a lot of computers. One 

6 • 80 Micro. November 1983 




wonders how effective TI's ^s— with 
Bill Cosby mugging for the Jell-O and 
Coke crowds — can be, or whether Atari 
has taken the proper steps to unburden 
itself of its image as a game maker. 

Finally, the major computer manu- 
facturers have managed to avoid some 
of the effects of the faddism that has 
aruck the industry. The average Tandy 
customer puts thought into his pur- 
chase, and knows what he wants to do 
with his s^em. And he never has any 
problems fmding new uses for it. 

The average Sinclair customer, on the 
other hand, buys a T-S 1000 because he 
has vague thoughts of becoming com- 
puter literate (whatever that means), or 
because his kids want a microcomputer. 
Eventually, the computer faUs into dis- 
use because no one knows what to do 
with it. The Sinclair is not a machine 
that will engender a great deal of respect 
among the buying public, any more 
than the Chevy Vega will ever be con- 
sidered a real car. 

The moral of this story is that while 
we can expect to see a general slow- 
down in the entire micro market, we can 
also expect that Tandy will continue to 
be one of the more stable manufactur- 
ers, and that the TRS-80 line wiU hold 
onto a goodly portion of the market. 
They, along with Apple, ComrrKxlore, 
and IBM, stand head and shoulders 
above the pack, and it will require a ma- 



jor effort on Tandy's part to bungle 
their share of the le^. 



A Bttzzard of Paper 

A recent report from International 
Resource E>evelopment of Norwalk, 
CT, confirms what we here have sus- 
pected for some time — that while elec- 
tronic mail may be faster and more ef- 
ficient, it may not necessarily be more 
effective. The reason, says the report, is 
that e-mail is impersonal, and takes 
"the humanity out of a commimication." 
The result, it concludes, is that people 
will turn to stationery and other forms 
of more personal correspondence. 

"[Paper] is a symbol of authority, it 
dispels doubt as to the existence of a 
transaction, it represents an extension 
of the individual that necessarily — by its 
very nature — is far more intimate than a 
piece of computer hardware," says 
IRD's press release on the report. 

As members of CompuServe, we've 
been receiving an increasing number of 
query letters — letters in which authors 
ask us whether we're interested in ar- 
ticles they're working on — through 
e-mail. And we've noticed that our 
tendency is to pay less attention to these 
letters than to personal letters sent via 
the U.S. mail. 

We don't do it on purpose. But all 
e-mail looks the same. Each letter pops 
up on the screen in the same fashion, 
and each is dumped to the same printer 
to be cranked out in the same dot-ma- 
trix style on the same perforated paper. 
A half-dozen such letters in a pile have 
little to distinguish themselves from one 
another. 

A personal letter, on the other hand, 
says a great deal about the author. The 
envelope, the kind of stationery, the let- 
terhead, the way in which the letter is 
formatted, the signature — together with 
the text, they sketch a portrait of the 
author. And each portrait is distinct 
from the next. 

So the next time you're ready to send 
out a letter electronically, think about it 
first. Is the medium lessening the impact 
of the message? If so, perhaps you shoukl 
forego the wonders of the electronic na- 
tion for the dependability of typewriter 
and paper. It's a means of communica- 
tion that will never outlive its effec- 
tiveness. ■ 



r The Answer is... 

MEWSCf?IPn 



TM 



k 




THE WORD PROCESSOR 
FOR BUSINESSMEN AND 

PROFESSIONALS 

With ongoing support directly 
from us 

A FEW OF NEWSCRIPT's 200 
STANDARD FEATURES: 

- KOKM l.Kl IKHSi U'lTli MKKt.INt. tlK NAMKS AMI AUUHhSStS 

• GI\T.S SUPEHH A1'I'KAH.\N{ K lO VOIR FINAL DUCIMKMS 

• (■()MFHKHKNSI\'t. MANL'AL WITH TITOKIAI. AM) KXAMl'LLS 

■ CENTERING, TUP HOI 1 DM IIILKS, INDENTS PACINATKJN 

• liNDKKMNlMi, KOLUKACE. DUIBLE WIDTH. IIAI.ICS- 

■ SLTiSLTER S( FUPTS, HKiMI .H STIKIKD PHOPORTlDNAl.t 

■ CRKAIKS lAHI.K OK CONTENTS. SORTED INDEX 

■ "LEGAL" LINK NLMBERINC, 

• SCRKKN (IKAFHICS, SPECIAL PRINTER SVMROI S- 

• SEARCH REPLAfE GLOBALLY OH WllHlN LINES, COLLMNS 

• BLOCK MOVE ( tIFV DKLEIE INSERT EILE MERGES 

• AITOSAVE, WHOOPS UlRECTOKY. KILL 

■ SLPPORT FOR ALL I.ISIEI) PRIMERS IS INCLLUFD •- 
[NO PATCHES irrVOLVEDl " 

■ SLPPLIED RKADV K) KIN (IN ' IINV ' DOSPLLS 

■ ALSO HI NS INDER NEW DOS ^0. IDOS, MLl.lIDOS 1 RSUOS 




Ife. 



BUILT-IN SUPPORT 1 
MOST POPULAR 
PRINTERS', INCLUDING: 

AnacUx Brother, fi-iiii imiis C Huh, Didhlo. Epson, Gemini. 
Mil ruhiir, NEC. Pmwnier. Qumc. Radio Shack |LF' 1 H. DWJ. DMP 
410, DWP 2(>0 21t)0i. SiiiiUi Ciirnii.i. Trlrlyp*-, Typewriter, anything 
c ijrii|iiiiilj1f wilh iiiiy ul these, and miiny othrrs. parallel iiiiri KSJlVi. 

SPECIAL AVAILABLE OPTION: Right justified 
proportional for Diablo, F-10, Qumc, Spinwriter. 
etc. Requires "Daisj'wheel Pruportional" Option 
plus NEWSCRIPT. 



REVIEWERS AND USERS AGREE 



Q 



NF.WSCRUn 7.1: 

Mailinji I.ab(.'K<)ptiun; 
Spttial:NK\\SC:Hiri ^ I.AHF.1.S: 

HaisA whwl rroixirtidiial OpLidn: 

"IVntil ScripMl"I''ilL'C;uii\vrlMr: 

NF.\VSC:RIFI' Manual &HcfiTt'iitvtard onlv: 

KkilricWebslrr + (orrttlion I'Valviri-: 

II\ p!>fnalii>n IVaturc fcir F.lttlric \N L-bsU-r: 

CraniiMulical Fcaturt- fcir Flwtrif \N t'l>j.ti?r: 

Uotwritt'rlH.O: 

DdUvritLT + Lolti-r ltilitif>: 

8.0ri.rS-MSSM.)dfUutilit\ pak 



-NEWSCRIPT ■ is Ihf best 
word protrsor I have seen 
. . . unsiirpassetl in printer 
contrul , . . iiu utlitr 
TRS-8U word pruvessur 
ran match its ability to 
iurniat text ... its editcir is 
fust, easy, mid powerful." 
(HO MICRO. Oct. 1982} 

"Yiuir phfiiie information 
system \ind the prompt 
and courtfuus staff that 
yoii prondc to help yuur 
clients . are worth the 
cost ol the system." 
(VJiJi.l 

■'Better than cold beer on 

a hot day!! Thank voul!" 

IR.S.J 

"What a pioi^rauL So easy 

to learn and easier to use 

I waited too lonR before 

ordcrintJ! ■ (P.J.M. 



, , takes the TRS-80 to a 
new level of text handling 
. . . vcr>' uscr-fricndly . . . 
superb documentation, 
adaptability to many 
printers and operating 
systems ... a standard 
against which other 
TRS-RO word processing 
programs will be judged.' 
(SOFTSIDE. Dec. 19821 

. . ongoing support 
second to none, with 
superb documen- 
tation." ISO t'.S. Journal. 
Feb. 19821 



c 



6 



PRm 



TERMS: \ibA M..iv 

M'lttiiii 11 li.Jiu^. i'lrjii. 
r.(ll*(l.l. SI^IM) (.\<-T-.r.i 



1 ard rhri 



.Ll\ I.,' 




REgVtRED CONFIGURATION: 

48K TRS-HO. MAX 80. I.NW. or 
(■(impatiblc. with onr or more 
disk drivts. Specify Model I or 
Model 111. 
t some features work only il your 

printer has thr [iierhaiiiral 

capability. 
» ♦ Daisy Wheel Proportional is an 
extra-cost option. 

TO ORDER, CALL NOW, 

TOLL-FREE: (800) 

824-7888, Operator 422 

For orders, intormatitin, or names of nearbv dealers: 
[2131 764-3131. or write to us. 

Order from your Software dealer or from: 



Dep*t. C, Box 560 No. HoUywood, CA 91603 



.irdii-,. (1)1) ' 
l-l'S 111 I -^ -V 
^,ll^t K1X in i .ili 



c[i'.til Muil oid.r 
IHS lllur Label Add 



EDITORIAL DIRECTOR 

WAYNE GREEN PUBLX^ATXJNS 

Jeffrey D. DeTray 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Eric Maloney 

SENIOR EDITOR (EDITORIAL) 

Peter E. McKle 

SENIOR EDrrOR (PRODUCTXXJ) 

Deborah M. Sargent 

NEWS EDITOR 
Eric Grevstad 

REVIEW EDITOR 
Lynne M. Nadeau 

NEW PRODUCTS EDITOR 

S.F. Tomajczyk 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Amy Campbell 

Susan Gubernat 

Robert L Mitchell 

EDITORIAL INTERN 

Justina Alsfeld 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Bradford N. Dixon 

Amee Eisenberg {Load 80) 

Mare-Anne Jarvela 

Beverly Woodbury 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Joan Ahern, 

Bob Dukette, Phii Geraci, 

Maurelle Godoy, Sue Hays, 

Laura Landy, Judy Oliver 

PROOFREADERS 

Peter Bjornsen, 

Harold Bjornsen, 

Robin Florence, Ellen Hardsog 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 
Carole MaclocI 



PROOF NOTES 

The editors look at the issues 



The left bracket, [, replaces the up ar- 
row used by Radio Shack to Indicate 
expor>entlation on our printouts. When 
entering programs published In 80 
Micro, you should make this change. 

80 formats its program listings to 
run 64-characters wide, the way they 
look on your video screen. This ac- 
counts for the occasional wrap-around 
you will notice In our program listings. 
Don't let it throw you, particularly 
when entering assembly listings. 

Article submissions from our read- 
ers are welcomed and encouraged, in- 
quiries should be addressed to: Sub- 
missions Editor, 80 Pine Street, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. Include an SASE 
for a copy of our writers' guidelines. 
Payment for accepted articles is made 
at a rate of approximately $50 per 
printed page; all rights are purchased. 
Authors of reviews should contact the 
Review Editor, 80 Pine Street, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 



What's black and white, read all 
over, and has a temperature of 
103? Bar code fever! If you haven't got 
it yet, watch out— you can catch it from 
these pages. In this issue we'll introduce 
you to bar code technology, tell you 
how to print and read bar codes, and 
provide you with al! the good stuff you 
buy 50 Micro for; utilities, tutorials, 
techniques, games, news, reviews, and 
soon. 

Bar codes provide an efficient and 
reliable means of data entry and trans- 
fer. Already a familiar ^t at the 
supermarket in the form of the Univer- 
sal Product Code (UPC), bar codes in- 
crease productivity, security, and data 
integrity in controlling inventory and 
maintaining records. 

In addition to grocery and retail ap- 
plications, bar codes are used increas- 
ingly in industry, government agencies, 
libraries, hospitals, and laboratories. 

Computers read bar codes, a series of 
bars and spaces, by several means. All 
readers use a laser beam that scans the 
message in the bar code and transfers it 
to the computer. Sure to become most 
popular with micro users is the hand- 
held wand that gives bar coding the por- 
tability and versatility to make it such 
an attractive means of data input. 

Although not a replacement for the 
keyboard, bar code scanners are a sig- 
nificant and time-saving alternative to 
keyboard data entry. Best of all, read- 
ing bar codes doesn't require a skilled 
operator — it's so easy a monkey could 
doit. 

Here at 80 Micro, the fever has 
everyone thmking of how bar codes will 
someday improve our magazine. Im- 
agine, if you will, opening your latest 
issue of 50 Micro, picking up a pen-like 
device attached to your TRS-80, and, 
with a wave of your hand, transferring 
entire program listings into the com- 
puter quickly, accurately, and easily. 

Imagine ^so using bar codes to enter 
the table of contents into a file to build a 
handy, complete index to 80 Micro sub- 
jects and articles. 

These aje just two potential bar code 
^plications to make 80 Micro more ac- 
cessible to you. We are so excited by it 
aU that bar codes have become an ob- 




session with many of us. Members of 
our Softball team, the Generics, proudly 
wear a large bar code emblazoned on 
our uniforms. A few of us have even 
thought about bar code tattoos. 

This issue supplies you with enough 
m^erial to bring on the initial symp- 
toms of bar code fever. With the bar 
code generators on pp. 104 and 114 
you can use your Model III and a dot- 
matrix printer to print four of the most 
popular bar axles, including the Uni- 
versal Product Code. And "Decoding 
Bar Codes" on p. 128 lets your Model 
III read bar codes. 

Although you can ad^t many bar 
code readers to TRS-80 computers, the 
virtual lack of interfacing software 
keeps many TRS-80 owners from jump- 
ing onto the bar code bandwagon. We'd 
like to hear from any of you who develop 
bar code reader interfacing software. ■ 

~A.a 




B • 80 Micro, November 1983 



nilllli DATA SUPPLIES mill 

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NEWDOS/80 
Version 2.0 

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S139 96 



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For MODEL I $24 95 

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Machine (.diiBuage Disk l.'O (29 96 

CP/M Primer $15 95 



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Grammatiial feature $39 95 

COMPLETE SYSTEM all Four Programs $199 00 



NEWSCRIPT 7.0 

NtWSCRlPI li Ihe versatile TRS 80 word pro 
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INPUT 



Radio Shack Rebuttal 

I would like to respond to Charles 
Austin's letter in Input (August 1983, 
p. 16). While it is true that we find it 
better to use sales tickets than to use a 
cash register (for a number of 
reasons), we certainly do use our own 
computers in-house. 

Our company-owned stores each 
contain a Model III in what we call 
our store operating system. This 
system allows each store to do all of its 
daily sales receipts, payroll, and 
ordering via computer. 

Once every day.all 4,5(X)-plus com- 
puters communicate via a packet 
switching network to our main com- 
puter system in Fort Worth. We 
dispatch orders for quick-ship items 
within 24 hours of receiving the order. 

In addition, we dispatch normal 
ship time orders more quickly than 
was possible when we did all of this 
work by mail. 

This system is capable of providing 
us with day-to-day information on 
sales from various stores, even to the 
point of catalog numbers and sales by 
store salesperson. 

The Fort Worth computer can up- 
date each store's inventory records 
with price changes, availability, and 
other information. We can also 
automatically place into those records 
new products as they are available in 
our warehouses. To our knowledge, 
this is the largest such computerized 
system in existence. 

Our warranties are good (on equip- 
ment purchased from a Radio Shack 
store or authorized dealer) anywhere 
in the United States, and no warranty 
cards are involved. 

Your warranty is based solely upon 
that Uttle old-fashioned sales ticket 
that oiu- store personnel give you 
when you make your purchase. 

Were it not for that ticket, you 
would probably have to return your 
product to the store from which you 
bought it, because only they would 
know when you purchased it, and that 
you were the original owner. 

The ticket also keeps our mailing 

12 • ao Micro, November 1983 




list up to date so that we can send you 
flyers announcing new and exciting 
products to go with your existing 
Radio Shack equipment. 

So you see, there is a method to our 
madness. 

EdJuge 

Director, Computer Merchandising 

Radio Shack 

1500 One Tandy Center 

Fort Worth. TX 76102 

NEWDOS/80 User's Group 

I'd like to initiate a user's group 
through which users of NEWDOS/80 
can share and exchange ideas. Anyone 
interested is invited to write. I'd be 
pleased to hear any ideas on the best 
way to set up an exchange, or any 
other ideas, tips, or questions related 
to NEWDOS/80. 

Please enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope for repHes. 

Jack D. Feka 

P.O. Box 1717 

Victoria, B.C. V8W2Y1 

Canada 

Fortran Addition 

In 'Tortran Breakout" (July 1983, 
p. 186). J.B. Harrell III wrote that 
"Fortran has 'record directed' input 
and output. This means each Read 
and Write statement produces a new 
record to be read or written. This is 
the language's most serious defect on 
the TRS-80— it is impossible, for ex- 
ample, to position the cursor and 
write at a speciflc location without 
disturbing the rest of the screen." 

While "Fortran Breakout" was a 
Model I/III article, our Fortran Ex- 
tension Library ($49.95) alleviates this 
difficulty on the Models 11/12/16. I 
realize that this is a new addition to 
Fortran, but many readers have not 



only seen our ad, but have purchased 
and used the program. 

Pierre H. Charrin 

The Proper Touch 

P.O. Box 13760, 0202 

Houston, TX 77219 

Model 4 Review 

After reading Michael Vose's 
review of the Model 4 ("Once More 
With FeeUng," August 1983, p. 100), 
I feel compelled to respond. As the 
primary designer of the TRSDOS 6.0 
operating system, I feel qualified to 
address the following points. 

Mr. Vose says that Model III soft- 
ware manufactured by companies 
other than Radio Shack might not run 
on the Model 4. Has he any that will 
not? Tandy exerted a tremendous ef- 
fort to assure compatibility with its 
Model III. 

The Model III contains three ROM 
chips that store the Level U Basic in- 
terpreter as well as device Input/Out- 
put (I/O) handlers. These ROMs are 
designated A, B, and C. 

The Model 4 uses a newer type of 
video a>ntrol that necessitates a small 
change in ROM C to initialize the 
video chip. When booted with a 
Model in operating system disk, this 
is the only difference in ROM ap- 
pearance. 

Logical Systems Inc. (licensor of 
TRSDOS 6.0) even requested that the 
old Model I printer memory map ad- 
dress of 37E8 hexadecimal still be ad- 
dressable for the prints status input. 

Mr. Vose says that the Model 4 
bootstrap loader is different from the 
Model Ill's. Except for the ROM 
change associated with the video chip 
initialization, loading is the same. It is 
extremely difficult to imagine sc»ne 
protected program's loading method 
interfering with this change. 

Concerning disk booting, when you 
turn on the Model 4 or press the reset 
button, the machine runs exactly like 
a Model III with 14K of ROM. 

This ROM has a disk bootstrap 
loader that reads sector 1 of track zero 
into RAM. Sector 1 contains the 
secondary bootstrap loader common- 



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INPUT 



ly called Boot/SYS. Thus, a Model III 
DOS disk boots exactly as it does on 
the Model III. 

The Boot/SYS contained on a 
TRSDOS 6.0 DOS, however, has a 
secondary loader that switches in the 
full 64K RAM and converts the video 
control over to an 80-column by 
24-line display. 

This is accomplished by means of 
control bytes output to the memory 
management port. It is this secondary 
loader that reads in the entire track 
zero to load the device drivers. 

Basic 6.0 (*rops the CMD reserved 
word, but substitutes SYSTEM in its 
place. Without cassette I/O from 
Basic, there is no need for SYSTEM 
to be associated with machine lan- 
guage tapes. 

Also, although left out of the Radio 
Shack manual, Basic does support 
sound directly. The syntax is SOUND 
followed by tone number and dura- 
tion with the required space between 
the reserved word and the lone value. 

Tone ranges from zero to seven 
while duration ranges from zero to 3 1 . 
The Quick Reference Card included 
with the Model 4 documentation 
shows the Sound reserved word in its 
table of reserved words. I don't 
recollect a Level II Basic reserved 
word. Rename, that Mr. Vose says 
was dropped. 

Basic 6.0 includes Name, which 
allows you to rename files. A TRSEXDS 
version 6.0.1 will be available to pro- 
vide a memory size of 31932 when you 
enter Basic with FILES = 0. This is ap- 
proximately 3K greater than that 
available under TRSDOS 6.0, and 
stems from improved stack handling 
during video and keyboard memory 
management. 

It is not true that you can only use 
MEMDISK/DCT to simulate a disk 
drive if the Model 4 is equipped with 
the full 128K of RAM. MEMDISK 
also allows the simulation of a disk 
drive in a portion of the upper 32K of 
standard RAM via a user option. 
Also, TAPEIOO not only reads Model 
100 tapes, but also writes them. 

TRSDOS 6.0 is much more than an 
upgrade of LDOS 5.x. The 6.0 system 
is a low-memory resident DOS that is 
accessed by supervisor calls (SVCs). It 
is totally device-independent. 

TRSDOS 6.0 offers complete com- 
patibility of media with its forebears. 

14 • dO Micro, November 1983 



BD ALERT 



Occasionally, 80 Micro receives 
letters from readers who have had 
difficulties with our advertisers. 
Most of the time, these problems are 
resolved to the satisfaction of all par- 
ties, but some problems appear to be 
insoluble. 

As a service to readers and adver- 
tisers alike, 80 Alert will pinpoint dis- 
tributors who cannot be reached, by 
readers or by our advertising depart- 
ment, for customer service. Anyone 
who has current information about a 
manufacturer or distributor men- 
tioned in the column is welcome to 
write and update our data. 



We have been unable to contact 
Hurricane Labs Inc. (5149 Moor- 
park Ave. Stc. 105, San Jose, CA 
95129). The company's telephone 
numbers have been disconnected, 
and correspondence is being re- 
turned. So far, we have not been 
able to obtain any further informa- 
tion. 

Soft Sector Marketing Inc. (P.O. 
Box 340, Garden City, MI 48135) 
has gone out of business. President 
Vic Andrews told 80 Micro on July 
7 that the firm will sell its present 
inventory to pay creditors, and will 
answer mail inquiries through the 
end of this year. 

We have been unable to contact 
E-Z Tax Inc. (2444 Moorpark, San 
Jose, CA 95128). All phone 
numbers are disconnected and we 
have received no reply by mail. No 
further information was available 
at press lime. 



Its command set is a superset of 
earlier systems. 

True, it is a powerful, complex 
system; however, with no more effort 
than that spent to learn a sophisticated 
spreadsheet or word processing pro- 
gram, you can master TRSDOS 6.0. 

Roy Soltoff 

President, Misosys 

P.O. Box 4848 

Alexandria, VA 22303 



p 


Q 


PEQVQ 


1 


1 


I 


1 











1 











1 


p 





PIMPQ 


1 


1 


1 


1 











I 


1 








1 



Table I. Truth tables for EQV and IMP. 



Vose Responds 

Kudos to Roy Soltoff for the addi- 
tional information about the TRS-80 
Model 4. His willingness to share 
these details further demonstrates my 
article's point that an open door 
policy regarding Radio Shack 's prod- 
ucts is ultimately to their credit. 

It's nice to receive information 
from an insider; much of my original 
information came from several har- 
ried Radio Shack Computer Center 
employees at the Boston Computer 
Society's hectic Model 4/Model 100 
introduction. 

The Model 4 I reviewed for 80 
Micro would not respond to the 
Sound command described by Mr. 
Soltoff. It's possible that the machine 
was defective. Nevertheless, I was 
unable to generate any sound. In addi- 
tion, the absence from the Model 4 
manual of a syntax description for the 
sound commands is another instance 
of its inadequacy. 

In my review I listed Rename as a 
dropped keyword because I did not 
have access to an LDOS manual and 
couldn 't remember if Rename was an 
LBASIC enhancement; the TRSDOS 
6.0 manual lists Rename as an unsup- 
ported keyword. 

I feel confident that 80 Micro will 
print a letter or article detailing the 
function of the Boolean operators 
IMP (implication) and EQV (equiva- 
lence). (Table 1 is a truth table for 
those of you who can't wait.) 

TRSDOS 6.0 is not as easy to 
master as a sophisticated spreadsheet 
or word processor because of its con- 
fusing documentation. But my main 
objection to TRSDOS 6.0 is that it is 



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INPUT 




In "Once Morc» Wtth FecUng" 
(August 1983, p. too), in the 
sidebar, **S«ni-Custom Logic Cir- 
<mits" (p. 106), the Model 4 is er- 
roneously described as containing 
VLSI seiat-custom logic dtips. The 
^ebar shoidd have read, "The 
McNld 4 makes use of new, MSI 
(metUum scale integration (over 
1.000 transistors on a chip)) semi- 
custom 



i to @w "ftjyw's Guide to CoCo 
Utimfefi" (July 1983, p. 212), Data 



Is omftte4 fronJ th^ Company 
Name colimin~ under General 
Utilities. Data Comp (5900 Cassan- 
dra Smith R<md, Hixsm, TN 
37343, 615-842-4«)I) markets the 
following products: Basic Precom- 
pil« ($50), F-Mate FLEX Utilities 
C$75), FLEX F-Mate ($69.95), 
¥-Mme FLEX Diagnostics ($75)^ 
F6ur Drives From Two ($19.95), 
and Tmmnal CoCo ($19.95). 



not an operating system that will ap- 
peal to a computer user. 

Programmers may love it, but it's 
unnecessarily complex for the average 
person. My hope is that programmers 
can eventually design shells — or 
transparent operating systems like the 
Model lOO's — to make learning a 
complex system program a thing of 
the past. 

Finally, the program I couldn't 
load into the Model 4 was Adventure 
International's Sea Dragon. 

G. Michael Vose 

13 Mountain View Drive 

Peterborough, NH 03458 



CRT Radans Insignificant 

In my article, "Making a Weak 
Link Stronger" (July 1983, p. 286), I 
omitted an item of some significance. 

The Food and Drug Administration 
(FDA) study cited, in which some 
monitors were emitting X-rays at 
levels above the .5 microradans/hour 
standard, was done with machines 
16 • 00 Micro. November 1983 



10 CLS:FOR X=15361 TO 15422!POKE X,13l!NEXT 
20 FOR X-16321 TO 16382:POKE X,176:NEXT 
30 FOR X=15424 TO 16256 STEP64!POKE X,149:NEXT 
40 FOR X=15487 TO 16319 STEP64!POKE X,170!NEXT 

50 POKE 15360, ISliPOKE 15423 , 171 :POKE 16320,181 iPOKE 16383,186 
60 GOTO60 

100 REM USE THE ABOVE PROGRAM TO DRAW A BOX ON YOUK CRT FOR 
ALIGNMENT PURPOSES. INSIDE THE KEYBOARD CASE, ON THE RIGHT- 
HAND SIDE, THERE ARE TWO POTENTIOMETERS (POTS) THAT YOU MUST 
ACCESS TO MAKE ADJUSTMENTS TO THE VIDEO OUTPUT. 

200 REM REMOVE THE SCREWS FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE KEYBOARD AND 
LIFT THE TOP OF THE KEYBOARD CASE UP SO THAT THE POTS CAN BE 
TURNED USING A SMALL SCREWDRIVER. 

300 REM THE FRONT POT MOVES THE DISPLAY UP AND DOWN ON THE 
CRT AND THE REAR POT MOVES IT RIGHT AND LEFT. ADJUST THE POTS 
SO THAT THE SQUARE DRAWN BY THE PROGRAM IS WHERE YOU WANT IT 
TO BE LOCATED, 

400 REM I USED A SMALL, ROUND FILE TO MAKE SEMI-CIRCULAR HOLES 
IN THE BOTTOM EDGE OF THE TOP HALF OF THE CASE, IN LINE WITH 
EACH POT. THIS WAY, I DON'T NEED TO TAKE THE CASE APART TO HAKE 
THESE ADJUSTMENTS. 

500 REM SOMETIMES A JITTERY SCREEN CAN BE CURED BY SPRAYING A 
CLEANER LIKE TUN-0-WASH OR SIMILAR TV TUNER CLEANER ON THESE 
POTS AND ROTATING THEM BACK AND FORTH A FEW TIMES. 
600 REM BE SURE TO TURN THE KEYBOARD OFF BEFORE USING THE SPRAY 
CLEANER, GOOD LUCK, 



Program Listing. Display repair. 



operating under stress conditions, 
with line voltages at higher levels than 
are encountered during normal opera- 
tion. The goal was to simulate an 
equipment malfunction to determine 
if terminals produce X-rays when they 
break down. 

I was relying on a union report of 
the FDA study, because the FDA was 
no longer making the information 
available. Since that time, I've learned 
that the machines were made to fail. 

The current state-of-the-art moni- 
tors emit so little radiation when prop- 
erly operating as to be negligible. Of 
course, properly operating DC-lOs 
don't faJl out of the sky either. 
Wherever there's technology, there's 
the potential for failure — but the risk 
to terminal operators from X-rays, 
relative to current standards, is small. 
Thomas Hartmann 
South Garland St. 
Plymouth, NH 03264 



Display Adjustment 

I wrote Program Listing I in 
response to Mr. Frank Denigan's re- 
quest in Aid (August 1983, p. 24). Mr. 
Denigan's display on his Model I had 
moved up so it was hard to read the 
top line. 

Many Model I users might not be 
aware o^this simple procedure. 

Chuck Webb 

P.O. Box 338 

Prairie Grove, AR 72753 



Powersoft and Piracy 

Roxton Baker's letter in Input 
(August 1983, p. 12) takes Powersoft 
to task for protecting their programs 
for the sole purpose of making a sale 
in any manner possible. Isn't the pur- 
pose of marketing to make a sale in 
any manner possible, as long as you 
don't misrepresent your product or 
defraud your customer? If the 
customer doesn't like the product, 
most companies will let him return the 
software for a refund. 

I. too, wish that all protection 
schemes would go away and let me 
make copies of my programs, but I'm 
also realistic. Big Five Software, the 
Model I/III arcade-type program 
publisher, has decided to drop out of 
the market because program theft is 
high, and they can't sell enough copies 
of their programs to recoup their pro- 
gram developing and advertising in- 
vestments. Their last release crossed 
the country on the stolen program cir- 
cuit faster than UPS could deliver the 
programs to the stores. 

I know a kid who went to computer 
camp and came back with a Model III 
disk loaded with arcade programs, in- 
cluding all the Big Five programs. He 
paid $5 for the disk. About one hun- 
dred kids attended that computer 
camp. Not all these kids would have 
bought all the programs, but if each 
had bought only one program (instead 
of stealing 18), that would amount to 
a lot of sales. 



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. $8 9S 



TIMEDAIE SO REAL-TIME CLOCK/CALENOAR MODULE 

Ki^lis i;i,.i'l|- .11 i:iir.(r.> lime 'o' "i ye.if. I'l ? repl.ics.i!il<' 
ftiA Mrienei .no: nduoec:- tinej MLI lii.it 'M IWt -y 
WEEK HR MiN SEC ana AM.'PM Featutes ii»TEiLiGENT 
CALENDAR and even provides tof Leap Year Tnis compact 
module simply plugs into teat ol KeyOoard or skM ol 
Eipansion inteitace imay be supped mstOe E/li Includes 
cassette soltware lor selling cloci> and paicnmg lo any DOS 
(including NEWDDS 80 2 Ol Optional V connector allows 
lO' luittwr e«pansion For Model i Fully assembled and 
tested Complete wnn msiruclkjns and casselte ONLY 
S'*'^ "" V onim" .1(101'? no 



power relays ui 




your 



gg^ ,' 


■s 


^p" 


? 


H 


s 



IHIERFACER-BO tne -Oil wMvefu' Se-5e Cwitroi moouie 
•8 I'HlusliiaiO'ade relays smi^.e pale Oouu.e ttiron <soiaied 
contacts 2Am(i is i?b Volts TIl laictieoouiDuisaieaiso 
accessible to drive eiieinai KMid slate 'eijrs 
•Sconveneni LEDs constaniiy display tne relay states 

Simple OUT commandstm basicio)ntroitne8'elays 
■ 8 optically isolated mpuls lor easy direci interfacing to 
eitefnai switches pnoioceits keypads sensors etc 
Simple INP commands read ine Status Oi tne B mputs 
Selectable port address. Clean compact enclosed design 
Assembled tested 90 days warranty Price mciuOes power 
Supply cable connecior sucteio use' s manual S>M 



GREEN SCREEN 

\A/ARIMIIMC3 

IBM ano aw trie uiggies are using green sceen moniion 

■11 aflvan.iages are now wioeiy aoveriiseo We teei inai every 

TRS-80 i.ser sfiouid enjoy tiie Denehts it ptirvioes But 

WARNING ai' C-'een Screens are rtoi created equal Here is 

wnai we tound 

•Sever-at are luit i iiai piece o' iUnoato coHxeo Lucita Ttii 

green tmi was not made 'or tnis purpose and is judged by 

many ID be 100 dark Increasing ttie prigntness control will 

result in a lu;^y display 

•Some are simply a piece ol mm plastic turn taped onto a 

cardboard name Tne color is satistaciory but ttie woDDly turn 

gives It a poor appearance 

•One optical titter ' is m (act plain acfyic sneenng 

•False claim A lew pretend to ' reduce glare m tact ttien 

tlat«nd sKiny surtxes (botti film and Ludte type) ADO men 

own reliections to Itie screen 

•A lew laughs One ad claims to reduce screen contiast 

Sorry gentleman liut it s iusl tne opposite One oi ttie Green 

Screen s ma|or Dene'its is lo increase tie contrast between 

me text and Itw DackgrounO 

•Drawbacks Most are using adnes've sinps id <asten theif 

screen to tlie monitor Tnis metnod makes il awkward lo 

remove loi necessary periodical cleaning Ail (e«cept ours I 

are uai Lignt pens will not work reliably because ot tne big 

gap between me screen and ine lube 

Many companies riave Mtn manulKtunng video line's tor 

years Wearenouhe Itrsi (somemmk ihey are) but we nave 

done Our riomeworii and we tnmk we man u tact ure me best 

G'een Screen Meieiswny 

•It fits ngnt onto tne picture tube Hke a skin because it is me 

only CunvED screen MOLDED eiactiy to me piciu'e tube 

curvature 11 IS Cul precisely lo cover ine e>posed area of me 

picture luOe Tne fit is sucn that me static eiecincity is 

surticieni to keep it in place' We also include some invisible 

reusable tape tor a rT«re secure laslening 

•the inter material ttiat we use is |usi 'igni not too dam nor 

too lignt Tne result is a realty eye pieasmg display 

We are so sure tt>at you will never take your Green screen oH 

trial we olfer an unconditional money Oack guaramy iry our 

Dreen Screen tor )4 days il tor any reason you are not 

oelignteO witn n return it tor a prompt refund 

A last word We tUmk mat companies like ou's. wRo are 

selling mainly by man should dist tneir street address^ve a 

pnoiie number (lor questions and O'dersVaccept CODs not 

every one likes to send ctiecks to a PO bonwfter tne 

convenience ol cnaiging tlieir purctiase to maror credit cards 

How come we are me only green screen people doing il' 

Order your ALPHA fiREEH SCREEN today 1T2 60 



IMl ALPHA Products 



400 a bU PER ORflER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING 
ALL ORDERS SHIPPED FIRST CLASS MAIL 
WEACCfPTVISA IHASTERCHItltGF CHFrKS Hfl 
COD ADDS? OOflTHH 
OUANIIiy OlSCDUNIS 4V4IIABLE 
H r RESIDENTS ADO SALES TAX 



79-04 Jamaca Ave., Woodhaven. N.Y. 11421 



Inlo and order (212) 296«5916 



INPUT 



User's Groups Update 



80 Micro frequently receives in- 
formation about user's groups 
from all parts of the country. The 
list below contains current infor- 
mation about these groups; it is ar- 
ranged alphabetically by stale. 

Topeka Computer Club 

c/o Kevin Cronister 
2224 Hope 
Topeka, KS 66614 
913-272-1353 

Southern Maine TRS-80 
User's Group 

c/o Anthony T. Scarpelli 
82 Wellington Road 
Portland, ME 04103 

Kansas City TRS-80 User's Group 

300 N.W. 83rd St. 
Kansas City, MO 64118 

Bug-80 User's Group 

P.O. Box 62 

Glen Gardner, NJ 08826 

Midlands Computer Club 

c/o Jerry Kilpatrick, President 
P.O. Box 7594 
Columbia, SC 29202 



San Antonio TRS-80 User^s 
Group 

c/o Gerry Sharp, Secretary 
14310 Pembridge. 782 
San Antonio, TX 78247 

Mid-Cities TRS-80 User's Group 

c/o D.D. Freeman 
334 Fieidside Drive 
Garland, TX 75043 
214-637-4510 



Daltrug TRS-80 User's Group 

c/o Bobra Shaeper 
Rt. 2 Box 374-D2 
Frisco, TX 75034 
214-370-2432 

Fort Worth TRS-80 User's Group 
c/o Pal Coyne 
2001 Beach St. #626 
Fort Worth. TX 76103 
817-429-7055 



Dal-Cliff TRS-80 User's Group 

c/o David Gattis 
14523 Hague 
Dallas, TX 75234 
214-243-6764 



Radio Shack TRS-80 



MODEL 4 UTILITIES 



an FOI HDOCL 4 OMEU 



HDdtL in H 



iBcraaM iMir rrooaaalag 3p**4 (* Mi) 
Tail ntmarj (Up u> l?W) toulIM 
Clear tliiiii loutlM 
IBmb) 



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SUPERSCRIPSIT 
PRINTER DRIVERS 



itiln an «LPS prlntar ariitr i sur>.>>a>-t- . YOti itr 
sitacd yuur ;.rinnr ID in» SupBrSCRIPSIT wtra 
procesger. -ler SO prlni.eri now LpporLatl. CiU 
or write lor latest product tsiieu Sr.eet. t^g 



Mail I Phona Ordars Accaptad 

ALPS 

33 Angui Rosd 
Wsfran, Naw Jcrxy 07D60 

201 ' 647-7230 



- Proleasionai - 

REAL ESTATE SOFTWARE 

(or IBM. APPtE, IRS-80 and CPM Computers 

• PFOPEHTT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM; IS25 

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Eipirafl liiiti flani Htct-pti 

Rem Stiiimanli CsnisMiIid Riparis 

GitpriKl tASV TO USt 

- PBOPEFTY LISTINGS COMPAPABLES UlS 



SCREEN BT *~ 

7? lUmi/Liiling 
PropcrlY Cgniplfisoni 



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Mil Pncc/lncimi! 
Mil PTK(/Sq Fm( 
Mm CiiHIMm 



REAL ESTATE ANALYSIS MODULES: ISO-ModuU 



Loin Silti/Purcftlli 
Home Purchase 
iBComt Prop »«llYlll 
Pieviitr Siki 
DtpttCJitisn/tCHS 
WOHD PBOCESSOB 



Lwn Wilp Relurn 
III (htfiiail Ciena nge 
APT! Loan Analysis 
Lun kfflartiillion 
Cwiil'iiilicn Casl'P'otil 

WORD STAfl: i29S 



•ally llampany oian^i'niMi .■■. ^ 



Suit! KM )9Z6 S Pjtiiic Com H«t Hcdenili] Scalh C* M?77 



If I had my way, software protec- 
tion wouldn't exist because it 
wouldn't be necessary. But it is 
necessary. Some people can't seem to 
understand that good software takes 
time and money to develop. They 
assume that software magically ap- 
pears for them to take and copy as 
they wish. 1 wrote software, but I 
couldn't make a living at it because 
more people had copies of my pro- 
grams than my publisher sold. 

It's a problem when software is pro- 
tected to the point where 1 can't make 
back-ups, but I understand why it's 
protected. When I break the protec- 
tion, I don't spread free copies 
around; I use them only for myself. 

I'm indebted to WittSoft for their 
Super Utility Plus (SU + ) back-up 
program, but that doesn't mean that 
I'm handing out duplicate programs 
to all my friends. SU + is a very useful 
program and Kim Watt deserves his 
royalties. 

Perhaps the solution is to make all 
software programs as cartridges. Il 
would make them expensive, but the 
publisher would know the programs 
wouldn't be illegally copied, and the 
purchaser would know the program 
wouldn't self-destruct. 

Terry Kepner 

P.O. Box 481 

Peterborough, SH 03458 



Scripsit Part II Tips 

Craig Lindley's article, "Inside 
Scripsit Part 11" (October 1982, p. 
276) is excellent. However, beware of 
these problems: 

• Do not use the QD or Query func- 
tion with NEWDOS. 

• Never hit the break key when you 
are querying a directory in TRSDOS 
or your Model I goes nowhere. 

• In Hne 2730, put four spaces behind 
the last asterisk or you'll get some sur- 
prises. Check the location where the 
buffer starts; if il is 8342 hexadecimal, 
then your program works. 

Jan Vromant 

P.O. Box 1023 

Monrovia, Liberia 

West Africa 



Name Correction 

My compliments to Alan Neibauer 



18 • fiO Micro, November 1983 





CITOHProwriter$375 
CITOHProwriterll$649 




CoCo Drive $329 
CoCo Drivel $235 




DWP210$629 



BUY DIRECT 



Here are just a tew of our fine offers . . . 
cail TOLL FREE for full information. 



COMPUTERS 




R.S. Modem II 


160 


DISK DRIVES 




ModeM264K1 Drive 


$2699 


R.S, DC-1200 


565 


RS. Model IV Drive 


515 


ModeM2 64K2Drive 


3375 


PRINTERS 




Color Computer Drive 


329 


Model IV 16K 


849 


Smith Corona TPID.W. 


469 


Color Computer Drive 1 


235 


Model IV MK 




Silver Reed EXP500D.W. 


430 


Primary Hard Disk M12 


2689 


2 Disk & RS232 


1699 


Silver Reed EXP550D.W. 


665 


Primary Hard Disk Mill 


1799 


Color Computer IM6K 


185 


Daisy Wtieel II 


1745 


ETC. 




w/16Kext. basic 


245 


DWP210 


629 


CCR-81 recorder 


52 


wiMKext. basic 


305 


DWP410 


1159 


CO. Joysticks (pair) 


22 


Pocket Computer 2 


165 


CGP115 


159 


16K Ram Chips 


25 


Model16B1Dr256K 


4249 


DMP100 


315 


64K Ram Chips 


75 


ModeM6B2Dr256K 


4915 


DMP120 


395 


8K Por/Par Microfoser 


135 


ModeM008K 


679 


DMP200 


520 


Parallel printer cables are 




ModeM00 24K 


835 


DMP400 


1010 


available for most computers 




MODEMS 




DMP500 


1219 


SOFTWARE 




Lynx Ml/Mill 


235 


DMP2100 


1745 


CoCo FHl Flex D.O.S. 


69.95 


Hayes Smarlmodem tl 


235 


Gemini 10X 


315 


R.S. Software 10% off list. 




Hayes Smartmodem 1200 


,SA.S 


Gemini 15 


425 


Send for listing of 




Novation Smartcat 1200 


459 


CITOH Prowrlter 


375 


brond nome software. 




Novation J-Cot 


125 


CITOHProwrlterll 


649 






R.S. AC-3 


129 


Okidata 


CALL 






R.S. Modem ( 


89 


Epson 


CALL 








We have the lowest possible 
Fully Warranteed Prices AND 
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^Ices subject to change without notice. 
Not responsible for typographical errors. 
TRS-SO li a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



TOLL FREE 
1-800-S43-8124 





com 



P.O. BOX 1094 
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Littleton, MA 01460 
617-466-3193 

SINCE 1975 — 



US 



I Write tor your 
tree catalog ^ u 



..' See Usi ot Airmnisen on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 19 



INPUT 



Bulletin 

Board 

Update 



80 Micro frequently receives in- 
formation about bulletin boards 
from all parts of the country. Start- 
ing this month, from time to time 
we will publish bulletin board 
notices that we receive. 

TRS-80 Bulletin Board 

Clark Smilh II 
Sioux Cilv, lA 
712-274-1933 

SanfEarnet Bulletin Board 

Bary I.. Davis 
Greenville, NC 
919-758-5261 

Johannesburg Bulletin Board 

Johannesburg, South Africa 
International dialing code 0027 
011-834-5135 

Durban Bulletin Board 

Durban. South Africa 
International dialing code 0027 
031-66356 

Cape Town Bulletin Board 

Cape Town, South Africa 
International dialing code 0027 
021-457750 

TRS-80 Country 

Reseda, CA 

213-996-1977 

Model 100 software available 



on his informative article, "A History 
of Programming Languages" (July 
1983, p. 228). i would like to make 
one minor correction, however. Dr. 
Hooper's name is Captain Hopper; 
she is a retired U.S. Navy officer. 

t'd Sargent 

6431 H. 74 Ave. 

Arvada, CO 80003 



STAR-DOS Review 

I would like to thank Scott Norman 
for his favorable review of STAR- 
DOS (April 1983, p. 54). However. 
Mr. Norman tends to make STAR- 

20 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



DOS look like a poor cousin to a true 
operating system when it is in fact a 
true operating system. 

STAR-DOS comes in two versions: 
one for systems with 16K or 32K 
RAM. and the other for systems with 
64K RAM. Neither version prevents 
ihc use of ahernalive, high-level 
languages. 

Also. STAR-DOS places no limita- 
tions on the .\ssembly-Ianguage user 
ai all. Since the Color Computer is 
unique in running Basic programs 
without additional DOS, this place- 
ment also avoids any conflict with 
Basic. 

Peter A. Stark 

STARKils 

P.O. Box 209 

Ml. Kisco, .\'Y 10549 



AIDS III Correction 

In mv AIDS III articles (March 
1983. p. 136. and April 1983. p. 168), 
pressing the up-arrow key produces a 
left bracket instead of skipping back 
to the previous entry line. This is 
because the program checks whether 
the key is within a valid range of 
characters. 

To eliminate this problem, make 
the following changes to! he AIDS III. 
MAPS III. and CALCS III programs: 

Bool up the AIDS III program and 
change hne 170 to: 

IW II INSIKirtS.KSl.Ml nilN 2<XI: 
RlM—lllUK l()K(ON^lKOI Kl V 

Then save the program back to disk. 
To correct M.APS Hi. load the pro- 
gram and change line 930 lo: 

V.W ir INSTRirCSKSlXJTMr.N 1000: 
RIiM"*(llUKIOKC'ONIROL KEY 

Save the corrected program to disk. 
Boot up the CALCSIII program 

and change line 12 to: 

i;{.<)Sl Bn: II INSTR.»XSKS»<>iHl;\ 
lis: klM*" cHr< K lOR COMROl 
KEY 

Next save the program to disk. 

• Robert A. tiorelli 

Softrends Inc. 

26111 Brush Ave. 

Euclid. OH 44132 



Glossary 

Below is a glossary of acronyms 
frequently used in 80 Micro. 



ASCII American Standard 
Code for Information 
Interchange. Character 
code that refers to the 
computer's internal rec- 
ognition of letters, num- 
bers, and symbols. 

CP/M Control Program/Moni- 
tor or Control Program 
for Microcomputers. A 
disk operating system 
produced by Digital Re- 
search. 

CPU Central Processing Unit. 

Computer module that 
retrieves, dcx'ixles, and 
executes instructions. 

CRT Cathode Ray lube. Ihe 

television tube used to 
display pictures or 
characters. 

DIP Dual In-line Package. A 

standard integrated cir- 
cuit package with two 
rows of pins at ITO-inch 
intei\als. 

IX)S Disk Operating System, 

such as DOSPLUS. 
NEWIX)S80. TRSDOS. 
andl.IX>S. 

EPROM Erasable Programmable 
Read Only Mcmorv. Us- 
ually refeiN to a PROM 
that can be reused sever- 
al times. It's erased with 
ultraviolet light and then 
programmed with a spe- 
cial PROM programmer. 

K Kikibytes. IK = I024 

bytes. Used in referring 
to computer storage 
capacity. 

RAM Random .Access 

Memop.'. This is the pri- 
mary storage area of a 
computer. The informa- 
tion in R.\M is lost 
when pwwer is discon- 
nected. 

ROM Read Only Memory. 

This information cannot 
be changed and is not 
lost when the power is 
off. 



EPSON 

FX, RX & MX 




The FX-80 features 1 60 cps, a 
correspondence font, to. 1 2 S 17 
cpi, italics, double-strike/width/ 
emphasis, etc , dot graphics, friction/ 
pin feed {the adjustable tractor is 
optional) 4 a 2K buffer The 256 
programmable characters use the 
2K buffer space. The PX-100 is the 
136 column version & includes an 
adjustable tractor 

The RX S«ria» replaces the MX. & 
offers 1 00 cps print speeds, but 
nothing more remarkable 

RX-80 tsfts.aa 

MX-80 F/T 9499.BB 

r^x- 1 00 •ee4.8S 

FX-80 tSM.M 

FX-80 Tractor •».«• 

FX-100 *709.8« 

C ITOH 

Prowriter 




C Itoh's venerable Prowrtt«ir has 

spee(J(120cps).a buffer(l,5i<). 10. 
1 2, & 1 6 cpi (plus a proportional font 
with correspondance quality) and 
dot graphics ( 1 60x 1 44 dpi) The 
Prowrttsr S is the 136 column 
version 

Prowriter tSftft.SS 

Prownler 2 . tTI 0.86 

STAR MICRONICS 

Gemini 10X/15 
Delta 10/15 




The 0*mint10X features i20cps, 
1 0, 1 2, 1 7 cpi. italrcs, a corres- 
pondence font, dot graphics & a 1 K 
buffer Frictton/tractor feed Use 
plain spool ribbons. The Ovmlnl IB 
is the 1 32 column version. The 



Smith-Corona 
Memory Correct ill Messenger, 

Here's the printer you've been 
waiting for. The Smith-Corona 
M*mory C»rr*ct III M«»»*n9*r 

IS ideal tor the home or small 
office. II combines ihe features of 
an electric typewriter mnd a letter- 
quality printer. And it's designed lo 
handle both jobs with ease. 

Features 12 cps. 3 pitches (10. 
1 2 & 15). vanabie line spacing, 
10 5" writing line, backspacing & 
auto-correction Comes complete 
with parallel/serial interlace. 

Memory Correct III Messenger $629.88 

TP-1/TP-2 WALL 




D«lta 10 has all the features above 
plus parallel & serial interfaces. 1 60 
cps prml speed, an SK buffer The 
D«lla 18 IS the 136cotumn i/ergion 

Gemini 10X S309.88 

Gemini '5 . S4S9.88 

Delta 10 S929.88 

Delia 15 tCALL 

OK I DATA 

Microline Series 




Th« Microline 02 (80 col) S 93 
(132 co1( are ideal for word pro- 
cessing. They offer a 1 60 Cps draft 
mode, a 40 cps correspondance 
mode, 1 0. 1 2 & 1 7 cpi (w/double- 
widlh), pin/ffiction leed (tractor ts 
opitonal on the 92) S dot-address- 
able graphics (1 20 x 1444) Cen- 
tionics parallel interface is Standard 

The MiGrolin*84(132col) is the 
Step 2 version, featuring 200 cps ai 
10. 12,& 17 cpMw/double-width), all 
wilh a correspondance mode & dot 
addressable graphics. Parallel 
interface are standard issue 

The Microline 82A is a data 
cruncher with 1 ?0 cps. 10 S 1 7 cpi, 
double-width, fnction/pin feed on 80 
columns. The Microlino 88A is the 
136 column version Oot-addtess- 
abt« graphics are optional 
Microtlne e2A . 8389.88 

82A/g2 Tractor 889.88 

Microline d3A . S899.88 

Okigraph I Dot Graphics 

ROM (S2A/83A) $49.88 

Microline 92 $489.86 

Microline 93 $759.88 

Microline 84 $1024.88 




MANNESf^ANN TALLY 

MT-160 L 




The HT-1 80 L ( 1 80 cps) has 8 
fonts, parallel & serial interfaces, 
friction/iractor feed, & menu-driven 
installation from Ihe control panel. 
The print quality is superior. The MT- 
180 L IS the 136 column version 

A new. low cost draft printer, the 
Sprrto (80 cpsi. is also available. 

MT-160 L $879.88 

MT- 1 80 L $849.88 

MT-Spril6 $329.88 

We sell other dot matrix printers. 
including the Anadox WP-8000, 
IDS's Priem 80, Priam 132 8 
MicroPricm ^ 'he Inforunnor 
Ritomart Cal! («03) 881-9898 for 
technical details. For prices or to 
order, call (800) 343-0728. 

Letter-Quality Printers 

C. ITOH 

Starwriter 




SILVER REED 

EXP-550 



The C. Itoh Slarwrilar o'lers top 
speed 140 cps) at a good price. 
Starwritars use Diablo code, 
wheels & ribbons. 1/48" line space. 
1/120" horizontal spacing — ideal for 
proportional modes (For hitjh speed 
output, there's the Printmaatar at 
55 cps Same specs as above,) 

Starwriter Parallel $1219.88 

Printmaster Parallel $1879.88 




The Silver Reed EXP-SBO is a 1 6 
cps, 132 column letter-quality 
printer wilh frue Diablo 1610/1620 
emulation (sub/super scripts & 
underlming). making it compatible 
with most word processing software. 
It's Ideal for medium duty office 
work For light duty, there's the 
EXP-900at 12 cps (too col). 

EXP-550 (Parallel) $710.88 

EXP-500 (Parallel) $488.80 

We sell a variety of leller-quality 
printers, including the Comrax 
ComRHar. Diablo 820 A 830. the 
NEC 203O, 3830 A 7730. the 
Qumo Sprint 1 1 -f 

STANDARD MICROSYSTEMS 

Microterm 

Mlcrotarm supports auto-dial/ 
answer modems like the Hayes 
Smartmodem Features pre-pro- 
grammed dial & transmit, direct file 
transfer. 34K capture buffer and a 
certified 2400 baud Operation rate. 
Specify Model I or Model III when 
ordering. 
Microterm . . ... $79.88 

DC Hayss Smart modems 

<300 baud) 821 8.88 

{ 1 200 baud) $939.88 

Novation Modems 

J-Cal(300 baudi . . $139.88 

SmartCal (300 baud) $199.88 

SmartCat( 1200 baud). ..$499.88 



Information/Orders: 

(603)881-9855 

Ordara Only: (800) 343-0720 



No Hidden Charges: 

We pay UPS ground shipping on 
all our orders, and we never charge 
extra for credit cards We accept 
CODs & add a $1 fee per order. We 
have 3 $50 minimum order Personal 
checks are cleared in 3 weeks 

All our equipment is shipped 
factoryfresh, with lull warranties 
Were authorized for warranty work 
on a number of printers, & we also 
offer extended warranty plans for 
those printers. 

Sorry, we Cannot accept open POs 
or extend credit/terms at these 
prices APO and foreign orders are 
not accepted 

We prepared this ad in Septemt>er 
& prices do change, so call to vertty 
them. 

Our Computar Showroom is 
now open in Amherst, NH. 



HIGH TECHNOLOGY AT AFFORDABLE PRICES ^^ 

THE BOTTOM LINEB 

IMILFORD, NH 03055-0423 G TELEPHONE (603) 881-98551 




r- Sm» List of A(h«rfissrs on Pag» 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 21 



AID 



Save Me from Work! 

Has anyone developed an RTTY 
program for the Color Computer us- 
ing the Baudot Code for input and 
output? A copy of this program 
would save me weeks of work. 

B. Kevin McCarthy 

U.S. Coast Guard Loran Station 

St. Paul Island, AK 99660 

A Protective Case 

I'm searching for a protective case 
for my Color Computer keyboard so 
that I can use it with hotel systems on 
trips. Does anyone know where I can 
find such a case? 

Stan Williams 

Route 1. Box 94-70 

Manakin-Sabot. VA 23103 




Searching 

for 
answers 



Transferring Profile 

Our organization has several large 
Profile files that we'd like to convert 
to Profile III Plus without having to 



reenter all the data. We would ap- 
preciate any information on a Basic 
Model III program that would allow 
such a transfer. 

Richard J. Paul 

Regional Emergency 

Communications Network 

1200 Meadowdale Drive 

Carpentersville, IL 60110 

New Features 

I'd Hke to hear from anyone who 
has found a way to add a sort verb, a 
search verb, and exponentiation to 
RSCOBOL for the Model I with 
NEWDOS80. 

Jeff Carver 

P.O. Box 1049 

APO, NY 09063 



GO 



WORD PROC KSSINC 



With Crayon De/uxe & Scrip/r 



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22 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



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What Is It? 

In the Program Listings for J.B. 
Harrell's **A Pascal Primer" (July 
1983, p. 94), you can easily mistake 
the lowercase I's for numeral I's. If 
you encounter problems in determin- 
ing whether you should enter a 
number or letter, contact our 
technical department. They will pro- 
vide you with a clearly marked pro- 
gram listing. 

For those of you contemplating sub- 
mitting a Pascal article for publication, 
please do not use the letter 1 as a vari- 
able. Thanks. — Eds. 



Better Solutions' 

I found and fixed some bugs in 
Wayne Thume's "Better CoCo 
Graphics ' ' program listing (June 
1983, p. 164). 

First, in line 1170, change the '*P'* 
to an **S". This is the line that checks 
to see if the key you pressed is the one 
to set a point, which is S. The new line 
should read: 




1170 IF CB$ = "S" THEN 

(LL + JJ,MM + KK) 



CC = I:PSET 



If you try to transfer a section on 
either the extreme left line or the ex- 



Flaws 
and 
fixes 



treme top line, you'll get an Illegal 
Function Call error. This is because 
the computer tries to get and put 
points at coordinate -4. Removing 
the -4*s from lines 260, 300,310, and 
380 fixes this bug without changing 
the transfer block. 

Andy Dater 

2847 La Mirada 

Medford, OR 97501 



Try It My Way 

The debug to the OV error in line 
1160 of Lee Morgenstern's "Dual- 
Voice Music Synthesizer" (June 1983, 



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p. 22) is not recommended. Instead, 
rewrite line 1 160 to read: 1 160 READ 
Q:PRINTQ;:POKEP,Q:P = P-(-l: 
NEXT and add line 1035 to read: 1035 
POKE16553,255. Some Model I's 
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Put an End to It All! 

There's a problem with Program 
Listing 4 in Philip Martel's *'La 
Plume de Ma Tante" article (July 
1983, p. 78). The program doesn't end 
since line 430 does not allow entry of 
number values greater than 19 but hne 
380 requires a number value of 99 to 
end the program. To correct this 
problem, reenter line 420 as both 365 
and 465, and then remove line 420 
altogether. 

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955 East 12th St. 
Brooklyn, NY 11230 



Sketchpad Line! 

A line is missing in Larry CoUe's 
"Color Sketchpad" program listing 
(June 1983, p. 110). The missing line 
to be added is: 

95 1FA$ = "P"THENPAINT(X + 3,Y) 
.C,C:F = C 



—Eds. 



Misdeal 



The following lines are missing 
from Program Listing 4 of Byron 
Lott's "Model II Casino" article 
(August 1983, p. 148). 

NTCHR$(1);:RETURN 

1240 PRINTCHR$(2);:L = 683:GOSUB 
1230:RX = R6:GOSUBI160:T$=M$ 
(R6):GOSUB1200:PRINTCHR$(1);: 
RETURN 

—Eds. 



24 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



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r .ti>'IT;tnclvri< 



THE NEXT STEP 



by Hardin Brothers 



Not long ago, a friend was modifying 
a complex Basic program he had 
written. He needed a new variable for 
his modification but couldn't remember 
which variable names he had already as- 
signed and he didn't feel like wading 
through pages of program listings to 
find out what he had used. This month, 
I'll describe a solution to this problem. 

Whether or not you want a utility 
that displays currendy active variables, 
you should find the memory structures 
and ROM routines I'll discuss useful for 
many programming projects. 

TRSDOS 1.3 has a weak CMD"X" 
function to search for variable names, 
but it doesn't differentiate between a 
variable and a literal, string. However, 
with the use of low memory pointers, a 
knowledge of how Basic stores vari- 
ables, and some help from ROM rou- 







Displaying 

active 
variables 



tines, you can easily create your own 
programmer's utility to display all cur- 
rent variables and arrays. 



Physical memory top 



40BI hex always points 
to the top of memory 
avaib^le to Basic 
(4049 hex & 44 11 hex are 
used by Mod I & III 
DOS to reserve high 
memory, but not by 
Bask tx Disk Basic). 



See Figure 3: 
See figure 2: 



From here down, each 
area has an absohite 
address, so no 
pointers are used. 



4(Slhex= 



40A0hex = 



Reserved High Memory 

used for machine-language programs, 

and the like 

String variable storage — 

this area's aze is set 
with the Clear command 



Basic's stack spact 



Free Space 



4aT)hex= = > 



Array VariaUe Table 
(AVT) 



4(ffBhex= = > 



Simple Variable Table 

(SVT) 



40F9hex = 
40A4hex' 



Resident Basic Program 



> 



4000 hex 
3C00hex 
3800 hex 

0000 hex 



Disk Basic (if loaded) 

DOS Kernel (if loaded) 

"Low Memory" tables, and the like 

Memory-mapped video diqjlay 

Meroory-m^ped keyboard 

Unused Spa(% 

Mod I's Disk & Printer I/O 

ROM 



Figure 1. TRSSO memory usage and pointers. 



The lowest section of general-pur- 
pose RAM, from 4000 hexadecimal 
(hex) up, is reserved for use by Basic. 
This area contains the restart vectors, 
device control bk>cks, and a wide range 
of buffers, pointers, and temporary 
values. Though the Models I and III 
handle parts of this region of RAM dif- 
ferently, most of it is the same on the 
two machines. They also construct 
identical tables of variables during exe- 
cution of Basic programs. 

Figure 1 shows the general layout of 
memory. Except for ROM, the screen 
and keyboard, and the reserved low 
memory area, everything in the memory 
map is movable. Basic keeps track of it 
all with pointers; the values at the side 
of the map show these pointers' loca- 
tions. The Basic interpreter is flexible 
enough to let each section of the map be 
any required size (until memory is full). 
It only needs to keep track of the 
various areas by adjusting its own 
pointers. 

Of interest this month are the simple 
variable tabte (SVT) and array variable 
table (AVT). Both tables are built and 
filled during execution of a Basic pro- 
gram; both are obliterated (i.e., the 
pointers set to "no table length") dur- 
ing programming, editing, and with the 
Run and Clear commands. 

Whenever your computer encounters 
a new simple variable in a program, it 
checks free space, moves the AVT up in 
memory to make room for the variabte, 
adds the variable to the end of the SVT, 
and adjusts the pointers. When the 
computer encounters a new array vari- 
able, it checks free space, adds the array 
to the end of the AVT, and adjusts the 
pointers. In both cases, Basic must first 
scan all the variables already in the 
tables to decide if you're using an okl or 
new variable. 

Figure 2 shows the structure of each 
entry in the SVT. The first byte of each 
variable entry is a code that identifies 
the variable type and equals the length 
of that entry after the 3-byte header: 

2 represents an integer variable (^) 

3 represents a string variable (S) 

4 reiH^sents a single-precision variable (!) 
8 represents a double-precision variable (#) 

After the variable-type code, 2 bytes 



26 • ao Micro. Novembmr 1983 



THE NEXT STEP 



show the variable's name, but in re- 
versed order. For example, CA% 
would be represented as "2 A C." The 
names of numeric variables are fol- 
lowed by their values. The names of 
string variables are followed by 3 bytes 
indicating the string length and its loca- 
tion in either the program (for a literal 
string) or high memory. 

The structure of the AVT is some- 
what different (see Fig. 3). The first 3 
bytes of each entry are the same as in the 
SVT: type code and reversed variable 
name. Bytes 3 and 4 contain a 2-byte 
offset which, when added to the address 
of byte 5, points to the next array 
variable entry in the table. Byte 5 holds 
the number of dimensions in the array. 

Following byte 5 are values showing 
the maximum size of each dimension in- 
dex plus one; however, the first size in- 
dicator is for the dimension index at the 
extreme right and the last indicator is 
for the one at the extreme left. Finally, 
the actual values are stored. Basic must 
calculate the location of each array ele- 
ment from the above information be- 



Progjnai 

Statraient 



M«Dory 
Locatloa 



Hex 

Vdac COBUDMt 



ABVt = 1 



6715 hex 02 Type Marker (40F9 hex poinu hen) 

42 2nd letter of name (B) 

41 1st letter of name (A) 

01 Value 

6719 hex 00 Value (nqiressed as integer) 



CS= "THE NEXT STEP" 
671 A hex 



03 Type Marker 

00 No second letter in name 

43 1st letter of name (Q 

CD String length (13 characters) 

DB LocaticMi of string 
67IF hex 66 in xaancxy {66CF hex) 



FLAG! = 1 



6720 hex 04 Type Marker 

4C 2nd letter of name (L) 

46 1st letter of name (F) 

00 Value 

00 Value 

00 Value 

6726 hex 81 Value (expressed as single- 

precision value) 

Figure 2. Exrnnpks of Basic's technique for storing sunpk variabies. 



MICRO-DESIGN 

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80 Micro, Nowmb0r 1983 • 27 




If you 
ever wished that 
you had a better program- 
ming language, PASCAL 80 may 
be the language you dream about. It is 
a compiled language, faster, more ac- 
curate and easier to modify than Basic. 
Yet it is so easy to use that you can 
forget the hassles and diskette spinning 
of other compiled languages, including 
other versions of Pascal. 

Now you can create your own com- 
mand files that execute from DOS 
without having to load a language into 
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work than machine language. You can 
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Although designed for teaching and 
ideal for that purpose, PASCAL 80 also 
allows serious applications with a full 
fourteen digits of accuracy, even on log 
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PASCAL 80 allows you to create files 
on the .TRS-80® Model I, Model 111, 
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that will run on any of the other 
machines under TRS-DOS®, LDOS, 
NewDOS, NewDOS 80, DEL-DOS or 
DOS Plus. 



THE NEXT STEP 




PASCAL 80 is used in dozens of High 
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NEW!! POINTER VARIABLES! 



Prop«m Memofy Hex 

SUIminit LocatkMi Vilue Commeat 



DIMXY^(I,2,3) 

6727 hex 



672Chex 



02 
59 
58 
37 
00 
03 
04 
00 
03 
00 
02 
00 
00 



DIMZ$(5) 



6763 hex 



6768 hex 



03 
00 
5A 
15 
00 
01 
06 
00 
00 



Type Marker (4(FB hex points here) 
2nd letter of name (Y) 
1st letter of name (X) 
Offset to next array 

(672C hex + 0037 hex = 6763 hex) 
Number of dimensions 
Maximum vahie of right -most 

index + 1 
Maximum value of middle 

index + 1 
Maximum value for left-most 

index + 1 
Space for values 

(2»3»4»2 - 48 spaces) 



Type Marker 
No second letter in name 
la letter of name (Z) 
Offset to next array 

(6786 hex + 0015 hex = 677D hex) 
Number of dimensions 
Maximum value for 

index+ 1 
Space for values 

(6*3 = 18 spaces) 



677Dbex 



Be^nning of free space 
(4CIPD hex points here) 



F^rv 3. Exampks of Basic's technique for storing array variables. 



cause no other marker bytes are in the 
array. 

The three important pointers for 
handling variables are stored at suc- 
cessive locations: 

4W9 hex points to the SVT 

4CFB hex points 10 the AVT 

40FD hex pcrints to the b^iraiing of free space 

Because space is never wasted in either 
the SVT or AVT, the pointer at 40FB 
hex also indicates the end of the SVT, 
and the one at 40FD hex indicates the 
end of the AVT. 

Armed with the structure of the SVT 
and AVT, as well as their related 
pointers, you should have little trouble 
following this month's program (see 
Program Listing). Any time you press 
the shift, down-arrow, and V keys si- 
multaneously, the program displays all 
active simple variables and all active ar- 
rays. The array display includes the 



maximum index values for each dimen- 
^on. 

The first block of the program, Bnes 
590-670, is similar to the SETUP rou- 
tine in my August column (p. 30). It 
hooks the program into the keyboard 
driver (unless it is ah^ady there) and 
protects the program in memory. Then 
control returns to either IX)S or Basic. 

The second block, Test, interrupts 
every call to the keyboard driver to see if 
you pressed the appropriate keys. If 
not, control passes to the regular key- 
board driver. If you press the shift, 
down-arrow, and V keys, the variable 
display program takes control. These 
first two sections should look familiar 
to regular readers. 

Actual procesang begins in line 870 
with a call to the subroutine PUSHAL, 
which saves all current registers, except 
AF, to the stack. Then the program 
saves the screen and the current cursor 
position. By the end of this block of 



28 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



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THE NEXT STEP 



code, the program saves everything 
needed to return to a running program 
either in buffers or on the stack. Finally, 
the program calls the ROM routine at 
01C9 hex to clear the screen, and the 
cursor is moved toward the bottom of 
the screen. 

The fourth program block, starting 
on line 1010, establishes three pointers; 
IX points to the simple-variable table, 
HL points to the present screen loca- 
tion, and lY indexes a table of variable- 
type indicators. The program maintains 
these three pointers throughout the 
simple-variable section of the program. 

The main loop of the simple-variable 
display starts with VARIO is line 1040. 
First, the program compares the AVT 
pointer with the present value of IX to 
determine if all simple variables are 
displayed. The RST 18 hex instruction 
calls a ROM routine that performs a 
16-bit compare of HL and DE and sets 
the status flags accordingly. If DE is 
larger than HL, the carry flag is set to 
indicate that more simple variables have 
to be displayed; otherwise, control 
passes to the array-variables display. 

In line 11^, the program loads the B 
register with the variable's type code. 
Then the A register picks up the variable 
name and displays it on the screen at the 
present HL position. If the variable has 
a sin^letter name, the place for the sec- 
ond letter in the SVT will contain a 
zero which the program won't display. 
After the name, the program needs to 
display the variable's type symbol: Vo, 
$, !, or #. It finds the symbol by using 
the lY pointer plus an offset based on 
the present value in B. The Z80 chip 
doesn't support this kind of indirect in- 
dexing, but the indexing is a powerful 
tool in many programs. 

After the computer displays the vari- 
able and its type symbol, it updates the 
IX and HL registers and checks HL. If 
it finds the current line full, it adjusts 
HL to point to the next line. If the 
screen is fuU, the program waits for you 
to press the enter key before it con- 
tinues. Otherwise, the loop repeats and 
the program displays the next simple 
variable. 

The array-variables display works a 
little differently. IX is still used as a 
pointer to the array table (now the 
AVT), but instead of using HL to point 
to the screen, the program uses the regu- 
lar ROM display routine at 033A hex. 
The advantages are that ROM deter- 
mines print positions and you can use 

30-80 Micro, November 1983 



Program Lisiing. Current variables display. 



e33A 
2B75 

eic9 

eA9A 

BACC 
IfBD 

4B16 
4B2B 

3eB4 
3B4e 
3BBB 

3cee 

3FBB 
3FC8 



4BF9 

4IFB 
4eFD 



BA52 



BA52 
BA55 

BA5 8 
BASS 
BASB 
BA5E 
BA6 2 
BA63 
BA67 



BAeA 

BA6D 
BA6F 
DA7: 
BA7 4 
BA7 5 
BA77 
DA7A 
BA7C 



2A164a 
116ABA 
DF 

2Bec 

227DBA 

E053164e 

IB 

ED531144 

C32D40 



3A4a3e 

E610 

28eB 

3A803B 

B7 

2805 

3A0438 

E6 4B 

CABBBB 



BA7F 
BA82 
BA85 
BA88 
BA8B 
BA8D 
BA90 
BA9 3 
BA96 
BA99 



BA9C 
BAA0 
BAA3 
BAA7 
BAAB 
BAAA 
BAAB 
BAAF 
BAB0 



CD92BB 

IIFLBB 

21003C 

010004 

EDB0 

2A2040 

22FEBF 

CDC9ai 

21CB3F 

222040 



PRINTl 

PRINT 

CLS 

HLACUM 

ACIN5N 

ACUSTR 



SVT 
AVT 
FREE 



D[)2AF940 

21flfl3C 

FD21F7BB 

E5 

DBE5 

El 

EQ5BFB40 

DF 

El 



00100 

00110 

00120 
00130 
00140 
00150 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00280 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
002^0 
00260 
00270 
00280 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
80360 
00370 
00380 
00390 
00400 
00410 
00420 
00430 
00440 
00450 
00460 
00470 
Be4BB 
00490 
00500 
00510 
00520 
00530 
00540 
00550 

eesee 

00570 

005B0 

00590 

00600 

00610 

00620 

00630 

00640 

00650 

00660 

00670 

006 80 

006 90 

00700 

00710 

00720 

00730 

00740 

00750 

00760 

00770 

00780 

00790 

00B00 

00810 

00820 

00630 

00840 

00S50 

O0B6 ,- 

00870 

00BB0 SAVE 

00B90 

00900 

00910 

00920 

00930 

00940 

00950 

00960 

00970 ; 

009B0 I No<. 

00990 ; e< 

01B00 ; 

0iei0 

01020 

01030 

01040 

01050 

01060 

01070 

010B0 

01090 



Current Variable Display 

On <ShiEt> <Dwn-arrow> <V> ' 
shows two screens (or more) 

1st -- all defined, simple ' 

var jables 
2nd — all defined array 

variables 



Listing of routines and addresses; 



EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 



KBDVft EQU 

CURSAD EQU 

R0W3 EQU 

R0W7 EQU 

ROWS EQU 

VIDEO EQU 

ENDDSP EQU 

PRTPOS EQU 



e33AH 

2B7 5H 
01C9H 
0A9AH 
0ACCH 
BFBDH 

4BieH 
4B2BH 

38B4H 

3840H 
38SBU 

3CCaH 
3FBBH 
JFC8H 



jPBINT 1 CHAR. 

; PRINT STRING 

jCLEAR SCREEN 

jHL"> HAM ACCUMUUVTOR 

jACCUM. VALUE INT->SINGLE 

jACCUM -> ASCII STRING 

jKB DRIVER ADDRESS 
jCURSOR POSITION ADDRESS 

(P-W KEYBOARD ROW 

J ENTER i ARROWS KB ROW 

(SHIFT KEYBOARD ROW 

fTOP OF SCREEN 

;LAST LINE FOR DISPLAY 

fADDR. FOR PROMPT DISPLAY 



MEMTOP EQU 4411H ;MEMTOP FOR MOD. Ill DISK 

■jse 4049H for HODI Disc, 40B1H for tape systems 



EQU 
EQU 
EQU 



4BF9H 
4BFBH 

4BFDH 



iBEG. OF VARIABLE LIST 
{BEG. OF ARRAY LIST 
;BEG. OF FREE SPACE 



First, patch routine into Keyboard 
driver, being careful to save current 
driver address, and reset MEMTOP. 

ORG aBA52K jCIIANGE ORG TO RELOCATE 

this address for top ot 32K RAM 



■GET CURRENT DRIVER ADDR, 

iGET ROUTINE ADDR. 

J COMPARE DE k HL 

jGO IF ALREADY SET 

jSET RETURN ADDB. 

■SET 'TEST- AS KB DRIVER 

;DE-TEST-1 

;SET MEMTOP 
; RETURN TO DOS 



Line 67fl should be JP 1A19H for tape systems 
Now test for <SHIFT> <DOWN-ARROW> <V> 



LD 


HL,(KBDVR1 


LD 


DE,TEST 


RST 


18H 


JR 


Z,SET10 


LD 


(RETURN+1) ,H 


LD 


(KBDVR) ,DE 


DEC 


DE 


LD 


(MEMTOP) ,DE 


JP 


402DH 



TEST LD 

AND 
JF 
LD 
OR 
JR 
LD 
AND 

RETURN JP 



A , 1 R0W7 ) 

1011 

Z, RETURN 

A, (ROWS) 

A 

Z, RETURN 

A, (R0W3) 

40M 

Z,0000H 



[GET DWN-ARW RCW 

;IS IT DWN-ARW? 

;GO IF NOT 

|GET SHIFT ROW 

J SET FLAGS 

;G0 IF NO SHIFT KEY 

;GET P-W ROW 

; CHECK FOR V 

;SETUP PUTS VALUE HERE 



<shi£t> <down-ar row> <V> have been pressed. 

Save all registers. 

Save screen k then clear it. 



VARll 



CALL 


PUSHAL 


LO 


DE,SCRBUF 


LO 


HL, VIDEO 


LD 


BC,4fl0H 


LDIR 




LD 


HL, (CURSAD) 


LD 


(CRSBUF) ,HL 


CALL 


CLS 


LD 


HL, PRTPOS 


LD 


(CURSAD) ,HL 


t list 


of simple (r 


on the 


screen. 


LD 


IX, (SVT) 


LD 


HL, VIDEO 


LD 


lY, TYPES 


PUSH 


HL 


PUSH 


IX 


POP 


HL 


LD 


DE , ( AVT) 


RST 


ISH 


POP 


HL 



jSAVE ALL REGISTERS 

;DE--> SCREEN BUFFER 

;HL--> SCREEN 

;BC - SCREEN LENGTH 

jMOVE SCREEN 

;GET CURRENT CURSOR ADDR. 

;AND SAVE IT ALSO 

;CLEAH THE SCREEN 

iGET PRINT POSITION 

(MOVE CURSOR AWAY 



J IX='>VARIABLE LIST 

jHL--> SCREEN 

,iy.-> VAR. TYPE TABLE 

;SAVE SCREEN PTR. 

[MOVE VAR, LIST PTB 

1 TO HL 

(GET END OF VAR. TABLE 

,CP HLlDE 

J RECOVER SCREEN PTR. 

Lisring tronimued 



THE NEXT STEP 



Listing continued 












BABl 


3a3E 


01100 
01110 




JR 


NC , ARRAY 


;G0 IF NO MORE VARIABLES 


BAB3 


DD460e 


01120 




LD 


B,(IX) 


fGET VARIABLE TYPE 


BABG 


DD7E02 


01130 




LD 


A,(IX+2) 


;1ST LETTER OF VAR. NAME 


BAB 9 


77 


01140 




LD 


{HL) ,A 


jPRINT IT 


BABA 


23 


01150 




INC 


HL 


;BUMP POINTER 


BABB 


DD7Efll 


01160 




LD 


A,(IX*1) 


;2ND LETTER OF VAB . NAME 


BABE 


B7 


01170 




OR 


A 


;SET FLAGS 


BABF 


2882 


01180 




JR 


Z,VAR20 


I GO IF ZERO 


BACl 


77 


01190 




LD 


(HL) ,A 


;ELSE PRINT IT 


BACZ 


23 


01200 




INC 


HL 


;AND BUMP POINTER 


BAC3 


78 


01210 


VAR20 


LD 


A,B 


;GET VARIABLE TYPE 


BAC4 


3D 


01220 




DEC 


A 


jDECBEASE BY TWO TO 


BAC5 


3D 


01230 




DEC 


A 


ALIGN WITH TABLE 


BAC6 


32CBBA 


01240 




LD 


aYPTR + 2) ,A 


;USE FOR OFFSET 


BAC9 


FDTEBB 


01250 


lYPTR 


LD 


A, (IY + 0) 


;GET TYPE SYMBOL 


BACC 


77 


01260 




LD 


(HL) ,A 


;PUT ON SCREEN 


BACD 


23 


01270 




INC 


HL 


;BUMP POINTER 


BACE 


23 


01280 
01290 




INC 


HL 


;AND AGAIN FOR SPACE 


BACF 


DD23 


01300 




INC 


IX 


.-GET PAST HEADER 


BADl 


DD23 


01310 




INC 


IX 


; WITH THREE 


BAD 3 


DD23 


01320 




INC 


IX 


; INCREMENTS 


BADS 


DD23 


01330 


VAR30 


INC 


IX 


jMOVE PAST VAR. INFO 


BAD7 


IBFC 


01340 
01350 
01360 


;Check 


DJNZ 

screen 


VAR30 


; DEPENDING ON VAR. TYPE 
J IX=-> NEXT VARIABLE 


BADS 


11BB3F 


01370 




LD 


DErENDDSP 


jLAST PRINT POS. 


BADC 


DF 


01380 




RST 


leu 


;CP HL:DE 


BADD 


D4A4BB 


01390 




CALL 


HC.EKDSCR 


;G0 IF SCREEN FULL 


BAEB 


7D 


01400 




LD 


A,L 


jGET LSB OF SCREEN PTR. 


BAEl 


E63F 


01410 




AND 


3FH 


jMASK BITS G L 7 


BAE3 


FE3C 


01420 




CP 


3CH 


;END OF LINE? 


BAE5 


38ce 


01430 




JR 


C,VAR10 


; RETURN IF NOT 


BAE7 


ineea 


01440 




LD 


DE,40H 


:LINE OFFSET 


BAEA 


19 


01450 




ADD 


HL,DE 


:HL==> NEXT LINE 


BAEB 


7D 


'01460 




LD 


A,L 


;GET LSB 


BAEC 


EGca 


01470 




AND 


0C0H 


;MASK OUT BITS 0-5 


BAEE 


6P 


01480 




LD 


L,A 


;KL»=> START OF NEXT LINE 


BAEF 


18B6 


01490 
01500 




JR 


VAR10 


;GET ANOTHER VARIABLE 






01510 


! Now show array 


B 








01S20 










BAFl 


CDA4BB 


01530 


ARRAY 


CALL 


ENDSCfi 


;NEW SCREEN FOR ARRAYS 


BAF4 


DD2AFB4a 


01540 




LD 


IX, (AVT) 


;IX=->ARRA¥ TABLE 


BAF8 


DDE 5 


01550 


ABB10 


PUSH 


IX 


; TRANSFER PTB TO 


BAFA 


El 


01560 




POP 


HL 


; TO HL 


BAFB 


ED5BFD40 


01570 




LD 


DE.IFREE) 


|DE-=>END OF ARRAYS 


BAFF 


DF 


01580 




RST 


18H 


jCP HL;DE 


BBSB 


3075 


01590 
01600 




JR 


»C,DONE 


;G0 IF END OF TABLE 


8802 


DD46B0 


01610 




LD 


B, (IX+0) 


;GET VARIABLE TYPE 


BB05 


DD7E02 


01620 




LD 


A, (IX + 2) 


;1ST LETTER OF VAR. NAME 


BBSS 


CD3AB3 


01630 




CALL 


PBINTl 


iPBINT A 


BBSB 


DD7E01 


01640 




LD 


A, (IX+1) 


;2ND LETTEB OF VAR. NAME 


BB0E 


B7 


01650 




OR 


A 


;SET FLAGS 


BBBF 


2B03 


01660 




JR 


Z,ARR20 


:G0 IF 


BBll 


CD3A03 


01670 




CALL 


PBINTl 


;ELSE PRINT IT 


BB14 


7a 


01680 


ARR20 


LD 


A,B 


;GET VAR, TYPE VALUE 


BB15 


3D 


01690 




DEC 


A 


; SUBTRACT TWO TO 


BB16 


3D 


01700 




DEC 


A 


; ALIGN WITH TABLE 


BB17 


321CBB 


01710 




LD 


(IYPTR2t2) ,A 


;ADDBESS TABLE 


BBIA 


FD7E00 


01720 


IYPTR2 


LD 


A,(IYt0) 


;GET TYPE SYMBOL 


BBID 


CD3A03 


01730 




CALL 


PRINTl 


;AND PRINT IT 


BB2a 


3E2e 


01740 




LD 


A,'( ■ 


;PAREN. CHAR. 


BB22 


CD3Ae3 


01750 
01760 




CALL 


PRINTl 


;AND PRINT IT 


BB2S 


DD4ee5 


01770 




LD 


C,(IX*5) 


;GET t OF DIMENSIONS 


BB28 


DD5E03 


01780 




LD 


E, (IX + 3) 


;DE WILL HAVE OFFSET 


BB2B 


DQ5604 


01790 




LD 


D, (IX + 4) 


i TO NEXT ARRAY 


BB2E 


DDE5 


01800 




PUSH 


IX 


jTRANSFEB IX VALUE TO 


BB3e 


El 


01810 




POP 


HL 


; HL REGISTER 


BB31 


19 


01820 




ADD 


HL.DE 


;ADD OFFSET 


BB32 


110508 


01830 




LD 


DE,5 


jOFFSET FOR HEADER 


BB35 


19 


01840 




ADD 


HL.DE 


;HL--> NEXT ARRAY 


BB36 


E5 


01850 
01860 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE ADDRESS 


BB37 


0606 


01870 




LD 


B,6 


;BU«P IX 6 TIMES 


BB3 9 


DD23 


01880 


ARfi30 


INC 


IX 


J SO IX==> SIZE OF 


BB3B 


IBFC 


01890 
01900 




DJNZ 


ARR30 


J 1ST DIMENSION 


BB3D 


41 


01910 




LD 


B,C 


jGET t OF DIM. 


BB3E 


CB20 


01920 




SLA 


B 


;MULTIPLy BY TWO 


BB4a 


DD23 


01930 


ARR40 


INC 


IX 


;BU«P POINTER 


BB42 


10FC 


01940 
01950 




DJNZ 


ARR40 


jUNTIL PAST DIM SIZES 


BB44 


41 


01960 




LD 


B,C 


;GET t OF DIM. AGAIN 


BB4S 


DD2B 


01970 


ARR30 


DEC 


IX 


jDROP IX UNTIL IT 


BB47 


DD2B 


01980 




DEC 


IX 


; POINTS TO NEXT DIM. 


BB49 


DD6E0e 


01990 




LD 


L, (IXf0) 


;GET LSB OF DIM SIZE 


BB4C 


DD6601 


02000 




LD 


H, (IX*1) 


; AND MSB 


BB4F 


2B 


02010 




DEC 


HL 


; CORRECT FOB ELEMENT 


BBSe 


CDCEBB 


02020 
02030 


; 


CALL 


ASCPRT 


;PRINT AS ASCII 


BB33 


3E2C 


02040 




LD 


A, ' , ' 


;CET COMMA CHAR. 


BB55 


CD3A03 


02050 




CALL 


PBINTl 


jAND PRINT IT 


BB5B 


10EB 


02060 
02070 




DJNZ 


ARB50 


;REPEAT FOR ALL DIM.S 


BB^A 


212040 


02080 




LD 


HL,CURSAD 


;HL-->CURSOR POS'N 


BBSD 


35 


02090 




DEC 


(HL) 


(MOVE BACK OVER LAST ' ,' 


BBSE 


3E29 


02100 




LD 


A,') ' 


jGET CLOSE PABEN. 


BB60 


CD3A03 


02110 




CALL 


PRINTl 


jAND PRINT IT 

Lining continued 




ROAR! 



Do tricks with your computer wiihout 
breaking your wiillefs spir/U A subscrip- 
tion to Chromasette gets you a tape or 
disk full of quality programs delivered by 
First Class Mail every monthi Write for 
more information or. better yet, try a Back 
Issue. At S6.00 for 6 to 8 programs on 
tape ISII.OOon disk), you'll see just how 
good and inexpensive ChronMSCtt* 
software is. 



The Bonom Line: Ihpm OMc 

I year (12 issues) S50.00 595.00 

6 months (6 issues) S30.00 S55.00 

Single Issues S 6,00 SII.OO 



N Amei tx^iiOeti Ovfie^^Md ^lOlostJbscripiionsantJ SI :o 
iiqif iSiuTi Soil AO rae Ail iMtk iiiuei fiom Jur, IWl *. ii. 
^4^ -^ik Icn I'M Piogi^fni aft to !he E^Jenoet] BASK! rTyx>p. 



^WcvTuzAeMe 



; -' 'J 



RO Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 
(805)963-1066 



80 Micro, November 7993 • 31 



Langley-St. Clair 

Gets Mail 



From unsolicited letters of testimonial 

I have just received one of 
your SOFT-VIEW CRT's and I 
wanted to write you to tell you 
that I am impressed. I ordered 
the CRT by phone on Wednes- 
day afternoon, and I received 
it this morning (Friday) by 
UPS. When the UPS truck 
pulled up, I commented that it 
would be weird if that was the 
CRT, figuring that it would 
show up in about a week. That 
was the fastest shipment from 
a telephone order I've ever 
got! 

I should also mention that I 
was pleased to find that the 
people I talked to on the phone 
were very nice and friendly, a 
quality lacking ih many com- 
panies I have dealt with by 
phone.... 

I have Jnsta 
and two disk 
Model III and 
doing so I could have used 
directions as good and ade- 
quate as I got with the CRT. I 
congratulate the writer of the 
instructions for doing a very 
good job. The directions were 
intelligent, well-written and 
described the operation very 
well without becoming dull or 
technical.... 

....By the way, this is the 
first letter I've written to a 
supplier of computer hardware 
that was in praise. I have told a 
few off by mail, but this is the 
first time I have been this 
pleased with a company sup- 
plying hardware for my com- 
puter. 1 only hope that your at- 
titude is contagious. 
Sincerely, 
W.B. 
Albemarle, NC 



THE NEXT STEP 



led RAM chips 
drives on my 
many times in 




LSIS'i NEW SOFT-VIEW 
REPLACEMENT CRT 

f OH THE m^ 

FULL STORY 
SEE PAGE 25 



Lansley-St.Clair 

Instrumentation 
Systems. Inc. ■■■■ 

132 West 24th St NY. NY 10011 
1-800-221-7070 



32 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



Litlint conlmued 












BB63 3E2B 


B2120 




LD 


A, ' ■ 


NOW AN ASCII SPACE 


BBe5 CD3A03 


02130 




CALL 


PRINTl 


AND PRINT IT 


BSeS 2A2e40 


B2140 




LD 


HL, (CURSAD) 


GET CURSOR POS'N 


BB6B 11BB3F 


02150 




LD 


DE,ENDDSP 


END OF PRINT AREA 


BB6E DF 


02160 




RST 


18H 


CP HLjDE 


BB6F D4A4BB 


02170 
021B0 




CALL 


NCENDSCR 


GO IF SCREEN PULL 


BB72 DDEl 


02190 




POP 


IX 


IX"> NEXT ARRAY 


Bfl74 C3FBBA 


02200 
02210 




JP 


ARR10 


GO TO WORK ON IT 


BB77 CDA4BB 


B2220 DONE 


CALL 


ENDSCR 


ASK FOR ENTER 


BB7A 21FEBB 


02230 




LD 


HL, SCRBUF 


HL">SCREEN BUFFER 


BB7D 110B3C 


02240 




LD 


DE, VIDEO 


DE-->SCREEN 


BBse eieeB4 


02250 




LO 


BC.400H 


BC - SCREEN LENGTH 


BB83 EDBB 


02260 




LDIR 




MOVE TO SCREEN 


BB85 2AFEBF 


02270 




LD 


HL, (CRSBUF) 


GET OLD CURS. POS'N 


BB8B 222040 


02280 




LD 


[CURSAD) ,HL 


AND RESTORE IT 


BBBB CD9BBB 


02290 




CALL 


POPAL 


RESTORE REGISTERS 


BB8E Al- 


02300 




XOR 


A 


A i Z-FLAG SHOW 


BBBF C37CBA 


02310 
02320 




JP 


RETURN 


RETURN TO BASIC 


BB!i2 E;3 


B2330 PUSHAL 


EX 


(SP) ,HL 


HL ON STACK; SAVE RET 


DB93 C5 


B2340 




PUSH 


BC 


SAVE ALL REGS 


BB94 D5 


02350 




PUSH 


DE 




BB95 DDE5 


02360 




PUSH 


IX 




BB97 FDE5 


02370 




PUSH 


lY 




BB99 E5 


02380 




PUSH 


HL 


ORIG. RET ADDR.TO STACK 


BB9A C9 


0239B 
B2400 




RET 






BB9B El 


02410 POPAL 


POP 


HL 


GET RET. ADDfi. 


BB9C FDEl 


02420 




POP 


lY 


RESTORE ALL REGS. 


BB9E DDEl 


B243B 




POP 


IX 




BBA0 Dl 


02440 




POP 


DE 




BBAl CI 


02450 




POP 


BC 




BBA2 E3 


02460 




EX 


(SP) ,HL 


GET ORIG. HL 


BBA3 C9 


B247B 
0248B 
B249B 




RET 






BBA4 CD92BB 


B2500 ENDSCK 


CALL 


PUSHAL 


SAVE REGS. 


BBA7 21C83P 


02518 




LD 


HL.PRTPOS 


HL=PRINT POS'N 


BBAA 222B40 


B2520 




LD 


ICURSAD) .HL 


MAKE CURSOR POS'N 


BBAD 21E4BE 


02530 




LD 


HL.MSG 


HL==> MESSAGE 


BBBB CD752B 


02540 




CALL 


PRINT 


PRINT MESSAGE 


BBB3 CDCBBB 


02550 




CALL 


GETENT 


GET ENTER KEY 


BBB6 CDC9ei 


0256B 




CALL 


CLS 


ROM CLS ROUTINE 


BBB9 CD9BBB 


B257B 




CALL 


POPAL 


RESTORE REGS. 


BBBC 21883C 


B258e 




LD 


HL, VIDEO 


HL--> TOP OF SCREEN 


BBBF C9 


B259B 
26BB 




BET 




AND RETURN 


BBCB 3A403B 


02610 GETENT 


LD 


A , ( R0W7 ) 


GET ENTER ROW 


BBC3 E601 


02620 




AND 


0IH 


CHECK FOR <ENTER> 


BBC5 28F9 


02630 




JR 


Z, GETENT 


LOOP UNTIL FOUND 


BBC7 3AFF3B 


02640 GET10 


LD 


A,(3BFFH} 


CHECK FOR NO KEYS 


BBCA B7 


026 5 




OR 


A 


SET FLAGS 


BBCB 2eFA 


B266B 




JR 


NZ,GET1B 


LOOP UNTIL NO KEY 


BBCD C9 


0267B 
0268B 
B269B 




BET 




THEN RETURN 


BBCE 


B27B0 ASCPRT 


ECU 


s 


PRINT HL VAL ON SCREEN 


BBCE EB 


02710 




EX 


D£,HL 


SAVE HL REG. 


BBCF CD92BB 


02720 




CALL 


PUSHAL 


SAVE REGS. 


BBD2 EB 


02730 




EX 


DE.HL 


RECOVER ORIG HL VALUE 


BBD3 CD9A0A 


B274B 




CALL 


HLACUM 


HL"-> ACCUMULATOR 


BBD6 CDCCBA 


B275B 




CALL 


ACINSN 


ACCUM INT-> SINGLE PREC, 


BBD9 CDBDBF 


02760 




CALL 


ACUSTR 


MAKE ACCUM INTO STRING 


BBDC 23 


02770 




INC 


HL 


SKIP LEADING SPACE 


BBDD CD752B 


02780 




CALL 


PRINT 


PRINT VALUE 


BBES CD9BBB 


02790 




CALL 


POPAL 


RESTORE REGS. 


BBE3 C9 


02eBB 
02610 
02B20 




RET 








02630 


Now taOle, message, 4 buffers 






02640 










BBt.4 50 


02650 


1SG 


DEFM 


'Press <ENTER> . 


. . • 


72 65 73 


73 20 


C 45 4E 






54 45 S: 

2E 
6BF6 BB 


3E 2B 


IE 2E 2E 






B2e60 




DEFB 


00H 


END OF HSG MARKER 




02370 










BBF7 25 


02S6B 


rVPES 


DEFB 


'\ ' 


LIST OF VARIABLE TYPE 


BBF8 24 


02890 




DEPB 


■s- 


MARKERS 


BBF9 21 


029BB 




DEFB 


' 1 ' 




BBFA BBBB 


0291B 




DEFW 


00H 


PAD WITH 3 SPACES 


BBFC BB 


B292B 




DEFB 


Ben 




BBFD 23 


B293B 
0294B 




DEFB 


'•■ 




B4eB 


02950 
B2960 


SCRBUF 


DEFS 


40BH 


BUFFER FOR SCREEN 


e0B2 


02970 
02980 


:rsbuf 


DEFS 


2H 


jBUFfER FOR CURSOR POSN 


BA52 


02990 




END 


SETUP 


END OF PROGRAM 


BBBBB TOTAL ERRORS 










ROM prinf routines; the 


disadvantage 


is 


The first part of the array sequence is 


that the information fo 


some variables 


similar to t 


lie k)^ in the simple-vari- 


might be broken betwet 


n twc 


) differe 


nt 


able routin 


e: The name and type of 


screen lines. 










variables are displayed. But starting 



THE NEXT STEP 



with line 1770, the program includes 
some new logic to display the maximum 
value of each element of the array. 

The C register holds the number of 
dimensions (1-255). Then the offset 
value plus five is added to the current 
value in IX to determine the starting ad- 
dress of the next array in the table. The 
program stores this new address on the 
stack. 

By adjusting the IX register, the 
computer loads each dimension size in- 
to the HL register and prints it on the 
screen, followed by a comma. Because 
the program stores the dimension in- 
dicators in reverse order, the routine has 
to go through some contortions to keep 
the IX register correctly aligned. Final- 
ly, the program checks the current print 
position on the screen and then the rou- 
tine loops back to display another array 
variable. 

The last program section, Done, 
restores the original screen and the 
original cursor position. All original 
registers are popped off the stack and 
control returns to the regular keyboard 
scan routine and Basic. The Basic pro- 
gram continues functioning as if it were 
never interrupted. 

The program's subroutines show 
some interesting programming tech- 
niques. PUSHAL and POPAL push or 
pop all registers at once. They cut down 
the length of the overall program. 

The problem with using subroutines 
to push all registers is that you can bury 
the normal return address in the stack 
beneath the register values and the pro- 
gram won't know where to go after the 
return instruction. PUSHAL avoids 
this problem by first exchanging the 
return address for the value in HL, then 
saving all other refers, and finally 
putting the return address back on the 
stack. 

The trade-off is that this subroutine 
changes the value in HL. If you want to 
save all registers but leave HL unchanged, 
the calling routine must save the HL 
value in another register, call 
PUSHAL, and then reclaim the HL 
value from that other register. The be- 
ginning of the ASCPRT routine shows 
how to do this. 

ENDSCR saves the registers, moves 
the cursor position to the last line, and 
prints a message. Then it checks to see if 
you pressed the enter key, clears the 
screen, points HL to the top of the 
screen, and returns. Notice that the 
message is displayed by using the ROM 



Print routine at 2B75 hex. 

GETENT is a simple subroutine that 
waits until you press and release the 
enter key to continue. It is important 
for the computer to check for the key 
release; otherwise, the program may go 
charging ahead before you have time to 
let go of the key. GETENT reads the 
keyboard directly; it doesn't use a ROM 
routine to read the keyboard because of 
a possibility that you might again press 
the shift, down-arrow, and V keys and 
cause the entire program to loop back 
on itself recursively. 



"PUSHAL and POPAL 

push or pop 

all registers at once. 

They cut down the length 

of the overall program. " 



The most interesting subroutine is 
ASCPRT, which takes the value in HL 
and displays it on the screen in unsigned 
integer format. It does so by using three 
crucial, though little-known, ROM rou- 
tines: HLACUM (0A9A hex), ACISIN 
(OACC hex), and ACUSTR (OFBD hex). 

Basic maintains a buffer inside low 
memory called an accumulator that it 
uses every time it manipulates a data 
value. ROM routine HLACUM (0A9A 
hex) loads the current contents of HL 
into that accumulator and sets a flag to 
indicate that it's an integer value. 

Next, ACISIN (OACC hex) changes 
the integer value into single-precision 
form. It is the routine Basic uses for the 
CSNG function. However, when used 
this way, ACISIN treats the value in the 
accumulator as an unsigned integer 
(between 0-65535) instead of the more 
normal signed integer value (-32768- 
32767). 

FinaUy, ACUSTR (OFBD hex) takes 
the current value in the accumulator 
and turns it into an ASCII string so the 
number can be displayed on the screen. 
The program puts the string in another 
low-memory buffer at 4130 hex. Then 
the program returns the address of the 
beginning of the string in HL. Normal 
display format includes a leading space, 
which can be avoided by incrementing 
HL once before printing the string. 
Notice that ASCPRT uses the Print 
routine to display the number; an 



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..-492 




ao Micro. November 1983 • 33 




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THE NEXT STEP 




ASCII string is an ASCII string— 
whether it contains letters or numerals, 
you can use the same display tech- 
niques. 

The three ROM calls used in 
ASCPRT make up a very powerful, 
simple method for displaying any 1- or 
2-byte binary value in ASCII. Together, 
they are much slower than a traditional 
routine that subtracts successive powers 
of 10 to translate binary to ASCII, but 
they operate fast enough to satisfy most 
uses and only require 9 bytes of pro- 
gram space to f>erform the conversion. 

To use the variables display program, 
enter it from DOS READY or with 
SYSTEM after you have assembled it. 
You can then observe the currently de- 
fined variables at any time a Basic pro- 
gram runs or after it completes running 
and returns to the READY prompt. 
This program does not search your 
Basic program to look for the variables; 
instead, it uses the tables in memory to 
determine which variables are defined. 
The variables aren't displayed until 
your program starts to run. 

Next month I'll add the capability to 
display the current values of each vari- 
able by using other ROM routines, and 
I'll discuss ways to speed up your Basic 
programs by using the information 
shown in the variables displays. 

CompuServe Notes 

Two pieces of exciting news for 
readers who subscribe to CompuServe. 
First, you may now take part in open 
discussions of topics covered by "The 
Next Step." GO PCS-117 to the Soft- 
ware and Authors Special Interest 
Group (SASIG) and leave your ques- 
tions or comments addressed to me on 
the message board. Feel free to join in 
any discussions started by other readers, 
also. 

Second (I assume you'll be reading 
this in October), all this month, Eric 
Maloney, 80 Micro's mana^ng editor, 
win be a special quay guest on SASIG, 
discussing this magazine and its 
policies, and the microcomputer world 
in general. If you have any questions 
about 50 Micro, here's your chance to 
have them answered. ■ 

Write to Hardin Brothers at 280 N. 
Campus Ave., Upland, CA 91786, or 
contact him through CompuServe. Use 
GO PCS-U7for a public response; for 
private corre^X)ndence, use his e-mail 
address, 72165,735. 



34 • SO Micro. November 1983 



6«f-^ 




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80 Micro, November 1983 • 35 



THE COLOR KEY 



by Scott Norman 



This month I have two innovative 
utility programs, Larry Preble's 
VDOS and Hal Snyder's MDISK. Both 
are virtual disk programs that let you 
store other programs and data in RAM 
for high-speed recall at a later time. 
Both address the question of how a cas- 
sette-based Color Computer can use a 
64K memory expansion. 

Floppy disks have a couple of well- 
known advantages as information stor- 
age media: They are relatively fast, and 
they permit random ao^ss. Since mov- 
ing parts are involved, the access and 
transfer of information is always far 
slower than the operating speeds of 
computers linked to disk drives. 

Computer users are never satisfied 
with a system's speed, so it was proba- 
bly inevitable that people would hit on 
the idea of using blocks of RAM to sim- 
ulate disk operations. 

In principal, you can store informa- 
tion in RAM using a disk format. You 
can have a solid state analog of the di- 
rectory track, file headers formatted 
just as they are on disk, and storage as- 
signed in discrete grans, sectors, or 
whatever the computer's normal disk 
operating system uses. 

Of course, the data is volatile, 6Jsap- 
pearing when you turn off the power, 
but you can handle that by backing up 
the virtual disk to a real disk or to tape 
whenever appropriate. 

This idea has been around for a while 
now. A number of add-on memory 
boards, enable of emulating very fast 
disk drives, are available for computer 
systems that use the S-100 bus. 

Color Computers are somewhat lim- 
ited in the amount of memory they can 
address. Nevertheless, you can apply 
the concepts of RAM disk emulators, or 
virtual disks. 

That's where VDOS and MDISK 
come in. For a modest price, they give 
the CoCo user the ability to load several 
files into RAM and forget about them 
until he needs them. 

The files can be Basic or machine- 
language programs, or data files. You 
can access them in any order, and trans- 
fers to and from active memory are 
usually fast enou^ to be considered in- 
stantaneous from the user's point of 
36 • ao Mfcro, November 1963 




Virtual disk 

systems and 

connectors 



view. Neither utility is all powerful, but 
both deserve a look. 

VDOS and VDUMP 

As I write this, VDOS 1.0 is only 
available on cassette (Dr. Preble's Pro- 
grams, 6540 Outer Loop, Louisville, 
KY 40228, $49.95). Its primary intent is 
to give cassette users a taste of the speed 
of disk operation. 

Its name stands for Virtual Disk Op- 
erating System, indicative of the ven- 
dor's intention to support it with 
enough utilities to make it into a real 
system. Meanwhile, a disk version is 
also in the works to serve as an 
additional high-speed "drive" for disk 
users. 

Although you could set aside any 
part of RAM for use as a virtual disk, 
the best idea is to use the upper 32K of a 
64K machine. This is the so-called Page 
1, the area not normally accessible to 
the Radio Shack operating system be- 
cause of address conflicts with the Basic 
ROMs. It represents the largest single 
block of space the CoCo can free up. 

In any case, VDOS itself determines 
the size of the memory in its host ma- 
chine, and locates itself near the half- 
way point. Ail the memory above 
VE)OS is available for file storage, while 
you can use everything below in the 
conventional fashion. 

In a 64K cassette system, the default 
partitioning is 24,733 bytes for pro- 
gramming, and 30,407 bytes for VDOS's 
f^ (ass&ming four gr^hics pages and 
200 bytes of string storage). If nec- 
essary, you can e?q)and the VDOS area to 
around 54K at the expense of user RAM. 



Once you toad the program, you in- 
voke it with the VDOS command — a 
new Basic command, in effect. A simple 
menu appears: You can view the VDOS 
file directory, save a Basic or machine- 
language program from user RAM to vir- 
tual disk, toad a program back the other 
way, kill a VDOS file, or exit to Bask. 

The routine for loading a series of 
Basic programs into the virtual disk 
area is to return to Basic from VDOS, 
load the first program, and invoke 
VDOS. Then select the Save a Basic 
Program option. Once you've saved the 
file, go back and repeat this whole se- 
quence as often as necessary. The first 
and fourth steps require only single-dig- 
it commands. 

You can save machine-language pro- 
grams in much the same way, except for 
a couple of potential complications. 
Many machine-language utilities are 
supposed to load into high RAM; you 
must be certain that they don't overlay 
the area used by VDOS itself. 

VDOS helps by informing you as to 
the top of available memory when you 
first load it. This is address 32,642 in a 
64K system. You can use the default 
start, end, and transfer addresses re- 
corded along with machine-language 
routines on tape, or specify your own. 

Even if a machine-language program 
seems to fit in the space below VDOS, 
be cauttous. Some routines need stack 
space that interferes with VDOS's 
pointers, located just above user RAM. 
1 ran into this situation with my relocat- 
ed version of Master Control, as I'D 
describe later. 

Once you actually get a collection of 
programs into VDOS, it's a simple mat- 
ter to pull them out into Page zero (the 
user-accessible part of RAM) and run 
them. You merely get into VDOS, 
choose the Load a Basic Program or 
Load a Binary File option, and specify a 
file name. 

Then exit to Basic (even for machine- 
language programs) and Run or EXEC 
as appropriate. When you're through 
with one program, end it and return to 
VDOS to select another. 

In general, it's unnecessary to clear 
Page zero between programs. I feel un- 
comfortable using VDOS with pro- 



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80 Micro, November 1983 • 37 



THE COLOR KEY 



grams that disable the break key, since 
at best that leaves only the reset button 
to return control of the computer to me 
for further work. Although VDOS 
seems to survive a reset, I prefer less 
drastic methods for regaining con- 
trol — especially since reset doesn't work 
with some routines. 

Programs with automata k>aders that 
seize control of the computer aren't 
good candidates for use with VDOS. It 
might be possible to load such beasts 
with offsets so they don't take over, and 
then get them into the VDOS area, but 
this can be touchy. 

I've found VDOS to be most useful 
when loaded with a few of the more 
tractable utilities or games. However, 
that might reflect the complacency of 
someone who already has a couple of 
floppy drives and uses programs that re- 
quire all 64K of RAM. 

If you have a favorite bunch of rou- 
tines to use with VDOS, you probably 
won't want to load them one at a time 
very often— say more than once. A 
VDOS utility called VDUMP takes care 
of that. 

It lets you dump everything in your 
virtual disk onto a single tape file, and 
reload the same way. Dr. Preble sells 
VDUMP for $14.95. 

You load VDUMP after everything is 
in the VDOS area. !t has only two op- 
tions: Dump and Load. To store your 
virtual disk, cue up a blank tape and 
press the D key. The tape records only 
the portion of RAM actually used for 
VDOS files. 

When you want to rctoad for a new 
session, load VDOS, k>ad and execute 
VDUMP, put the file tape in the record- 
er, and hit the L key. VDUMP destroys 
itself afterwards and returns you to the 
BasK command nxxie so you can enter 
VDOS. 

A hitch to all of this came up during 
my experiments with Master Control. 
That utility was written for a 16K 
machine, with start and finish addresses 
of I5I04 and 16380. Standard practice 
with 32K of available RAM is to load 
Master Control with a 16,000-byte off- 
set, putting it between 31 104 and 32380. 

Those were the addresses I specified 
when I loaded it into VDOS, and every- 
thing seemed OK. Master Control 
worked, and the VDOS directory listed 
the offset addresses as it should. In 
partKular, no conflict appeared with 
VDOS's lower limit of 32643. 

A problem developed with VDUMP, 

38 • fiO Micro, Novembw 1963 



though. When I tried to dump the 
VDOS area to tape, the recorder never 
stopped. Larry Preble suggested that 
interference was affecting some of the 
VDOS pointers (like the one that de- 
fmes the top of the virtual disk). 

He was probably right. Everything 



"The general idea 
of virtual disk storage 

is a good one, 
and it might make life 
quite a bit easier. . . " 



worked well when I later loaded Master 
Control with 8K of offset to leave plen- 
ty of room at the top. 

The moral here is that you might 
have to experiment a little with your fa- 
vorite programs to sec what works. The 
general idea of virtual disk storage is a 
good one, and it might make life quite a 
bit easier for cassette system users. 

MDISK 

MDISK 1.1 (Skyline Marketing 
Corp., 4510 W. Irving Park Road, 
Chicago, IL 60641) provides an in- 
teresting contrast with VDOS. VDOS 
works with any memory size from 16K 
up, but MDISK is intended for use with 
64K Color Computers alone. It only 
stores 15 files, too, while VDOS ap- 
parently handles as many as fit into 
available memory. 

On the other hand, you can readily 
interface MDISK to Bask so one pro- 
gram can call another from the virtual 
disk area. It automatically executes pro- 
grams called up in this way, too, al- 
thou^ this function has a small bug. 

MDISK also features a built-in RAM 
test routine to ensure that Page 1 is 
functional. The program is available on 
tape for S27.95, and on disk for $29.95. 

The disk version of MDISK consists 
of a sin^ two-granule file. Before 
loading it, you must reserve space at the 
top of the Page zero RAM with a 
CLEAR 200, &H77FF command; the 
program issues a warning if you've set 
aade insuffjcienl space. 

Despite their great differences, 
MDISK and VDOS actually work simi- 
larly. Both have a single command 
menu plus a file directory display, and 
both have commands for saving, rc- 



kjading, and killing Basic or machine- 
language files. 

MDISK's default storage area is 
somewhat the larger of the two: just 
over 32. 5K at startup. A couple of 
prompts on the main menu inform the 
user of the number of files stored and 
the remaining virtual disk space. 

MDISK commands consist of a single 
letter, sometimes followed by user re- 
sponses to screen prompts: D brings up 
the directory of stored files, E exits to 
Basic command mode, S saves a file 
from Page to Page 1, and so on. 

The cycle for loading the virtual disk 
area is similar to that of VDOS, except 
the method of reentering the utility 
itself. MDISK requires an EXEC <x>m- 
mand; if you've loaded a machine-lan- 
guage program into Page zero in prep- 
aration for aorage, you must use 
EXEC &H7800 to ensure that you ex- 
ecute fvlDISK rather than the other 
program. 

Since you have only one command to 
save a file and one to reload it into user 
RAM, MDISK queries you about the 
nature^Basic or machine-language — 
of any program you want saved or load- 
ed. If you work with a machine-lan- 
guage file, you have to specify the start, 
finish, and transfer addresses as four- 
digit hexadecimal (hex) numbers. 

After stuffmg a half-dozen or so utili- 
ties into Page 1, I notked a significant 
deftciency in MDISK: It doesn't have a 
way to save the virtual storage area to 
tape or disk. That's a flaw in VDOS 
too, but Preble's program has VDUMP 
to help out. 

I hope that MDISK author Hal Sny- 
der or someone else will remedy the situ- 
ation in a hurry. A dump-to-magnetic- 
medium routine should be an integral 
part of any virtual disk package. 

To invoke a saved program from 
MDISK's manual mode, you must 
download it to Page zero with the 
L(oad) command and then issue a R(un 
Basic) or a G(o to machine language). 

An alternative is to call MDISK and 
perform the download from within a Ba- 
sk program. The key is to use another 
MDISK entry point, &H7803. This sup- 
presses the usual menus and prompts, 
and kts the program accept commands 
from a Basic string. 

Load MDISK in the usual way, stor- 
ing whatever you want in the virtual 
disk buffer. Then load and run the Ba- 
sk program that will eventually call 
something from storage. 



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80 Micror November 1983 • 39 



THECOLORKEY 



This program should define the entry 
point with DEFUSRO = &H7803, and 
should execute the call with X$ = USRO 
("..."). The argument of that USR 
function is a string that mimics the 
MDISK commands you'd normally is- 
sue in manual mode. 

To check this out, I loaded MDISK's 
storage area with a game called Joust. 1 
then typed the calling program into 
Page zero: 

10 DEFUSRO = &H7803 

20 CLS: PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO PLAY." 

30 I$ = INKEY$: IF « = "" THEN 30 

40 X$ = USRO("L JOUST. B R") 

The entries between quotation marks 
in the USR argument are, respectively, 
the Load a Program to Page zero com- 
mand, the program's name (the period 
is an optional MDISK delimiter), the 
BasK identifier, and the MDISK com- 
mand to run any Basic program in Page 
zero. 

Pressing any key should have re- 
placed my little program's message with 
the opening of Joust. It didn't work 
that way. Instead of the game, I got 
MDISK's menu, a signal that 1 had 
reached the end of my command string 
while MDISK was still executing — 
downloading the Joust file. I had to hit 
the R key again to run the game. 

"OK," I thought, "Joust is a 4-gran 
file, and maybe it takes a little too long 
to transfer something that size. I'll try it 
with a smaller routine in virtual disk." 

No luck. I couldn't get automatk 
downloading and execution for any file 
down to a few dozen bytes in length. 
Terry Haas at Skyline Marketing assured 
me that this feature worked perfectly in 
earlier versions of MDISK intended for 
smaller-RAM Color Computers. 

It turns out that the INKEYS func- 
tion messed up the timing. Automatic 
downloading and execution worked 
perfectly well when I did away with 
keyboard scanning, like this: 

10 DEFUSRO = JH7803 

20 CLS 

30 PRINT "HERE WE GO..." 

40 FOR T= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

50 X$ = USRO("L JOUST. B R") 

Actually, the sample program in the 
MDISK documentation uses this sort 
of syntax. People writing their own ap- 
plications programs ought to be aware 
of the bug, though. Keyboard scanning 

40 • m Micro. Nowmbw 1983 



routines should probably branch to a 
short timing loop to get things into 
sync for a file transfer. 

It's also possible to have a Basic pro- 
gram reserve memory, load MDISK, 
and upload a file to Page 1. The in- 
struction leaflet shows how to do this 
for a machine-language utililty, and I 
found I could upload the calUng pro- 
gram itself: 

10 CLEAR 200, &H77FF 

20 LOADM "MDISK" 

30 DEFUSRO = &H7803 

40 X$ = USR0("STESTPRO. BE") 

50 CLS 

60 PRINT "I JUST UPLOADED MYSELF!" 

70 GOTO 70 

The final E command that normally 
causes an exit to Basic also returns con- 
trol to the calling program when you're 
in the automatic mode. I don't have any 
idea why you'd want to have such a pro- 
gram save itself to the virtual disk area. 
This exercise shows that MDISK can in- 
deed store Basic routines in this way. 

Both VDOS and MDISK are rather 
interesting programs, especially for 
those who intend to stay with cassette 
storage. My feeling is that some sort of 
cross-bred virtual disk would be even 
better: a VDOS with automatic execu- 
tion capability, perhaps, or an MDISK 
with VDUMP on the side. 

Going for the GoM 

In the June edition of The Color Key 
(p. 32), I mentioned that I was looking 
for gold-plated connectors for my Col- 
or Computer's disk controller. Oxida- 
tion of the base metal contacts on the 
controller's printed circuit board is a 
major cause of CoCo disk drive mal- 
functions; mine usually act up after I've 
finished pwlishing a long piece of text. 

Out of the west rides the U.S. Caval- 
ry in the person of Ed Pruett of the 
E.A.P. Company (P.O. Box 14, Keller, 
TX 76248). Ed manufactures the Gold 
Plug 80 series of add-on connectors that 
solve many a Model I problem, and his 
new product line should be a hit with 
any CoCo disk operator capable of a lit- 
tle soldering. 

Items in the E.A.P. lineup include 34- 
and 40-pin male fittings for either end 
of the disk controller and for the drives 
themselves^ female connectors for the 
CoCo's main circuit board, and two- 
drive and four-drive cables with gold- 
plated connectors of their own. 



Since the controller to computer con- 
nection is the weak link in my system, I 
opted for installing only the 40-pin 
adapter on my controller board. 

It's not an especially difficult job, but 
it's a bit tedious. You remove the disk 
controller from its case, insert the card- 
edge connector into the open tabs on the 
rear of the Gold Plug, align one circuit 
trace to a tab, and solder away. 

The tricks are avoiding solder bridges 
between tabs and applying enough heat 
to do the job without lifting the traces 
from the printed circuit board. If 
you've never worked with a fine-tip sol- 
dering iron and a PC board, you might 
practice on something like a Radio 
Shack Experimenter's Board before 
attacking your computer. 

One additional complication is asso- 
ciated with the 40-pin connector. As the 
instruction sheet explains, four ground- 
ing tabs are on the controller board: one 
on either surface of the board and on ei- 
ther end of the connector. 

These make contact with ground con- 
nections inside the computer's cartridge 
slot. E.A.P. furnishes four separate ex- 
tensions (base metal — not gold) that 
you have to solder to these tabs, if you 
are to keep radio frequency interference 
to a minimum. 

This can be tricky, since you have to 
align the extensions with both the PC 
board connections and the Gold Plug it- 
self; the extensions must protrude no 
more than Vi inch from the board's 
edge if everything is to make contact 
when you reconnect the disk controller 
to the computer. 

It's not an impossible task, though, 
and the increased reliability of my sys- 
tem makes it all worthwhile. I don't get 
those maddening I/O ERROR indica- 
tions any more. 

Gold Plugs are available individually 
or in combination packages, at prices 
from $9.95 to $19.95. Get in touch with 
E.A.P. for the details. 

Incidentally, E.A.P. has a very civi- 
lized policy: If you buy connectors then 
get cold feet when the soldering job con- 
fronts you, you can return the undam- 
aged hardware for a refund. I guess Ed 
understands that some computer users 
didn't come up through the ham radio 
ranks. ■ 

Scott Norman y/ekomes reader re- 
sponse to The Color Key. Write c/o 80 
Micro, 80 Pine St.. Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



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DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES 



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One Edgell Road, Framingham, MA 01701 

Hours: Mon. thru Fn. 9;30 am to 5:30 pm (E.S.T.) 



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Sal. 10 am to 4:30 pm 



TERMS: 

M.C/Vist/Amex tnd personal 
check* accepud ic no extra charge 
COD. please add $3.00 
Shipping: Please call for amount. 
Nol responsible for typographical errors 



Canada 
MICRO RG.S. INC. 

751, CARRE VICTORIA. SUITE 405 
MONTREAL QUEBEC. CANADA H2V 2J3 

Regular Tel. (51 4) 845-1 534 
Canadian Toll Free 800-361 -51 55 



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A "AoDirtt Inc 

B "MlcfMysttmt Software I 

'Logical Syttami Inc. 

® Copynghl 1983 



fW. 



42 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



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One Edgell Road. Framingham. MA 01701 
Houre: Mon. thru Fri. 9:30 am to 5:30 pm (EST.) 



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(617)872-9090 
Sal. 10:00 am to 4:30 pm 

1 Domimr Inquirims InvitBd. 

fc"TERMS: MirRn B f5 Q IMP ' -TANDY COflPOflATION _ 

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s3Aida xsia S3Aiaa msiq saAiua ys\Q sbaiuq ><sia saAido >isia saAiua ><sia saAiua ><sia sbaihq ><sia 



^ Sm U»i ol Aumtlmft on P99f 307 



BO Micro, November 1983 • 43 



REVIEWS 



edited by Lynne M. Nadeau 



% 




:■■■■.■'. ii^nVf yiLiii^' yt.id3 '■■'xit ■.'■jci 




^ 



'^WM^SM:^ 




• ••• 

Gridstar 

GridSoft Inc. 

7777 Keele St., Unit 8 

Concord, Ontario L4K 1Y7 

Canada 

Models I and m 

48K, one disk drive 

$195 

by Avery Jenkins 

Cleats thudding on turf. Linemen's 
grunts as they force open a hole. 
The thrill of victory ... the agony of 
defeat. 

Sportswriters would have you believe 
that those are the reasons football is 
America's fall passion. Actually, the at- 
traction is much more elemental: mon- 
ey. Football is a gamble on which any 
sentient human can at least break even. 

It is for the weekend warriors of the 
bookmaker's line that GridSoft intro- 
duced Gridstar — a convenient, fairly ac- 
curate, and versatile football data base 
and betting analysis program. 

The data base contains the outcomes 
of a 10-year span of games, from 1973 
to 1983. Information stored on the data 
base includes home and away team des- 
ignations, the score, and the betting line 
for each game. The date and the day 
and week in the season are also included 
in the 16-byte record for each game. 

Each logical record contains infor- 
mation for 16 games, and is accessible 
either by record number or by a week/ 
year specification. A two-letter abbrevi- 
ation specifies teams: AT for the Atlan- 
44 • SO Micro, November 1983 



ta Falcons or NE for the New England 
Patriots. 

Included in the package is a data-base 
manager that lets you update, scan, or 
search throu^ the data. The search fimc- 
tion is unusually complete — it lets you 
specify 20 search parameters and displays 
all games that meet your criteria. 

That's a tot of information to have 
on hand if you're used to basing your 
strategy on what you can remember of 
last year's season and naked intuition. 
To get the feel of what's in the data 
base, I began by scanning it 10 games at 
a time. The games flash by quickly un- 
less you stop the display by hitting any 
key. Don't expect it to be easy to read 
until you know the format. 

To add records, specify the last rec- 
ord number plus one for the edit mode, 
and add the new information. After 
completing your update, you have to 
manually call for an index update. The 
system is a trifle crude, but it gets the 
job done. 

Putting It Together 

Trying to make all this information 
coherent is a little like balancing your 
checkbook for the first time in 10 years. 
Unless you're looking for data on a spe- 
cific game (never a bad route to a free 
beer or two) or refreshing your mem- 
ory, the data base is useless without 
some analysis. Programs that do this 
form the second part of Gridstar. 

Using a limited amount of informa- 
tion for each game, Gridstar's develop- 
ers came up with a multifaceted betting 
strategy. They include all the angles that 
performed better than 60 percent over 



Review Contents 



Gridstar 44 

PC-4 45 

Softcomm Smart Terminal . . .48 

Games at a Glance 50 

The Banner Machine 54 

Electronically Speaking 57 

LDOSUtiUties 61 

Quill 68 

Radio Shack DMP-2100 69 

Speed-UpKit2.X 72 

What Do You Do After 

YouPlugltIn? 76 

The Benchmark 77 

Fingerprint 82 

Guide to Micro Books 84 

Draw/Kwikdraw 86 

Review Digest 89 



Our reviewers use a five-star rating system. 
One star represents the low end of this spectrum, 
while five stars represent the spectacular and high 
end of the spectrum. 



10 years with no low seasons, and that 
had some sort of logical backing. 

The simplest of these is the point 
spread analysis. Granted, the results are 
often a matter of common sense — large 
home underdogs are frequently a good 
play, as are home-team bets on an even 
game. 

But the analysis points out that the 
half-point can make a difference, some- 
thing I haven't previously counted on. 
The only season where this strategy pro- 
duced less than a 60 percent suo^ss was 
1982, and that's a forgivable error. 

The second analysis is a study in 
Monday Night Football. Again, this 
technique relies on some common 
sense: The home team is a good bet on 
Mondays, given the special event feeling 
these games have. 

However, the Gridstar system doesn't 
include the "week-after" syndrome, a 
long-time favorite. Statistically, Grid- 
Soft says, the theory that teams perform 
poorly the week after a Monday night 
game is not bom out. Caveat bettor. 

Perh^js the strongest ^proach Grid- 



REVIEWS 



star uses is a power rating system that 
you can then use to create a line more 
accurate than the betting line. Power 
rating is based on previous perfor- 
mance, and is a recursive function tak- 
ing into account the opponent's chang- 
ing power rating. 

Unfortunately, the system doesn't 
come into its own until late in the sea- 
son. Also, unlike the betting line, it 
doesn't take injuries into account. Your 
compensation spears in a linear regres- 
sion that the program performs on the 
10 years of information in the data 
base, which it also incorporates into the 
results. 

Time Out 

AH this analysis takes a long time — 
about an hour — but is a sight better 
than trying to work it out in your he^. 
A quicker ^proach is the head- 
to-head analysis, which relies on only 
the previous three years of games be- 
tween any two teams. 

The program calculates a short-form 
power rating from this information, 
weighted according to the game loca- 
tion and the previous number of games 
played. 

The combination of these methods 
makes the Gridstar analysis a fairly po- 
tent system. Like all systems, it has pit- 
falls resulting from season events — in- 
juries, weather, and so on — that it can't 
take into account. And although the 
manual doesn't mention it, the data- 
base search procedure provides a good 
way to get information for a manual or 
more intuitive analysis. 

One way might be to write your own 
analysis program that uses the data 
base. The documentation provides all 
the technical details you'd need to inter- 
face your own program with the data. 
Then, by testing the results for success 
over the 10-year span, you could refme 
both your personal techniques and your 
use of the Gridstar system analysis. 

I wouldn't rely solely on Gridstar to 
determine my betting strategy for me. 
The system does allow for season bud- 
geting, most useful if Gridstar plays a 
large part in your strategy. Without it, 
you'd send up a lot of trial balloons be- 
fore finding a profitable level. 

But if you combine this software with 
some soimd judgment and you're willing 
to go against the calculations for devi- 
ant circumstances, you could make next 
season pretty profitable. ■ 

^ SeeUslot Advertisars on Page 307 



• *•• 

Pocket Computer Model PC-4 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 
$69.95 

by David Goodwin 

The Radio Shack PC-4 is an ultra- 
compact , expandable computer 
that's perfect for someone who wants 
computer power to go. It's less expen- 
sive and more powerful than a pro- 
grammable calculator and it supports 
Basic, not some unique mnemonic lan- 
guage. 

The PC-4 has 544 program steps and 
26 variable memories (see Table 1). You 
can expand the memory to 1,568 steps 
with the optional IK memory pack. 

You can partition the program steps 
into variable memories at the ratio of 
8-to-l, and set up your own memory 
space. Powered with a two-year battery 
for long life, the PC-4 retains all pro- 
grams and variables when you turn 
it off. 

An optional battery-powered cassette 
tape interface is available for $39.95, as 
well as a printer attachment for pro- 
gram listings ($79.95). 

The PC-4 uses a 12-character liquid 
crystal display (LCD) that acts as a win- 
dow on a line that can be up to 62 char- 
acters long. The full set of keys is closely 
spaced and unsuitable for touch typ- 
ing — not a serious problem on this type 



of machine. 

The keyboard supports both upper- 
and lowercase letters, and single-key en- 
try of common Basic keywords. The 
PC-4 also has a set of graphics and spe- 
cial characters. 

The PC-4 uses a derivative subset of 
standard Basic. The list of commands 
(see Table 2) is quite complete. 

The only complaint I have is the in- 
clusion of the CSR option in Print state- 
ments. The ROM space this command 
occupies could provide more common 
commands such as ASC, STR, and so 
on. I haven't found any use for a dis- 
play positioning command on a 12- 
character display. 

Another small handicap is that the 
length of string variables is limited to 
seven characters. The special siring vari- 
able $ stores one string of up to 30 char- 
acters. I think two sp>ecial string vari- 
ables would have been a better idea. 

PC-4 Basic has all the usual functions 
of Basic and some that are more com- 
mon to a scientific calculator. Table 3 
lists the available functions. It has flow- 
ing point arithmetic with 12-digit pre- 
cision. 

The PC-4 supports array variables, 
although not in the usual manner. Ar- 
rays use up memories in order, so that 
A(l) is memory A, A(2) is memory B, 
and so on. The PC-4 supports only sin- 
gle-dimension arrays. 

PC-4 Basic isn't elegant, but it gets 
the job done anywhere you might hap- 
pen to be. 



Keyboard: Chiclet type, 53-key, multi- function, single stroke 
keyword entry. 

Display: One line, 12-character LCD with horizontal scrolling 

and predefined graphics. 

Menwry: 544 steps, optionally expandable to 1,568 steps maxi- 
mum. 26 variables standard, expandable to 94 or 
222 with expanded memory. 

Precision: tO digit mantissa, or ei^t digit mantissa with two 
digit exponent, on display. 12 digit internal calcula- 
tion. 

Nesting: Eight levels of subroutines. Four levels of 

For.. .Next loops. 

Power: Two Lithium batteries, approximately 360 hoiu^ of 

continuous use. 

Size: 3/8 inch high by 6 1/2 inches wide by 2 3/4 inches 

deep. 4.1 ounces with batteries. 

Expansion: Optional IK RAM module. Optional cassette inter- 
face. Optional thermal printer. 

Table I. PC-4 specifxatums. 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 46 



REVIEWS 



star uses is a power rating system that 
you can then use to create a line more 
accurate than the betting line. Power 
rating is based on previous perfor- 
mance, and is a recursive function tak- 
ing into account the opponent's chang- 
ing power rating. 

Unfortunately, the system doesn't 
come into its own until late in the sea- 
son. Also, unlike the betting line, it 
doesn't take injuries into account. Your 
compensation appears in a linear regres- 
sion that the program performs on the 
10 years of information in the data 
base, which it also incorporates into the 
results. 

Time Out 

All this analysis takes a long time — 
about an hour — but is a sight better 
than trying to work it out in your head. 
A quicker ^proach is the head- 
to-head analysis, which relies on only 
the previous three years of games be- 
tween any two teams. 

The program calculates a short-form 
power rating from this information, 
weighted according to the game loca- 
tion and the previous number of games 
played. 

The combination of these methods 
makes the Gridstar analysis a fairly po- 
tent system. Like all systems, it has pit- 
falls resulting from season events — in- 
juries, weather, and so on — that it can't 
take into account. And although the 
manual doesn't mention it, the data- 
base search procedure provides a good 
way to get information for a manual or 
more intuitive analysis. 

One way might be to write your own 
analysis program that uses the data 
base. The documentation provides all 
the technical details you'd need to inter- 
face your own program with the data. 
Then, by testing the results for success 
over the 10-year span, you could refine 
both your personal techniques and your 
use of the Gridstar system analysis. 

I wouldn't rely solely on Gridstar to 
determine my betting strategy for me. 
The system does allow for season bud- 
geting, most useful if Gridstar plays a 
large part in your strategy. Without it, 
you'd send up a lot of trial balloons be- 
fore finding a profitable level. 

But if you combine this software with 
some soxmd judgment and you're willing 
to go against the calculations for devi- 
ant circumstances, you could make next 
season pretty profitable. ■ 

^ See List ot Advenisers on Page 307 



• ••• 

Pocket Computer Model PC4 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 
$69.95 

by David Goodwin 

The Radio Shack PC-4 is an ultra- 
compact, ejq^andable computer 
that's perfect for someone who wants 
computer power to go. It's less expen- 
sive and more powerful than a pro- 
grammable calculator and it supports 
Basic, not some unique mnemonic lan- 
guage. 

The PC-4 has 544 program steps and 
26 variable memories {see Table 1). You 
can expand the memory to 1,568 steps 
with the optional IK memory pack. 

You can partition the program steps 
into variable memories at the ratio of 
8-to-l, and set up your own memory 
space. Powered with a two-year battery 
for long life, the PC-4 retains all pro- 
grams and variables when you turn 
it off. 

An optional battery-powered cassette 
tape interface is available for $39.95, as 
well as a printer attachment for pro- 
gram listings ($79.95). 

The PC-4 uses a 12-character liquid 
crystal display (LCD) that acts as a win- 
dow on a line that can be up to 62 char- 
acters long. The full set of keys is closely 
spaced and unsuitable for touch typ- 
ing — not a serious problem on this type 



of machine. 

The keyboard supports both upper- 
and lowercase letters, and single-key en- 
try of common Basic keywords. The 
PC-4 also has a set of graphics and spe- 
cial characters. 

The PC-4 uses a derivative subset of 
standard Basic. The list of commands 
(see Table 2) is quite complete. 

The only complaint I have is the in- 
clusion of the CSR option in Print state- 
ments. The ROM space this command 
occupies could provide more common 
commands such as ASC, STR, and so 
on. I haven't found any use for a dis- 
play positioning command on a 12- 
character display. 

Another small handicap is that the 
length of string variables is limited to 
seven characters. The special string vari- 
able $ stores one string of up to 30 char- 
acters. I think two sf>ecial string vari- 
ables would have been a better idea. 

PC-4 Basic has all the usual funcrions 
of Basic and some that are more com- 
mon to a scientific calculator. Table 3 
lists the available functions. It has float- 
ing point arithmetic with 12-digit pre- 
cision. 

The PC-4 supports array variables, 
although not in the usual manner. Ar- 
rays use up memories in order, so that 
A(l) is memory A, A(2) is memory B, 
and so on. The PC-4 supports only sin- 
gle-dimension arrays. 

PC-4 Basic isn't elegant, but it gets 
the job done anywhere you might hap- 
pen to be. 



Keyboard: Chiclet type, 53-key, multi-function, single stroke 
keyword entry. 

Display: One line, 12-character LCD with horizontal scrolling 

and predefined graphics. 

Memory: 544 steps, optionally expandable to 1,568 steps maxi- 
mum. 26 variables standard, expandable to 94 or 
222 with expanded memory. 

Predsion: 10 digit mantissa, or ei^t digit mantissa with two 
digit exponent, on display. 12 digit internal calcula- 
tion. 

Nesting: Eight levels of subroutines. Four levels of 

For. , .Next loops. 

Power: Two Lithium batteries, approximately 360 houn of 

continuous use. 

Size: 3/8 inch high by 6 1/2 inches wide by 2 3/4 inches 

deep. 4.1 ounces with batteries. 

Expansion: Optional IK RAM module. Optional cassette inter- 
face. Optional thermal printer. 

T(Ale 1. PC-4 specifications. 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 45 



Tired of swapping Disks from Inventory to Accounts Receivable 
to Accounts Payable etc.? Now, one system does it all. 

Introducing 

The M.B.S. 
Business Management System 

At last a completely Integrated, Menu driven System for: 



INVOICING 

Opens Customer Files 
Opens A/R Accounts 
Updotes Inventory 
Stores Moil List Files 
Stores Soles Records 
Computes Soles Tax 

CUSTOMER FILES 

Maintains Order Status 
Prints tobels 

Prints Customer Balances 
Stores Order Amounts 
Stores Order Payments 

MAIL LABELS 

Stores by Variable File Nomes 
Sorts by Zip Code 
Sorts by Name 

INVENTORY 

Sets Upper and Lower Limits 
Generates Purchase Orders 
Lists Inventory by Vendor 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 
Open A/R Accounts 
Generates Monthly Statements 
Interest and Non-Interest Accounts 
Listing of Accounts Balances 
Manually Enter Charges and Payments 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Enter Charges to Accounts 
Enter Payments to Accounts 
List Payable Balances 

CHECK WRITING 

Print or Record Checks 
Maintains Bank Balance 
Records Deposits 
Credit Accounts Payable 
Stores Expense Totals 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Prints Soles Reports 

Prints Operating Statements 

Prints Receipts Reports 

Modifies Expense and Soles Totals 



Yej, now there is Q complete business system for the small business man. With ou-r Business Management System, you con increase soles with our mail label function. 
Complete your Schedule C in os little ai 15 minutes. Know what your business is doing, and maintain other important business functions. 

This easy to use system comes complete with instruction manual, and diskette on Dosplus mini TDOS operating system with extended Basic, ond one yeor support. All 
programs ore in Basic, and require two disk drives ond 48K RAM. It you hove wolfed for the right business software for your business, your wait is over. Our current 
users love our system and you wilt too. 



Special Introductory Price $249.95 

Specify Model I, Model III or LNW 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



PRINTERS 

Prowriter $ 389 

Prowrifer 2 S 689 

Starwriter FIO SI279 

Okidata 82A $ 429 

Okidato 83A $ 689 

Okidato 92 $ 539 

Okidato 93 S 939 

MODEMS 

Hayes Smortmodem $ 219 

Hayes 300/1200 $ 539 



Hardware and Software 

LN.W. 

LNW80 II $1595 

LNDoubler */b S 199 

System Expansion S 339 

MONITORS 

Amdek 300 Green $ U9 

Amdek 300 Amber S 159 

Amdek Color I $ 359 

Amdek Color II S 719 

BMC Green S 89 

Toxon RGB I S 319 

Taxan RGB II $ 549 

Toxan RGB III $ 619 



SOFTWARE 

DOSPLUS 3.5 $ 129 

DOSPLUS IV S 129 

MTERM $ 69 

TRSDOS 6.0Enhanc 1 $ 27 

TRSDOS 6.0Enhanc 2 S 27 

TRSDOS 6.0 Both S 45 

Newscript 7. 1 S 109 

Newscript w/labets $ 119 

Trashmon S 35 

Faster $ 27 

RPM $ 22 

Tollymoster $ 69 






(TIBS 



9 



(0 



'<-ss s-<^ 



v" See Ust oi AOMfHsers on Page 307 



Microcomputer Business Systems 

14030 South Springfield Road 

Brandywine, Maryland 20613 

l-«00-638-1857 

in Maryland 1 (301) 372-8555 — Washington, D.C. Local Call 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 47 



SOFTWARE 
for INVESTORS 

1 STOCK MARKET ADVISOR 
,^ SYSTEM — SMAS 2.0 

SMAS employs both fundamental and 
advanced technical analysis. Its refined 
procedures that correlate three moving 
averages and other factors have been 
validated by applications to both stocks 
and portfolios. 

• Sophisticated procedures yield weekly 
appraisals of market trend and adviso- 
ries (with action price ranges) to buy, to 
sell, to hold, and not to buy specific 
stocks. 

• Data base includes 196 stocks, A/D file, 
and 4 indexes. 

• Data base stocks were selected on 
fundamentals. 

• You can use SMAS' results the very first 
week. 

• Metropolitan papers print data required 
by SMAS. 

• SMAS is menu driven, with both built-in 
checks for accuracy and efficient utility 
routines. 

• SMAS is especially valuable to inves- 
tors seeking long-term capital gains. 
Minimizes emotional involvement. 

• SMAS works with Nebula and printer; 
with TRSDOS, LOOS. NEWDOS/80, & 
DOSPLUS on TRS-80 (TM Tandy Corp.) 
Models I and III (48K). SMAS version 
2.0 only $169.95 + $3.00 for shipping.* 

* NEBULA STOCK 
'^ DATA RETRIEVAL 
Nebula (Model 1, 48K, one drive, 300 
baud modem, RS232, optional printer, 
TRSDOS 2.3 or LDOS 5.0) retrieves 
stock, bond, option, and T-Bill prices from 
Dow Jones Service. Stores symbols in 
data statements and returned prices & 
volumes on disk in data file. Automatically 
disconnects. Does not need a terminal 
program. Dates & times are logged for 
reconciling service bill. Available either 
for independent operation ($52.00 + 
$3.00 shipping) or for use with SMAS 
(Special 1983 combination offer: Only 
$199.95 + $6.00 shipping for SMAS 2.6 
and Nebula together).' 

r ANDROMEDA STOCK 
.^ TRADER & CALCULATOR 

Andromeda records transactions, includ- 
ing purchase/sale prices & dates, divi- 
dends, total cost & net realization. An- 
dromeda does not use special com- 
mands. Learning time is nil. When posi- 
tions are closed, it posts transactions to 
the sales file. Reports include Active 
Security and Security Sales Summaries, 
Portfolio Summary, and a summary table 
(either 80 or 132 col.) for use with IRS 
Schedule D. Requires TRS-80 Model I, 
48K, one drive with TRSDOS 2.3 or 
LDOS 5.0. Andromeda is regularly only 
$51.95 plus $3-00 shipping, 
SAVE — Special Introductory Price 
through Dec. 31. 1983: Andromeda only 
$32.50 + $3.00 shipping.' 

'Refnittance by VISA. MASTERCARD, cashier's check, 
or M.O. brings prompt shipment. Shipment is made 
after personal checks dear (atxxit 3 weeks). Software 
IS sent insured 



SPIRA 




-92 



NTERPRISES 



REVIEWS 



Pttone your order rtow: («17) 441-«Mn 
RO. Box 5219, Fort Worth, TX 761<M 
308 Crown Row], WIHow ParK TX 760M 



ii 



charger. You can't charge while the 
printer is connected to the PC-4. 

The printer drains the computer's 
battery if it's left connected for an ex- 
tended period. It must use the power 
from the PC-4 to determine that the 
computer is connected, since it won't 
print if it's unconnected, or if the com- 
puter is off. 

A paper feed key manually advances 
the paper. The printer uses paper made 
by Casio for their CP-10 Card Printer 
calculator. 

You can use the printer for listings or 
calculation results. Switch it on and off 
with the PC-4 mode key. Mode 7 is 
Print On; Mode 8 is Print Off. You can 
also use these mode changes vrithin pro- 
grams for selective print control while a 
program executes. You can print all the 
PC-4 characters. 

The only problem I have with the 
printer is that it sometimes doesn't 
make a good connection with the ex- 



pansion port, and the system returns an 
Error 9— No Printer Connected mes- 
sage. A small adjustment of the printer 
connector usually solves this problem. ■ 



SIN Sine 

ASN Ajxsine 

COS Cosine 

ACS Arcosine 

TAN Tangent 

LOG Logarithm 

LN Natural Log 

EXP Exponential 

SQR Square Rooc 

SGN Sign 

RAN^ Random Number Generator 

RND Rounding 

ABS Absolute Value 

INT Integer 

FRAC Remainder 

Table 3. PC-4 Intrinsic Basic functions. 



• ••• 

Soflcomin Smart Terminal 

Stewart Software 

P.O. Box 573 

Memphis, TN 38101 

Models I and m 

32Kdisk 

$49.95 

by Mel Patrick 

Softcomm 3.0 is a smart terminal 
program that adds communications 
capabilities to your computer system. 
Smart terminal programs allow options 
like saving and loading files for upload- 
ing and downloading, changing RS-232 
parameters, and programming buffers 
for auto log-on or simple text trans- 
mission. 

As with all smart terminal programs, 
Softcomm has a command mode and a 
communications mode. The command 
mode seleas one of many optional 
functions, such as loading a file in prep- 
aration for transfer to another system. 

You enter the command mode by 
pressing the clear key. You return to the 
communications mcwJe when you hit the 
break key or when the program com- 
pletes the option you've selected. Table 
4 provides an overview of the available 
commands. 



Using Softcomm 

Any software with complex options 
available has room for improvement, 
and Softcomm is no exception. A situa- 
tion I found particularly annoying is 
when you have information stored in 
the main buffer that you want to re- 
view. 

At present, Softcomm won't let you 
view the contents of the main buffer. To 
gel around this problem, I save the 
buffer to disk and, since Softcomm sup- 
ports DOS commands, I use List to see 
the file. 

Softcomm also has many advan- 
tages. One is its ability to transfer bi- 
nary (/CMD) files without additional 
utility programs for file conversion be- 
tween two systems (as long as both use 
Softcomm). 

Also, you can use the programmable 
buffers as a phone number directory 
(since you can save them, it's possible to 
have multiple directories), and dial the 
Hayes Smart Modem or the Radio 
Shack Modem II. 

You can also use the buffers to sim- 
plify leaving a message on a remote bul- 
letin board system. The buffers allow 
255 characters (with carriage returns 
where necessary) and most bulletin 
boards use the message format of 16 
lines with 64 characters p>er line. 

It's a simple task to program the mes- 

Conlinued on p. 54 



48 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



I 




I 




PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL ANALYSIS SYSTEM 



THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM 

— NOW AVAILABLE FOR 1983 

At the controls ol lHe most sophislicaled football 
analysis software, your personal computer can 
make (he upcoming football season the most 
exciting ever! 

GRIDSTAR", the professional football analysis 
system, is comprised of four main components' 

* PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL DATA BASE - 
File comprised of 2184 regular season games, 
1973 to 1983 inclusive 

• DATA BASE MANAGER 

— Comprehensive utility to display, edit. 8r»d 
search your Data Base 

• WEEKLY HANDICAPPER 

— This program handicaps a full week of games 
using the GRIDSTAR'" STRATEGY 

* GRIDSTAR" DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS — 

All programs used to develop and test the 
GRIDSTAR- STRATEGY. 

Profestional Football Data Base 

At your disposal, ft complete history of America's 
No 1 Sport — 1 1 years of game data Each 16- 
byte game record includes home and away 
teams, home and away scores, the closing line, 
day week and date 

Data Bate Manager 

To keep your Data Base current tor years to 
come, full EDIT FUNCTION allows you to 
change or add any game record The 
sophisticated DISPLAY MODE lets you scroll up 
and down through your Data Base The 
extensive SEARCH FUNCTION is a serious 
analytical tool. Set any combination of 20 search 
parameters and invoke a search lor qualified 
games Automatic won.'loss analysis can be 
inslanlly displayed 

Weekly Handlcapper Using Ihe GRIDSTAR'* 
STRAT8GY 

This IS your Sunday morning predictor program. 
The program applies Ihe GRIDSTAR" 
STRATEGY to each upcoming game and tells 
you which teams to bet. It will indicate 5 to tO 
bets each week determined by the five analysis 
angles of the GRIDSTAR" STRATEGY Your 

only n -■' -, - •- ■■-'■-- 'he Data Base 

ciJtrf md scores each 

week 



The GRIDSTAR" STRATCGV 

Employing advanced stalisiicai techniques, out 
development team has researched numerous 
methods of predicting winners against the 
spread Of these, five approaches proved 
effective enough lo be incorporated into the 
GRIDSTAR" STRATEGY 

• POWER RATING ANALYSIS 

• STREAK ANALYSIS 

• POINTSPREAD ANALYSIS 

• HEAD-TO-HEAD ANALYSIS 

• MONDAY NIGHT ANALYSIS 

Each of the above approaches, taken separately, 
has proven to be a consistent winner But when 
combined into a comprehensive handicapping 
system, Ihe GRIDSTAR" STRATEGY, the results 
have been consistently spectacular, year after 
year. The following table presents the 
GRIDSTAR" STRATEGY s record versus the 
spread over the last decade 

THE GRIDSTAR" 

STRATEGY 

10-YEAR 

PERFORMANCE 

VS. 

THE SPREAD 





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Perlormarxe Absolutely Verifiable 
All the programs used lo develop the 
GRIDSTAR" STRATEGY are included in the 
package. You can run these programs, verify the 
results, and trace the entire developmental 
process The seven strategy development 
programs not only provide proof of performance, 
but can form the basis for further research 

Complete Oocumerttallon 

The accompanying OPERATIONS MANUAL is 
extensive Over 100 pages of text take you 
through the Data Base layout, operation of each 
program, and the fine points ot computer sports 
analysis Over 30 charts and illustrations 
highlight Ihe presentation. 

System Requirements 

TRS-eO- MOD I or MOD III. 48k, 1 Drive 
IBM PC", 64k, 1 Drive 

Every program in Ihe GRIDSTAR" package is in 
BASIC, structured, modular, and fully 
commented Easy to use, each program is user- 
fnendly, menu-driven, with air tight 
error-trapping 

Complete Package S195.00 

■ Regiwe'M Traoemark oi Tandy Corporaiion 
" Reg<at«r«a Trsapmin" nt ihm coiporstion 



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L4K 1YJ 



I 
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ORDER BY MAIL or PHONE: (416) 738—1700 

GrldSott Inc., 7777 Keele Street. Unit 8. Concord, Onlarlo. Canada L4K 1Y7 
Yes' Rush me the complete GRIDSTAR" package at a cost ol S195 00 

Please check program required: L' IBM PC" D TRS-80 MOD. I' n TRS-80 MOD. Ill' 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

Name 



Slate 



Zip. 



I Card Number 
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TRS-80- 

WOBOS" I 

■mhIo Oparatlna SyMsfn 

AOeOS I ■ ■ flMTHJ irtvwi EiMnucluiw] D'a0*^^ r BASIC ini> 
•cl.jii A« ■>' ■ cfv*" '» i/>iii» inr'--^ itBfi vii, 13 Ja>ili» 

iism »(.-»'(.'■ i>*'j» -J." --J- ■•■•■ t,.«^i«i *oeaS ' yij.. II it«n 
trm Dan ao >v <«« owkicnvay' W060S > i f-oi lo ■coik'- 




lautfalao ttio.a I* "■- "-t'^i. Vfflu Hi tftoesS I to> Wodd HI 
«. taoii.on ', iw "•■•i«« »ro«- ■-■• Of Vict I O aana't'** • 
••tea'* «-i»^i^a "■■'". ""•' ■■» ai'." -'^ '" coTHJiia jt3a'« 
iiwi ana outBui iOi» »aia "mi '' a»- .ri-tum ■ JUi', »•«' •*■ 
u<ra Belt! in* DlTk iiyl AOSOS I Id Taoa va u *ak 
mnifi cociTeaaOia SOONOi 



REVIEWS 



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oi»" ixn^ 4 1 &tf E 



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50 • 80 Micro. November 1983 




Arex, Adventure International, A Di- 
vision of Scott Adams Inc., P.O. Box 
3435, Longwood, V\ WSO, Modek 1 
and ill. 48K. $34.95 disk. 

by Amy Campbell 

Arex requires that you develop a 
unique combination of skills. Al times 
it teases you to be hasty, but patience 
and cautious planning are the keys to 

SUOX'SS. 

You play the ganie on a square grid. 
By moving your Arcx ship in hoii/iMi- 
laj and vertical directions, you leave a 
white trail that fills the screen. When 
you nil 90 percent of the board, you 
advance lo the next level. 

It's a simple premise, but t he 
game's unprediclable special features 
keep it from becoming monotonous. 

lor instance, at the stan of each lev- 
el, various good guys (Snarfs) appear. 
As you fill the screen, intercepting 
these characters increases your point 
value. 

If Snarfs elude you too long, ihcy 
turn into one of two bad guys: Snuff- 
ers move in right angles across the 
screen, and Diagons move diagonal- 
ly. Both are deadly. To overcome 
them, you must box them in by sur- 
rounding them with your impenetra- 
ble trail or avoid them long enough to 
complete the screen and move on to 
the next level. 

If you remain still for too long, the 
trail left by your ship begins to burn 
like a fuse and can destroy you from 
behind. The burnt portion of your 
trail Ls deadly, but a Snarf can eat 
away at it, freeing more space to ma- 
neuver the Arex. Ihis feature some- 
times gets you out of a real jam. 

There' s one more f eat ure w it h 
w hich you must contend . When 
Snarfs appear on the screen and in 
teract with another character, they can 
metamorphose. Sometimes both char- 
acter turn good; other times they 
both turn bad. This adds an interest- 
ing twist . 

Once you understand the basics, 
Arex becomes a game of filling space 
and capturing enemies in the most ef- 
ficient ntanner. The key to efficiency 
isn't necessarily speed or caution or 
luck or strategy: It's all of these. ■ 



Empemr. Computer Shack, 1691 Ea- 
son, Poniiac, MI 48054, Models I and 
III, $19.95 cassette, $24.95 disk. 

by Thomas L. Quim/ry 

Emperor is a Basic game of strategy' 
that taxes your ability to wage war 
against enemy barbarians. You are the 
Emperor. Your objective is to cam- 
paign for more territory, protect the 
Roman Empire from the barbarians, 
and keep its populace from revolting. 

The Pnipirc apiK-ars semigraphical- 
ly on the screen at all times. Under 
each pro\ince is a list of data indicat- 
ing its number of loyal Roman le- 
gions, revolting legions, and invading 
barbarians. 

You must dc\:idc where to put your 
loyal legions, keep ihem loyal by pro- 
\iding foiKl and enienainnicnt, watch 
your generals, and protect your grain 
source (which grows in a pro\int:c 
highly subject to enemy intrusion). 
You raise money through ta.\ation, a 
predictable cause for revolt . 

Raising legions and moving them to 
cmcial provinces is no simple task. 
You raise all legions in Italia, ihc cen- 
ter of the Roman Empire. You must 
move them through adjacent provinc- 
es to their destination. 

You can mo\e as many legions as 
you wish during eacli turn, but you 
have only one move per legion. On the 
other hand, you can dispatch generals 
anywhere al a moment's notice. 

Armies o( four or more legions 
musi have a general. Otherwise, a gen- 
eral is optional. Your generals all have 
ratings for fighting ability and loyalty, 
so each one might be a hindrance or a 
help during battle. 

The loyally rating should infiuence 
the pow«r you give each general. If 
you give the disloyal ones too many le- 
gions, they might revolt. If you cam 
paign with them, you can prevent 
them from revolting. 

This game is a sleeper. It doesn't 
seem very interesting ai firsi exposure, 
bul if you lake ihe lime lo learn how to 
play, it can be rewarding. 

It's not too user-friendly. At time> 
you might need to take handwritten 
notes of the actions you've taken in 
order lo keep track. ■ 



TRS-80 MODEL 4 

Word Processing Program 







Works with TRSDOS 6.0 

r 90K TEXT BUFFER when expanded memory is inslalleri 
n Built-in FORM LETTER and MAIL-MERGE capabilities 
n Performs PROPORTIONAL-SPACE right-margin |ustification on '' 
over 60 different printers (all drivers included FREE). 

1 Same powerful editing features as ZORLOF II, with dozens more 
features added 

r Versions also available to run on MODEL I, MODEL Ml. LNW-80, 
PMC-8O,andMAX-80(80x24display). 

LeScript costs '200 less than 

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REVIEWS 



^mes^^^jioiue 



Crasaders, Computer Shack, 1691 
Eason, Pontiac. MI 48054, Models I 
and III, $19.95 cassette, $24.95 disk. 

by Thomas L. Quindry 

Crusaders tests your ability to de- 
fend your fortresses against an enemy 
who is trying to put them under siege. 
This strategy game is written in Basic. 

As the crusader, you can take any 
or all of four options during each turn. 
You might raise or disband any of five 
available caravans that transport food 
from fortress to fortress. 

Caravans consist of pack mules, 
camels, and horses that carry specified 
amounts of food. Certain costs are in- 
volved in raising and maintaining the 
caravans. You obtain money by the 
good graces of European aid arriving 
at specific internals. 

Another option is to move troops. 
Knights, infantry, and horses travel 



along specified routes depending on 
their current location. If you try to 
move to a besieged fortress, you must 
battle the enemy. 

You can also buy food for cara- 
vans, knights, infantry, and horses. 
The fourth option is to build defenses. 
You gain defense points by spending 
money, so you must ration your avail- 
able funds between the four options. 

When you decide to end your turn, 
the program computes resulting ac- 
tions based on your decisions. Two 
m^s are available that indicate loca- 
tions of various fortresses. These 
maps are also displayed during op- 
tions to list crusader controlled lands 
and enemy controlled lands. 

This program is not very user- 
friendly. You need an appendix, given 
in the instructions, to learn certain 
beginning information about each for- 
tress. If you move troops or change 
defenses, you must have a good mem- 
ory or take notes. This information is 
not updated for display. 

You have to keep track of a large 



number of fortresses. Information 
about actions at these fortresses scrolls 
by and is hard to remember. 

In my opinion the game is too busy. 
It's long and events occur slowly. ■ 



The Search for Etsotiado, Adventure 
International, P.O. Box 3435, Long- 
wood, FL 32750, Models I and III, 
$29.95. 

by Michael E. Nadeau 

The Search for Elsoliado attempts 
to combine arcade action with an ad- 
venture theme. It succeeds, but the 
game sacrifices some of the finer as- 
pects of each genre in the process. 

You're a disgraced space captain 
who must find the fabled planet Elsol- 
iado; its riches will rejuvenate a declin- 
ing empire. You have a ship and 48 
credits at the game's outset. 

As you travel through space, you 
encounter space stations, freighters, 
and many types of hostile aliens. Your 
screen contains four sections: The up- 



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nine games 
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52 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



REVIEWS 



per left is your view screen and the re- 
maining three sections provide you 
with various information. 

In the adventure pan of Elsotiado, 
you accumulate wealth by buying and 
selling certain items in a way vaguely 
reminiscent of playing the stock mar- 
ket. You use your wealth to buy infor- 
mation on Hlsoliado's location. 

This isn't a real puzzle like you'd 
ftnd in true adventures. You qukkly 
learn when to buy and sell, and once 
TOU can afford information, you wait 
for someone who is accurate. 

The arcade aspect comes into play 
when you encounter aliens. You can 
offer the aliens part of your cargo or 
fight them. The object of the fight is to 
eliminate them before their volleys de- 
plete your fuel suppl>'. You fire at 
aliens by using the arrow keys to align 
them with the center of your view 
screen and firing with your space bar. 

In themselves, the battles don't sat- 
isfy the criteria for a good arcade 
game. They're rarely a challenge un- 
lc^.s your fuel supply Is low. 



The game's finish is also a dUap- 
pointmcnt. Once you discover Elsoli- 
ado (it took mc about 30 minutes), 
you must penetrate the forces of Xylol 
Rex. the planet's warlord protector, 
and blow up his main reactor. 

You chart a zig-zag courx similar 
to many road-race games. Eventually 
you come upon a # symbol that pin- 
points (he reaaor. 

If you shoot this, you return to open 
space. A congratulatory message ap- 
[lears and the program asks if you 
want to play again. Not even a thanks 
from the empc-ror. 

On the plus side, the game is well 
conceived. You can save up to 10 
games in progress. The aliens differ in 
toughness, and the documentation 
gives a detailed description of each. In 
fact, the documentation is almost as 
much fun as the game. 

Elsoliado is only moderately enter- 
taining because of its compromise be- 
tween an adventure and an arcade 
game. The first time through Ls fun, 
and the concept has potential.! 



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S« L'Sf 0* A*»^ S*^ 00 f»^ Jf / 



dO Micro, November 1983 * SZ 



REVIEWS 



Conrmued from p. 48 

sage into the buffers before you call. 
This reduces your connect time, an im- 
portant consideration for long-distance 
calls. 

A final advantage is Softcomm's 
ability to reserve high memory and exe- 
cute DOS commands. Even if the DOS 
command returns an error, control usu- 
ally returns to Softcomm with the error 
message displayed in full. 

Softcomm contains a patch area for 
any problems that might arise, and the 
manual states that the normal ROM 
printer routine isn't used. The addresses 
for the printer routine in Softcomm ap- 
pear in the manual, along with some of 
the important DOS addresses. The 
manual explains where the printer driv- 
er is and what the registers are doing so 
you can patch in your own routine. 

My confusion about this results from 
the statement made in the copyright no- 
tice: "The customer is expressly prohib- 
ited from disassembling the supplied 
software." 1 consider this statement an 



oversight on the part of the author, 
since without a partial disassembly a 
patch is difficult or impossible to make. 
Stewari Software has a very inventive 
support idea. Softcomm's author. BUI 
Stewart, maintains a bulletin board ser- 
vice in Memphis for local Softcomm 
users and owners. He posts any prob- 
lems or errors discovered in Softcomm 
on his system. If you have any ques- 
tions, you can easily get help. The Soft- 
comm package includes Stewart's bulle- 
tin board number. 

Summary 

Using Softcomm is extremely simple. 
All command options are self-prompt- 
ing and straightforward. The 26-page 
manual that accompanies the program 
disk is well written, and contains expla- 
nations for each command in sufficient 
detail so that a beginner would have no 
trouble understanding an option. With 
Softcomm, Stewart Software has pro- 
duced a viable entry into the smart ter- 
minal field.! 



A Defines a carriage return character in the eight programmable buffers and allows a time 
delay after you send the carriage return. 

C Closes the main input buffer. Invoke this command from the keyboard or by the re- 
mote system (during downloading, for instance). 

D Displays any of the eight buffers. 

E Toggles between local echo on/off. Generally used with a half-duplex system. Lets you 
sec what you're typing. 

F Displays available free memory in main input buffer— 32,767 in a 48K system with no 
memory size set. 

H Displays this command list. 
I Lets you alter RS-232 parameters (baud rate and stop and parity bits). 

K Saves to disk the eight programmable buffers, the ^jecified carriage return character, 
the pause time, and the RS-232 configuration. 

L Reloads previously saved parameter files for communication. 

M Sets memory size to protect driver programs. Its drawback is that you reduce the 
amount of free memory in the main input buffer by the same amount. 

O Manually opens the main input buffer. During information storage in this mode, a pair lir 

of carets alternate in the top right comer, indicating data storage. 
P Toggles the printer on or off. Stops printing if the main buffer is open and resumes 
when it's closed. 

Q Returns to DOS. 

R Converts an expanded binary file in the main buffer back to its true binary form before 

saving files to disk. 
S Saves contents of main input buffer to disk. 

T Transmits any disk file directly from disk. Suboptions allow automatic opening and 
closing of the remote systems buffer, transmitting ASCII or binary files, and a file's 
prompted transmission. After the program completes file transfer, a checksum ensures 
that the file was received correctly at the remote system. 

W Preprograms any of the ei^t available buffers. Accepts a maximum of 255 characters 
p)er buffer. 

X Executes a E>OS command with return to Softcomm. Numbers one through nine trans- 
mit any of the eight programmable buffers. • 

ToWe 4. Softcomm command list. 



•k-k-kVi 

The Banner Machine 
Virginia Micro Systems 
13646 Jefferson Davis Highway 
Woodbridge, VA 22191 
Models i and m 
32K cassette, 48K disk 
Epson MX or FX printer 
with Graftrax or Greftrax Plus 
$49.95 

by Erk Grevstad 
80 Micro staff 

The Banner Machine uses Epson 
printer graphics to make sign-mak- 
ing as sophisticated as word processing. 
It's neither fast nor inexpensive, but it 
produces top-quality printouts. 

The Banner Machine is a long Basic 
program. "It will take a while to load 
the tape," the manual advises impatient 
CLOADers; the Model 111 disk 1 tested, 
which only TRSDOS 1.3 could read, 
took 30 seconds. 

Once running, the program asks a 
series of questions about the sign you 
intend to make. Your banner is limited 
to capital letters, numbers, arrows, and 
other keyboad symbols (lowercase for a 
banner is presumably a contradiction in 
terms). Otherwise, you have a generous 
choice of artistic options. 

You can choose from one of 10 letter 
sizes ranging from not quite 3/4 inch to 
7 inches, and you have a choice of uni- 
formly or proportionally spaced letters 
(the latter keeps extra space from ap- 
pearing on either side of an 1, for in- 
stance). You can put a 1/8- to 1-inch- 
wide border around your words, and 
decide where you want its top and bot- 
tom lines in relation to the edge of the 
paper. 

While you make these choices, the 
Banner Machine automatically keeps 
track of how many lines you have avail- 
able for text. The program prints signs 
sideways on fanfold paper. Borderless 
signs hold 10 lines of small letters, while 
a Size 1 border with Size 3 letters leaves 
room for only two lines, and so on. 

What you say, of course, is up to 
you. With parameters set (default 
values provide proportionally spaced, 
small-lettered , and small-bordered 
signs), a cursor indicates your position 
at the beginning of your first free line, 
and you're ready to enter up to 54 char- 
acters. 

The Machine's editing mode isn't 



54 • fiO Micro, November 1983 



THE WAIT IS OVER 

CP/M 



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Model 4 



Now, for the first time, unleash the powerful features resident in your Model 4 computer Open up the vast 
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Includes INTERCHANGE '". a utility that allows reading, 
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formats such as IBM. KAYPRO, OSBORNE, XEROX, etc. 

Includes MEMLINK^", a unique feature that uses the 
optional 64K RAM memory as a fast disk drive. 

Complete with all these CP/M utilities; ASM. DDT, DUMP. 
ED, LOAD, PIP, STAT and SYSGEN. 

Operates at the 4Mhz clock in the standard Model 4 mode. 

NO HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS Just insert the disk and 
boot. 

NO COPY PROTECTION. Backups may be made for your 
own use and protection. 

The CONFIGURATION program supports a full range of 
5-1/4 ' disk drives: 35, 40, 77 and 80 tracks, single and dual 
sided in any combination as well as the standard Model 4 
drives. 



• Includes MODEM 7, a powerful public domain communica- 
tions program for file transfer and remote data base access 
such as CompuServ and the Source. 

• Supports 80 X 24 video, reverse video, direct cursor 

addressing and more. 

• Utilizes the Model 4 function keys and allows user defined 
keys. 

• Auto Execute command for turnkey applications 

■ FORMAT utility permits up to 52 disk formats to be con- 
structed, all menu driven. 

• Fast backup routine with verify for mirror image copies. 

• AH support programs are menu driven for ease of use. 

• Ready to run in the standard 64K Mode! 4. The additional, 
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■ Complete with over 250 pages of comprehensive user 
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MailMerge"- Multi-purpose file mergir^g pfogram 125 

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WordStar Professjofial All tfie atxjve tor only 450 



InfoSiar'" Advanced DBMS $250 

ReportStar™ Report generator & file manipulator 175 

DataStar™ Data entry and relnevai package 150 

SuperSon- Fast and ftexi We sorting IS yours 125 

CalcStar™ Advanced etectronic spreadsheet 95 



ORDER INFORMATION 

Gal no* ana your or cter will De sfiippeO at oryx from our 
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known lo m»i Credit carOs are not cfiarged until you' 
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80 Micro, November 1983 • 55 



REVIEWS 




Scripsit — the keyboard feels mushy and 
occasionally drops characters, and a 
pause occurs after you enter each line 
before the cursor appears on the one 
below. 

But the arrow keys steer you around 
your text adequately, and the left and 
right arrows team with the shift key to 
handle delete and insert functions. 
Leaning on the up arrow lifts the slug- 
gish cursor above the text screen to re- 
vise format parameters, although you 
can change letter size only by starting 
over. 

Pressing the shift and clear keys lets 
you enter special commands. New or N 
erases everything; Copy or C duplicates 
an existing line on one below. 

Format (F) changes the standard jus- 
tification, Hrst letter on left margin, of 
each line. You can center or right-justi- 
fy (last letter at right margin) a line, or 



use Tab to set two colimins against the 
left and right margins respectively, as in 
a list of items and prices. 

The manual, which contains handy 
samples of every border and letter size, 
explains your options completely, but is 
a bit vague on directions for a couple of 
the Format commands. 

The last step is printing your sign. 
The Banner Machine requires an Epson 
MX-80 or MX-lOO with Graftrax or 
Graftrax Plus. 

Virginia Micro Systems says that the 
new FX printers support the program, 
and that a patch is on the way for Star 
G^nini owners. (I tried printing a sign 
on a Gemini IS and got an extra line 
feed after every printing pass, resuhing 
in ^read-out letters like those painted 
on roads at crosswalks.) 

After you've given the print com- 



mand and entered the number of copies 
desired (one to 10), the program dis- 
plays the reassuring message "Fm 
working!" while it prepares program 
instructions — a pause of half a minute 
for a modest sign, lon^r for giant 
banners. 

Then the Epson takes over, pro- 
ducing impressively legible, high-resolu- 
tion hard copy while you go have a 
sandwich or raise a family. 

The Baimer Machine prints unidirec- 
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But if you have fresh ribbons and 
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of bills and who can afford $49.95 are 
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S6 • ao Micro. November 1983 



REVIEWS 



• •••• 

EiectwnicaUy Speaking: 
Computer Speech Generation 
John P. Cater 

Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc. 
4300 West 62nd St. 
Indianapolis, IN 46268 
Softcover, 230 pp. 
$14.95 

by Jerome I. Weintraub 

W^lectronically Speaking provides you 
Xl/with a great deal of information on 
speech generation with your computer. 
The book details the physiology of hu- 
man speech, the history of synthetic 
speech, human speech reproduction, and 
synthetic speech generation. It also re- 
views current synthetic speech technol- 
ogy, describes a variety of uses for 
synthetic speech, and outlines the eti- 
quette associated with synthetic speech. 
Electronically Speaking uses many 
photographs, charts, digrams, tables, 
flowcharts, wiring circuit diagrams, and 




other visual aids to give you a compre- 
hensive guide to speech production. It is 
technically complete and exact, 
yet surprisingly easy to read and 
understand. 
If you'd like to develop your own 



synthetic speech generator, you'll want 
to study the chapters that analyze crea- 
tion of human speech. Cater clearly ex- 
plains the complex mechanics required 
to produce various vowel and conso- 
nant sounds. The detailed description 
of the relationship of human to com- 
puter speech production shows you 
what you'll need to make your com- 
puter speech sound human. 

The book includes tables of the 100 
most frequently spoken words and their 
frequencies, the 39 speech sounds that 
occur most often, and the relative 
power (loudness) of 32 speech sounds to 
help you construct your own synthetic 
speech system. These tables are fol- 
lowed by a comprehensive list of words 
you can use to test your system or one 
you might be thinking of buying. 

Some hints help you avoid program- 
ming regional dialects into your system. 
On the other hand, maybe you'd like to 
know how to give your computer a 
southern accent. 

It's not enough to teach your com- 
puter to speak. You need to get people 




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60 Micro, November 1983 • 57 



REVIEWS 



to Usten attentively and understand its 
speech. One of the more interesting 
chapters discusses these issues under the 
topic of computer sf)eech etiquette. 

By etiquette. Cater means getting 
someone's attention, interrupting, ad- 
justing speech volume to overcome oth- 
er sounds in the area, and knowing 
when to repeat something. This chapter 
helps resolve these issues for a computer 
sp^er. 

Speech Generation Types 

Cater discusses the three fundamen- 
tal types of speech generation. The 
waveform encoder converts actual 
sp^ch into digital code that you record 
on disk and play back as you wish. 
C^er compares this method to a photo- 
graph of human speech. 

Phonetic synthesis produces synthetic 
computer-generated speech. This meth- 
od is like an oil painting of human 
speech. 

Mathematical reconstruction of ac- 
tual speech (called LPC synthesis) is the 
technique used by Texas Instruments in 
their Speak and Spell game and by auto- 
mobile manufacturers in wsunings or 
safety checks. 

Cater deals with these three tech- 
niques in great detail. He uses a tachom- 
eter analogy to explain the relative bits 
per second (bps) usage of each: The 
phonetic synthesis type uses 100-800 
bps of speech, LPC synthesis uses 1 ,200- 
5,000, and the waveform coding uses 
16,000-120,000. 

For example, the word Hello uses 
4-30 bytes for the first speech type, 
45-188 for the second, and 600-4,500 
for the last type. On a 48K computer, 
you can store over one hour of speech 
using the phonetk type, up to 5.3 
minutes using the LPC type, and up to 
24 seconds using the waveform coding 
method. 

The waveform coding system uses a 
speech sampling approach, converting 
each sample to digital code for comput- 
er purposes. The more often it samples 
the actual speech, the closer the com- 
puter's speech approximates the hu- 
man's sf)eech input. Flowcharts, pro- 
gramming samples, and circuit wiring 
di^ranu gjve you the necessary in- 
formation to produce waveform coded 
speech. 

Electronically Speaking describes pho- 
netic synthesis in text and diagrams that 
show you how to get your computer to 

SB • 80 Micro, Novemlter 1933 



produce vowel and consonant sounds 
that approximate human speech. Cater 
points out the need for a sufficient num- 
ber of sounds or phonemes (discrete, 
fundamental q^eech sounds) to make the 
speech more intelligible. 

Some commercial synthesizers use 
only 32 phonemes, whik: others provide 
hundreds. You should be aware of this 



"It's not enough 

to teach your computer 

to speak. You need 

to get people 

to listen attentively. . . " 



important characteristic of a commercial 
synthesizer when shopping for a unit. 

The LPC speech method is character- 
ized as "...one of the most rapidly 
growing techniques for speech synthe- 
sis." Because of its complexity. Cater 
describes only some of the hardware 
available, and doesn't give the "...10 
to 20 pages of... nothing but equa- 
tions" needed to construct an LPC 
speech generator; he does provide a bib- 
liography to guide you to the necessary 
mathematics. 

Cater points out the advantages and 
disadvantages of each system. For ex- 
ample, a disadvantage of LPC is its 
reliance on a prerecorded voc^ulary: 
"To the home computer enthusiast, the 
encoding cost of $20 to $200 per word 
becomes rather prohibitive." To an au- 
tomobile or toy manufacturer who pro- 
duces thousands of units with the same 
vocabulary, the unit cost is quite rea- 
sonable. 

More Information 

Chapter 7 describes and analyzes off- 
the-shelf speech synthesis systems of all 
three types. Photos, diagrams, and tex- 
tual descriptions are helpful. 

Specific information includes type, 
size, speech capability, compatible com- 
puters, and prices of seven waveform 
coding systems: Centigram's Lisa, 
Cheaptalk TRS-80, Computalker Con- 
sultants' Compucorder, Micromint's 
Micromouth, National Semiconduc- 
tor's Digitalker, Telesensory Speech 
System's Series III, and Voicetek's Cog- 
nivox VIO. 



The four phonetic synthesizers re- 
viewed include: Kurzweil Reading Ma- 
chine KRM, Micromint's Sweet Talker, 
the Votrax SC-OIA, and the Votrax 
Type *N Talk. Since I own and use the 
Type 'N Talk extensively, 1 can verify 
that Cater's description of it is com- 
pletely accurate. 

The commercially available LPC syn- 
thesizers reviewed include two by 
Hitachi, three by Telesensory Speech 
Systems, three by Texas Instruments 
(including Speak and Spell), the Echo 
II and Echo-GP by Street Electronics, 
and two systems by Speech Technol- 
ogy Corp. 

Manufacturers' addresses are listed 
in Appendix C for easy reference if 
you're interested in sending for litera- 
ture or ordering units. 

If you don't have a computer-pro- 
duced speech application in mind be- 
fore you read the book. Cater covers 
several interesting ideas in Chapter 8. 
He describes a talking clock, games, fun 
projects like a Halloween greeting for 
trick-or-treaiers, aids to the handi- 
capped, a talking home security system, 
and a voice security lock. 

As in other chapters, flowcharts de- 
scribe most of these applications. I'm 
fascinated by Cater's idea of using the 
computer to teach a talking by'd to 
speak. You can set up the monotonous 
repetitions while you're at work, but 
your bird might sound like a robot 
when it finally speaks! 

Appendix A contains a 14-page glos- 
sary of terms. Appendix B is a biblio- 
graphy, and Appendix D is a collection 
of 13 everyday working circuit diagrams 
that you mi^t use separately or in 
conjunction with other speech synthesis 
circuits. 

This book's only shortcoming, which 
Cater himself points out, is that the 
state of the art for computer-produced 
speech is constantly changing and im- 
proving. Although the book is copy- 
righted 1983, some of the material 
seems to be late 1982. 

All the contents are significant, but 
future developments could make some 
of the present hardware obsolete. How- 
ever, this same comment applies to ev- 
ery aspect of the computer field, so I 
won't overemphasize it. Electronical- 
ly Speaking is an extremely valu- 
able guide to teaching your computer 
how to talk. ■ 



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REVIEWS 



LED— The LDOS Text Editor ($29) 

FED— The LDOS FDe Editor ($19) 

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You access all LED*s commands us- 
ing the keyboard's numeric row, the 



clear key, and the shift and clear keys. If 
you must enter special codes not avail- 
able from the keyboard, LED provides 
a HEX function to let you enter bytes as 
hexadecimal (hex) digit pairs. 

LED supports generation of KSM 
files. When you use them with the KSM 
filter, these files allow entry of phrases 
with a single keystroke combined with 
the shift and clear keys. LED allows 
quick generation of KSM files by pro- 
viding you with a prompt containing the 
key labels ready for entry of the string 
values. 

When you complete the KSM file, 
you can easily remove the KSM labels 
by using the UNMK (unmark) com- 
mand to remove the block markers and 
all data contained between them. LED 
enters this mode automatically whenev- 
er the input file name contains the ex- 
tension /KSM. 

If you've used a screen-oriented word 
processor such as Electric Pencil, you're 
already quite familiar with LED's oper- 
ation. The documentation is of the 
same high quality as that provided with 
LDOS, and you'll have no trouble 
learning the commands. 

FED— The LDOS File Editor 

FED is an all-purpose file -oriented 
editor that provides the advanced user 
with the necessary resources to manipu- 
late files. Even the novice user will find 
it easy to experiment with FED and learn 
more about file structure. 

The original version of FED is a file 
editor that doesn't allow manipulation 
of disk structures at the cylinder/sector 
level. LSI has announced an enhance- 
ment called FEDII ($39) that provides 
all these capabilities. 

FED has some powerful functions 
not found in other file editors. These 
are particularly useful to the Assembly/ 
machine-language programmer. Vari- 
ous functions display the load address 
of the byte currently under the cursor, 
locate the byte at the specified load ad- 
dress, and |X)sition the file to the begin- 
ning of the next load block. 

I can't imagine how much time I've 
spent looking throu^ a CMD file for 
the appropriate load point to make a 
modification. This feature is a tremen- 
dous help. 

LDOS Utility Disk W 

The LDOS 'Utility Disk provides you 
with 14 utilities specifically written for 



LIX)S. See Table 5 for a complete list- 
ing of these utilities and their functions. 

One of the simplest, most useful rou- 
tines, liigh/CMD. displays the value of 
HIGHS (4049 hex) and then displays the 
load address and name of each active 
routine. Routines must conform to the 
linkage specified for LDOS filters and 
drivers to have displayed names. 

This routine, coupled with the Device 
command, lets you maintain full con- 
trol of the routines you've activated and 
the special features in effect. 

DCr/CMD displays the Drive Code 
Table information for any of the eight 
logical drives allowed in the system. The 
display is fully formatted and quite 
comprehensible. Once the information 
is displayed, you can edit and modify 
any parameter in the DCT. 

You edit by answering basic ques- 
tions; DCT performs the aaual modi- 
fication of the bit patterns. This is an 
extremely powerful option for the ad- 
vanced user. 

LDOS Fiher Packages #1 and j^ 

The LDOS Filter Packages #1 and ta 
provide a comprehensive set of filters 
(and some other routines) designed to 
efficiently process input and output 
character streams. See Tables 6 and 7 
for a complete listing of the filters and 
routines in each package, with a brief 
description of each filter's function. 

A filter is a machine-language routine 
that monitors input from or output to a 
device and performs some special func- 
tion when it recognizes sp>ecific charac- 
ters. You can use these functions to per- 
form control functions such as shifting 
printer fonts or to perform an alteration 
of the data in the input/output stream. 

The two most powerful filters, 
XLATE and MAXLATE, allow code 
translation of any and all characters ap- 
pearing in the input/output stream of 
any device. 

Picture the simple task of commu- 
nicating between computers. If both 
computers process ASCII data, com- 
munication is simple assuming thai the 
machines are properly configured. Now 
imagine the TRS-80 "(in ASCII format) 
attempting to communicate \sith an 
IBM host computer (in EBCDIC for- 
mat). You must translate information 
from ASCII to EBCDIC to send it to 
the host and from EBCDIC to ASCII 
so it is received by the TRS-80. 

XLATE can easily perform this 
&> Micro. November 1983 • 61 



REVIEWS 



function using a translation table. 
Translation tables for XLATE and 
MAXLATE are ASCII character files 
containing the replacement instruc- 
tions. You can create them using the 
Build command or LED. 

MAXLATE expands the power of 
XLATE by allowing the substitution of 
zero to 255 characters (bytes) for any in- 
tercepted byte. For example, MAX- 
LATE can automatically expand simple 
1-byte control codes into the multibyte 
sequences required to control your 



printer's special features. MAXLATE 
provides all XLATE's other functions 
as well. The power of this filter is 
boundless. 

One excellent feature of both filter 
disks is inclusion of the source code for 
all the filter files in EDAS assembler 
format. You can easily modify any of 
the filters to include features important 
to you. This is a valuable way to study 
the principles of good programming. 
Each of these source files is well written 
and highly documented. 



MEMDISK— Disk Drive in Memory 

It's exceptionally easy for an ad- 
vtinced programmer to integrate any- 
thing into the LDOS system due to its 
clear technical documentation. The 
MEMDISK/DCT driver provides evi- 
dence of this by implementing a small 
RAM disk in high memory (the user se- 
lects variable size). 

MEMDISK is easy to install using the 
System command and functions similar 
to any other disk drive. Ail standard 
disk input/output commands operate 



FtteNwne 


Description 


Kile Name 


Description 


CO MP /CM D 


Compares iwo files, pans of files, disks, or 


CALC/FLT 


A kcybtiard filter used in conjunction with 




pans of disks in a iiharaclcr-by-character 




KI DVR to perform hexadecimal' deci- 




match, displacing areas where the i\so don't 




mal'binary conversitms and hexadecimal 




match . 




arithmeiic. 


DCT CMD 


Displays the Dnve Code Tabk: for any of 


LINEFEED FLT 


.An output device filter to remove or add a 




the eight logical drive numbers lo the 




line feed (0.-\ hex) after each end-of-line 




screen. Allows direct modificaiion of the 




character (OD hex). 




DCY. 


LISTBAS, FLT 


,'\ filter used with the display or pnntcr lo 


DIRCHtCK/CMD 


Checks the disk directory' for errors and dis- 




rcMructure the appearance of packed Basic 




plays error summar>'. Attempts lo fi.x de- 




programs. 




tected errors. 


LOWER/FIT 


Two niters used with any device lo conven 


FIXGAT'CMD 


Attempts 10 repair an unusable Granule Al- 


UPPEK/PIT 


alphabetic characters in the range of A to Z 




location Table (GAT) in the directory of an 




to all uppci- or lowercase letters. 




LIX>S formaiicd disk. 


MONITOR/FIT 


hiliers any device capable of output, 


HIGH /CMD 


Repons the addresses of routines using high 




monitors for special characters, and substi- 




memory addresses and the current value of 




tutes special symbols for the characters. 




HIGHS. If routines conlbrm lo the LIX)S 


PAGEPAWS/FLT 


Filters the printer output and causes the 




standard, repmns the name and entry point 




system to pause whenever a lop-of-form 




of each. 




character is encountered, allowing page 


MAKE /CMD 


Allows creation of a disk file Tilled wiih the 




changing. 




character of your choice. 


REMOVE /CMD 


Reads a specified file and removes all the 


MAP/CMD 


Lists the allocation of cvisiing (and some 




specified characters. Essentially a copy 




deleted) files by extent, cylinder, sector, and 




function with byles matching the specified 




granules. 




pattern not copied. 


RAMTEST/CMD 


Performs a read, writeverify lest of all user 


SLASHO/FLT 


.Allows those pnnters capable of backspac- 




memory. 




ing to print a slashed zero character if that 


RDTEST/CMD 


Reads the entire disk to see if it is loially ac- 




character isn't pan of the normal charac- 




cessible. 




ter set . 


READJI/CMD 


Performs the transfer of Radio Shack Mod- 


STRIP?, FLT 


Used wiih any device to sirip (remove) the 




el II formatted disks lo an IDOS formaiicd 




high bit off each character passed, conven- 




disk (requires 8-inch disk drives). 




ing characters outside the normal ASCII 


RHAD40/CMD 


L'sed in conjunction with Formal, Backup. 




range to .ASCII. 




Copy, and CONV, allows reading a 35- or 


STRIPCNT/FLT 


Applied to any output device to conven 




40-track disk in an 80-track disk drive. 




control characters and characters outside the 


TYPtlN/CMD 


Lets the user construct a sequence of char- 




normal ASCII range to a pound sign (K). 




acters that acts to control the operating sys- 


TITLh/FLT 


Used with the printer to allow titling of prim- 




tem or an applications program. Similar to 




ed output. You can include the system date 




the use of JCL, but TYPLIN lets the user 




and time as pan of the title. 




control programs using keyboard routines 


TRAIVFLT 


Used with any output device to trap and 




such as INKEYS. 




throw away any character passing through it. 


UNKILL/CMD 


Reinstates a specified file previously deleted 


XLATE /FLT 


Used in the input and output path of any de- 




by using Kill or Purge. 




vice to perform a code translation. Two 


WRTtST/CMD 


Writes to a previously formatted disk to 




translation labk-s conven the keyboard into 




verify that the disk is accessible. 




Dvorak and translate to/from .ASCIITBC 
Die ctxJcs 


Tabk 5. LDOS Utility Package Ml. 


T<a>k 6. LDOS f-Vier Package ML 



62 • 80 Micro, November 1983 




1 



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80 Micro, November 1983 • 63 



REVIEWS 



on MEMDISK, with the exception of 
functions such as Backup and Format 
thai are specific to floppy drives. 

MEMDISK consists of a short driver 
program and the memory allocated for 
disk storage. MEMDISK allocates disk 
tracks with one or two sectors (256 
bytes) per granule, and each track con- 
sists of six granules. 

This means that each track takes 
1.5K or 3K bytes respectively. The num- 
ber of granules per track and the num- 
ber of tracks are selected after the driver 
is initialized on loading. 

Forcing the disk operating system to 
use a combination of MEMDISK and 
system resident files as the system drive 
provides an overall speed increase that's 
hard to believe. 

it isn't possible to copy all the disk 



"Monitor aids in 

the recovery of a file 

that has a parity error. *' 



operating system files to MEMDISK 
due to the file allocation methods used 
for disk files and the system's memory 
constraints. 

For example, none of the system 
modules are exact multiples of 1 .5K and 
each file contains wasted space. There- 
fore, the memory resources are ex- 
pended rapidly. Also, because SYS6/ 
SYS and SYS7/SYS (the Ubrary fUes) 
are ISAM {indexed sequential access 
method) files, you can't force them to 
reside in memory using the System 



rde Name l>irM.-ription 

COMMl/PLT A communicanons filter de^ig^ed for use 

with ihe LDOS RS 232 drivers. Provide;, 
testing for modem carriers, delay belween 
characters, and line feeds and nulls iifier 
carriage reiurns, 

DICTATE/Fl.T Provides the abiliiy m lurii on/off the cas- 

sette recorder trorn the keyboard. Allows a 
typist to type dictation from the cas.selle re- 
corder mio a ^^o^d processor, 

DOSPEED/FLT Regulates the speed of any LDOS output 

device, controlling the rate of characters 
output to the device. Useful for regulating 
Ihe sp)eed of the video display while allow- 
ing a long file listing to scroll. 

KSMPLUS/FLT Works essentially Ihe same as the KSM/ 

FIT provided with LIX)S. Extended fea- 
tures include editing the KSM niter lable, 
recall of dale and time, and recall of the last 
LDOS command 

LCOUNT/FLT Writes a bne number preceding every line of 

text written to an output device. 

MARGIN/FLT Provides an additional method of establish- 

ing the left margin of printer output. Allows 
output of control codes to the printer, if 
needed, prior to printing the blanks for the 
left margin. 

MAXLATE/FLT Used with any device to provide translation 
of any byte (user delmed key) into a group 
of characters from zero to 255 characters in 
length. 

SLOSTEP/DCT A high memory disk driver to allow proper 

functioning of cenain disk drives. 

VIDSAV/CMD Provides the capability to sinie ihe contents 

of the video screen in mcrnorx and swap 
screen contents with the stored screen at the 
touch of a key. Proper use of the control 
codes allows similar prdcessing from Basic. 

Table 7. LDOS Filler Package t/2. 



64 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



(SYSRES ^ x) command. 

If you combine the features of the 
MEMDISK driver and the SYSRES op- 
tion, you can store the entire dLsk oper- 
ating system files in memory (on the 
MEMDISK or as resident system files). 
Once you've accomplished this, the Sys- 
tem (SYSTEM = x) command can force 
execution of the operating system from 
MEMDISK and the files resident in 
memory. You can then remove the sys- 
tem disk in drive zero. 

MEMDISK is also available on the 
Model 4 under TRSDOS 6.0. This lets 
you use the additional 64K of available 
memory for a RAM disk and increase 
system execution speed significantly. 

I/O Monitor 

The I/O Monitor monitors disk input 
and output operations, intercepts dLsk 
read and/or write errors, and offers you 
error recovery options. 

Part of Monitor's operation is the 
display of a long form error message 
containing the error number with a full 
length error description, the filespec of 
the errant file, and the address of the 
call to the disk 1/0 routine. 

You then have the option of ignoring 
the error, retrying the operation, con- 
tinuing with the application program, 
or aborting the current program. These 
options provide valuable opportunities 
for you to manipulate files that other- 
wise might not be available. 

For example, Monitor aids in the re- 
cover>- of a file that has a parity error. 
Normally, reading this file gives a PAR- 
ITY ERROR DURING READ mes- 
sage when the program encounters a 
bad sector. By ignoring the error during 
a file copy operation. Monitor transfers 
the file with no parity errors. 

Some sectors might still have bad in- 
formation, but FED can reconstruct 
them. This is an exceptional time saver 
when you're manipulating large files. 

The Bottom Line 

Many software houses produce good 
operating systems for the TRS-80. 
However, Logical Systems provides full 
support of the operating system, full us- 
er services, completely integrated utility 
support, and a desire to please their 
paying customers. 

Their LDOS utilities are reasonably 
priced and, best of all, they work exact- 
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eo Micro, November 1983 • 87 



REVIEWS 



*•** 

QuiD 

Growth Associates 
1901 East Ist 
Box 467 

Newton, KS 67114 
Model 100 
$24.95 cassette 
by Scoti L. Norman 

The Model 100 sorely needs an auxil- 
iary program to format printed out- 
put. Its built-in Text program has only 
one formatting command to control the 
length of a printed line. 

Quill is a compact Basic program for 
the Model 100 that does the job. It gives 
you control over margins, line spacing, 
page length in lines, numbers, footers, 
and right justification. The footers are 
right-justified after the page numbers at 
the bottom of each sheet. 

Quill is completely menu driven, and 
is small enough (roughly IK) to be left 
permanently in memory. Since it's writ- 
ten in Basic, you can easily customize 



the default settings for various format 
parameters. 

You load and save the program just 
like any other Model 100 Cassette Basic 
file: type in LOAD"CAS:QUlLL 
.BA" foUowed by "SAVE QUILL 
.BA". To use it, point the cursor to 
QUILL. BA on the computer's main 
menu and hit the enter key. The pro- 
gram prompts you for the name of the 
do-file you want printed, then displays 
the format menu. 

Quill has defaults for all nine format 
parameters, and controls them with the 
computer's eight function keys. You 
can change a default for a single print- 
ing session by pressing the associated F 
key. F3 redefmes both the top and bot- 
tom margins. 

If you want to change one of the pair, 
you have to specify the other as well. 
When you're satisfied with the parame- 
ters, press the enter key to print. 

The default parameters include dou- 
ble line spacing, the left margin at six 
spaces, the right margin at 70 spaces, 
top and bottom margins of four lines, 1 



as the first page number, the page length 
equal to 66 tines, no right justification, 
and the footer equal to the file name. 

Each parameter is associated with a 
Basic variable defined in a single line of 
the program. If you edit the line and exit 
to the Model lOO's menu, you save your 
customized version of Quill; the eight- 
page instruction leaflet shows you how. 

Most of the text 1 generate on my 
Model 100 is draft material, so I prefer a 
left margin of 10 spaces and a bottom 
margin of six lines. It took me just a few 
moments to change the program line ac- 
cordingly, using Basic's Edit function. 1 
can always override my new settings for 
any particular printout: I might like sin- 
gle spacing and right justification for 
correspondence. 

Quill is essentially a Basic character- 
counting routine, so you might expect it 
to slow up printing operations. It does, 
but not by much. 

As a test, I printed a 335- word file 
with the standard Print command and 
with Quill. I used my old Line Printer 
VII at 600 baud, and kept the number of 



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68 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



REVIEWS 



line feeds constant by specifying a line 
length of 60 spaces for both printouts. 

I set up Quill for single spacing, no 
justification, and a top margin of zero 
to further equalize the amount of print- 
head motion. I set left and right margins 
at 10 and 70. 

The standard Model 100 printout took 
one minute and 17 seconds, while Quill 
required an additional 23 seconds. This 
isn't a trivial difference, but the Model 
100 is still faster than my big writing 
machine, a Color Computer with Tele- 
writer. Of course, the Model lOO's par- 
allel printer port has something to do 
with that. 

Quill is a straightforward program 
that fills an obvious need. Its use quick- 
ly becomes intuitive; in fact, the exis- 
tence of default settings means that 
most users won't have to think about 
Quill at all once they install it. Quill is a 
worthwhile acquisition for text-oriented 
Model 100 users. 

Quill includes a second program. 
Size, that counts the number of 
characters in a do-file. 



Prospective Quill users should be 
aware of one limitation: The program 
doesn't recognize Model 100 tab codes 



so you should indent paragraphs by 
hand, using the space bar. It won't print 
most graphics characters either. ■ 



• •••• 

Radio Shack DMP-2100 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 
Computer with standard parallel 

Centronics 
Sl,995 

by Jerry L. Latham 

The Radio Shack DMP-2100 printer 
rivals daisy-wheel printers and IBM 
Selectrics that use standard ribbons. 
The secret of the extraordinary 
capabilities is the print head. Instead of 
the usual seven-, eight-, or nine-wire 
print head, the DMP-2ia0 uses a 
24- wire print head. The fine print wire 
makes a dense character, and thus, a 



high quality of print in certain modes. 

The printer has several print modes: 
standard 10 characters per inch (cpi), 
standard 12 cpi, condensed 16.7 cpi, 
proportional printing, correspondence 
10 cpi, and correspondence 12 cpi 
modes. A normal or elongated (double 
width) character print option is avail- 
able for each mode. The printer also has 
two dot -addressable graphics modes. 

The printer's maximum speed is 192 
characters per second (cps) in standard 
12 cpi mode. The slowest speed is 26 cps 
in elongated correspondence 10 cpi 
mode when set to print two or three car- 
bon copies. In the proportional mode, 
the average speed for a single-part doc- 
ument is 100 cps. 

Depending on the mode you select, 
the DMP-2100 prints anywhere from 68 
to 226 characters t>er line. The standard 



1 


1 


1 


p 


B 


RA 


1 


> 





Micro-Designs System-Upgrade 
for the TRS IVlodel lit and 4 



The Micro-Design TRS-80 upgrade includes IVIicro-Design's exceptional MDX-6 disk 
controller board, one 40 Track Disk Drive, necessary installation cables and hard- 
ware. Will also control external 8" Disk Drive Systems. r 



For Mohc iNfoRMAiioN & Free Lpieraiurc 

CaII or WrIte 

MICRO-DESIGN 

6301 Manchaca Road, Suite B 
Austin, Texas 78745 

Toll Fme 

1-800-531-5002 



^ See Ust of Adverlisefs on Page 307 




Sm our otlwr ads on pagM 192 & 27 



80 Micro. November 1983 • 69 



REVIEWS 



length is 136 characters, and in the pro- 
portional mode you get an average of 
174 characters per line. Maximum line 
length is 13.6 inches. 

The printer's character set includes the 
standard alphanumeric and punctuatbn 
characters. Additionally symbols for 
pounds sterling, cents, one-quarter, 
one-half, three-quarters, copyright, 
tradonark, and registered trademark 
are included. 

Some scientific, some word pro- 
cessing, and some foreign language 
characters are also included in the char- 
acter set. Characters 224-254 decimal 
are a special group of limited use graph- 
ics characters (see examples in Fig. I). 

The printer switches from one mode 
to another through software control. 
Control codes perform operations such 
as backspacing, form feed, begin and 
end underlining, half or full forward or 
reverse line feeds (for super- and sub- 
scripting), and executing a 1/20 or 4/5 
forward line feed. The DMP-2I00 also 
has a bold (double strike) print capability. 

You can use control code sequences 
to enter and exit either of the two graph- 
ics modes. However, you can't use 
some control codes in the printer. An 
hourglass symbol on the paper tells you 
that the computer doesn't recognize a 
certain control code. The most notable 
of these codes is 09 (horizontal tab). 

Another quirk is that it's difHcult to 
print a slashed zero because the printer 
handles the backspace character (08) in 
a unique way. Instead of backspacing 
one character width, then printing the 
next character received, the DMP-2100 



looks for a dot count to follow the 08 
code. It backspaces that number of 
dots, then prints the next character. 
This machine needs a hardware switch 
to provide a slashed zero. 

Graphics 

With its fme print head and graphics 
abilities, this printer has incredible 
graphics possibilities. The two graphics 
modes include a 7-bii, low-resolution 
mode, and a high-resolution mode. The 
7-bit mode is the standard graphics 
mode as in other Radio Shack printers. 
The high-resolution mode takes advan- 
tage of the DMP-2100's almost unique 
24-wire print head. 

Positioning the print head requires 
that you specify the number of dot 
widths to space over before printing a 
graphics code. The low-resolution 
mode has 816 addressable dot columns 
across a single line, and you address any 
of seven dot positions in a column. 

You use the low resolution mode by 
entering a CHR$(18) command. Posi- 
tion the print head with a control 16 n n 
sequence, and begin entering your 
graphics. Because you can't specify a 
number larger than 255 in a single byte, 
you must use a special two-number se- 
quence that tells the printer where to go 
on the line. 

First, send the printer a control char- 
acter, CHR$(27), followed by a CHRS- 
(16) to prepare it for 2 bytes of data thai 
specify where it positions the print 
head. The next byte of data must be 
zero. 1, 2, or 3. The second byte of in- 
formation can be in the range of 0-255 
if the first byte is zero, 1 , or 2. If the first 



byte is a 3, the second must be in the 
range of zero through 47. 

This divides the page into three 
256-column areas, and one 48-column 
area. The first byte after the control se- 
quence tells the printer to which general 
area to go and the second byte specifies 
the exact dot within that area. 

You enter the high resolution mode 
by sending the printer control char- 
acters CHR$(27) and CHR$(73), fol- 
lowed by the dot position information 
in 2 bytes. In this mode, you have 2,448 
points across the page, and you can use 
any of the 24 print head pins. 

For dot positioning, your line is now 
divided into 16 separate areas. The first 
15 are 256 dots wide and the last is 240 
dots wide. The first dot -positioning 
value byte must be in the zero to 15 
range, and the second byte in the zero to 
255 range for first b>ie values of less 
than 15, and in the zero to 239 range for 
a first byte value of 15. 

To pick out separate print wires to 
fire, you send the printer 3 bytes of in- 
formation: 1 byte for the top group of 
eight wires. 1 for the second group of 
eight wires, and the third for the lowest 
group of eight wires on the head. 

You can mix dot -addressable graph- 
ics with standard print, and dot posi- 
tioning the head is possible in standard 
text modes. The special line feed com- 
mands give you solid looking graphic 
print outs. 

Kvalualion 

The manual that comes with the 
printer is filled with typographical er- 
rors. However, so far the manual hasn't 



THIS IS 


THE STANDARD 10 CPI MODE 












TM I S 


IS EI_OrslC3ATED 


ID CPI 


MODE 


BolcJ Elor-isa-bed lO 


Cf^ I Mo 


d 


9 






THIS IS STAMDARD 12 CPl M(X)E 












THIS 


IS ELONGA-TED 12 


CPI mode: 










This is done 


in the condensed (16.7) character lode 












Th i s is 


elonga'ted condensed character inode 










This is corr«*pondeT\ce 10 CPI node 












And this 


is the proportional print mode 












Here come the special characters available, in 


10 CPI mode: 










' i ? £ 


*M*'t§«0!K5[i$i¥& 


u c ~ a u 


6 


n 


« 


u fe " f 


Fo 1 1 oued 


by tKe special graphics characters: 










■ • • 


• -. ^".1 irnkJBr- 


-1 -r H 1 «- J J- 


H 


+ 


r 


^ ^ ^ 




Figure 1. Stmiple print modes imd special characiers. 











70 • 80 Micro. November 1983 




It's about BIB. 



Southern Software's new relational database 
manager for TRS-80 Model I/Ill, all DOS. 



ENB is a treat to use, with an Integrated data dictio- 
nary to allow totally flexible datastructure (restructure 
without reblocking the database) and data-interde- 
pendencies of any complexity. Variable length fields, 
no record-length constraints, select on any field. 
High-level Basic interface (compatible with ACCEL3/4 
Basic Compiler), plus file exchange with practically 
everything (Scripsit, VisiCalc, more). Holds up to 
64K data items without data redundancy, spans up to 
4 disk drives (or hard disk). 

Special Offer 

Buy ENB before December 31, 1983 and receive 
EDIT full-screen Basic editor ($40 value — you 
must enclose a copy of this ad!). 



Read the reviews . . . 

"ENB is fascinating." 

— V^ynyie Keller. 80-MlCRO, July 1983. 

"ENB has no peer at the present time." 

— /im Klaproth. SO-US. July 1983. 



You've seen this ad about ENB. 



Now ENBase your data! 

ENB. ^140 



+ $3 shipping 
CA add 6% 



Stnp-iil '' Rdd HI Shack, VisiCalt "" Visit orp. 



AUmGeUerSoftware 



Box 11721 San Franc-sco, CA 94i0i (415} 681-9371 



■ See Ust of AtftwT/sers on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 71 



REVIEWS 



misled me. 

The hardware is more carefully con- 
structed than the manual. It comes in a 
grey case, and is 21.7 inches wide by 15 
inches deep by 5.9 inches high without 
sheet feeder or tractor feed. The DMP- 
2100 weighs in at 42 pounds. You can 
switch it between 110V/60Hz and 
220V/50Hz for overseas travel. 

The print head is rated for 200 mil- 
lion standard 10 cpi characters. De- 
pending on whether your paper is single 
thickness or multicopy, it handles paper 
from 10 to 22 pound weight, in widths 
from 4 to 15 inches. 

Controls on the printer are somewhat 
limited. An eight-position DIP (dual in- 
line package) switch inside the cover lets 
you choose the default parameters for 
print style, character set, and line feeds. 

On the front of the machine are four 
controls: Test, Paper Feed, Restart, and 
On/Off Line. The "Test and On/Off 
Line switches are obvious, but the other 
two deserve a few words. 

The Restart control clears the out of 
paper alarm and the carriage overrun 
error. It also clears the paper jam alert 
condition, and stops the self-test func- 



"Overall, lam impressed 

with this printer. 

It's fast and rivals 

many daisy-wheel printers 

in quality. You also have 

the added plus of 
dot matrix versatility, " 



tion. In most cases any data in the 136 
character buffer is lost when you use 
this control. 

You can use the Paper Feed control 
when the printer is off line to advance 
the paper. Pressing and quickly releasing 
this control advances the paper 1/24 
inch. Holding down the control contin- 
uously advances the paper. 

The printer doesn't have a specific 
form feed control. Press in and turn the 
large carriage knob to align your paper. 
You can do this with the printer in the 
on or off line mode. 

Four indicator lights on the front 
panel include separ^e Power and On 



Line indicators, an Alert light, and a 
Paper End light. The Alert light handles 
all error conditions except Paper End. 

Although the printer comes set up for 
friction feed paper, tractor feod is 
available at a reasonable price. The 
tractor feed is very reliable as long as the 
tension bar isn't so tight that it causes 
page slippage. 

The ribbons for the DMP-2100 list 
for $13.95 each and are rated for 3 mil- 
lion characters. I assume that's 3 mil- 
lion characters in standard 10 cpi mode. 
In the word processing mode using pro- 
portional print, the ribbon starts getting 
noticeably dim after about 100 pages. A 
ribbon re-inker is a wise investment with 
this machine. 

Overall, I am impressed with this 
printer. It's fast and rivals many daisy- 
wheel printers in quality. You also have 
the added plus of dot matrix versatility. 

Some improvements are still needed, 
but they're not in the area of print quali- 
ty or dependability. If you're ready to 
spend over $2,000 for a printer capable 
of business correspondence quality 
printing, this is one machine you should 
seriously consider. ■ 



• ••• 

Speed-Up Kit 2.X 
liacet Computes Ltd. 
1855 West Katella Ave. 
Suite 255 

Orange, CA 92665 
Models n, 12, and 16 
$99,95 

by Caddy McCafl 

The Speed-Up Kit from Racet Com- 
putes is a series of enhancements to 
TRSDOS 2.0, 2.0a, and 2.0b that con- 
siderably improves some of the operat- 
ing system's more exasperating quirks. 
Its main accomplishment is speeding 
up TRSDOS's notoriously slow per- 
formance. 

The kit isn't available for TRSDOS II 
4.1, but it lets you use double-sided 
drives on the Models 12 and 16. 

The Speed-Up Kit first changes the 
date and time entry routine. You make 
these entries only once when you turn 
on the system, and don't need to enter 
them again unless you turn off the sys- 
tem. Each reboot bypasses the request 
72 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



for date and time, and uses the current 
settings. 

The Verify Detect patch makes the 
system run faster than it normally 
would without Verify Detect while re- 
taining this feature. The Logo patch 
eliminates the logo when you boot up 
TRSDOS. 

With the Diagnostics patch you 
choose whether TRSDOS performs the 
diagnostics routines at each boot, only 
on power up, or not at all. The Fast Sys- 
tem Load patch loads the system from 
your disk at five times normal sF>eed. 

On the Models 12 and 16 with dou- 
ble-sided drives, TRSDOS 2.0 can 



Verify Dcttcf TRSDOS Rmx* 







256 


Byte 


256 Byte 






Recoids 


Records 


On 


On 


62 




43 


On 


Off 


51 




41 


Off 


On 


46 




26 


Off 


Off 


36 




25 



7b6fc 8. Seconds required to copy 100 records. 
I don't reconwnend using the Vwify off mode. 



access both sides of the disk. This is im- 
plemented as four single-sided drives 
rather than two double-sided drives. 

You can assign drives zero and 2 to 
the left drive, and drives 1 and 3 to the 
right drive. This arrangement maintains 
total compatibility with your present 
system. 

You can also assign drives zero and 1 
to the left drive, and drives 2 and 3 to 
the right drive. This arrangement runs 
programs that require two drives, using 
only one real drive. 

With the installation program, almost 
any arrangement is possible. Since you 
load the assignments at boot-up, you 
can boot one set of assignments on one 
disk and a different arrangement on the 
second disk. (This is confusing and 1 
don't recommend it.) 

Selecting the double-sided drive op- 
tion displays a graphics image of the se- 
lections made. You verify that the as- 
signments are what you want. This 
function helps beginners understand the 
concept of logical and physical device. 
It's convenient for people who have 
trouble creating mental images of their 
logical assignments. 



RIBBONS 



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800-327-9294 




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PRINTER 


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Dai-T *h«*' ' 


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p^ a .tjmb 401' 






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1236 E Colonial Onve 
OflanOo.FL 32803 USA 



Dapanmeni BO 

oosia»4-07ae(Fiori{M) 



Wm« Fof FfM Catalog 
Owr 1 000 UBiTis in DiskrtM, Paper. LabMs. Ribbons, CH#cna. Slor»ge Boan. FurriK 
turn. 6indori ana Hardwara Florida plus 5% vai 

Add %2 For Shtpplog On Ord«ra Laaa Than S30 
Uoat ontora out in 24 hour* with VISA. M/C Morwy Ordar, AMEX. Caahlar Crwck. 
BankWIrvandCOD Paraonal Ch*ck allow 10-14 daya. UaU order onfy PrtcM 
■ub)ael to changa. 





*^RS 80 fS A TRADEMARK OF RADIO SHACX 
A DIVtSION Of TANDY CORP. 



TURNING THE PAGE TO A 

NEW ©DglXCOVERY 



niERLIN 

mnG-Bizi 

FLOPPY DISK MAGAZINE 

"The Magazine of the 80Y' 



A monthly publication to run on 
your TRS 80* I, III or IV 'rjf^'^ 

' ' fen ^2 and 16) 

• Useful and entertaining programs. 

• Innovative, ready to run Puzzles/Games. 
" Informative, up to date artidcs. 

• Reviews of latest Games, and programs. 
(These items offered at discounted prices). 

• Articles submitted for publication are welcome. 

First month's subscription JIO 

(includes diskette, mailer and return postage) 

Additional months cxily i5 eacn. 

Send check, money order or inquines tO" 

HBH PUBUSHING, INC. 
DEPT. B, P.O. Box 8470 
BOSSIER CFTY, LOUISIANA 71113 -3 a 



^ S« List of Advenisofs on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 73 



GOLD KIT 

• Memory Faults'^ 

• Frogiams Freezing Up"^ 

• Worn Eage Contacts? 

Oxidized tin rontacts are trouble' GOLD 
ADAPTERS upgrade this vital link tor better 
computer performance Solder tfiem over 
the tin in just a tew minutes' 



cmcuir 

3CAHD 



REVIEWS 




GOlD 
ADAPTEIt 



TRS-80 Mod I/Ml COQ 50 

(kit of 6 adapters) M^t-%-/ . wv^ 

34/40 pin adapter 2/S16.00 

50 pin adapter $10-50 

Act nowl Kit pnce S34 50 after December 1 , 
AcJd $1.50 shipping, S5-00 overseas. 



VJ^ tech. inc. 

/ v* 198 

PO. Box 2167 
Milwaukee. Wl 53201-2167 

Wisconsin Residents add 5% sales tax 



REAL VOICE 
SYNTHESIZER/ANALYZER 

OKI SEMICONDUCTORS REAL VOICE 

SYNTHESIZER'ANALYZER IS A REALITY 
FOR TRS-80 M 3 & 4'" 

NOT A KIT BUT A FULLY FUNCTIONAL 
SYSTEM FULL DOCUMENTATION IN- 
CLUDED 

POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS: 

• DIGITAL RECORD/PLAYBACK - 
VOICE OR MUSIC 

• MULTI-LINGUAL ANNOUNCEMENT 

SYSTEM 

• DIALER/DECODER 

• VOICE RECOGNITION 

• SOUND EFFECTS 

SYSTEM INCLUDES POWER SUPPLY, 
SYNTHESIZER/ANALYZER, DISK WITH 
DRIVER SOURCE & SAMPLE RECORD. 
PLAYBACK PROGRAM 

KIT 1249 95 

FULLY ASSEMBLED & TESTED 349 95 
CONNECTOR CABLE 25 00 

ADove prices include stitpping and nandting 
FOB MORE INFORMATION CONTACT 

DATA DISPLAY CORP. 

BOX 284 

HANOVER, NH 03755 

1 -800-227-3800 

Ext 110 with orders only 

^19 



TRS-80 M 3 * * ■! rraae'"»ri( o' Tjna, Co'p 



TRSDOS 2.0 recognizes only four 
logical drives. If the system contains 
more than two double-sided drives, you 
can't use the extra drives. 

Speed 

My main interest in this product is the 
increased speed of TRSDOS 2.0's disk 
access. Depending on the type of rec- 
ords you process, the difference in time 
is astounding. The kit impro\es 
TRSDOS's speed by changing the disk 
access routines in the operating system. 

You can't copy Racet's distribution 
disk but the company will replace it for 
$15 if damaged. It has one feature I 
haven't seen before. 

Two copies of the patching program 
are available. Only one of them is acces- 
sible to you, but a special recovery pro- 
gram lets you restore the original from 
the back-up copy. This assumes no 
physical damage to the disk surface. 

If you want to modify many 
TRSDOS disks in the same manner, the 
Speed-Up Kit has provisions that modi- 
fy the installation program so it auto- 
matically applies your upgraded system 
to each disk. 

The Racet license agreement doesn't 
limit the number of system disks it lets 
you modify. To make back-ups easier, 
the modifications carry through the 
back-up procedure to the new disk. 

An additional installation feature is a 



patching program that upgrades each 
registered user's systems as Racet re- 
leases future patches. 

Scripsit 2.0 requires a special patch 
that is supplied. This requires that you 
apply two 1 -b>ie patches with the 
TRSDOS patch utility. If your system 
needs these patches, remember to use a 
do-file to install them. 

Also remember to make a copy of 
your working system before applving 
the patches. Always make patches to an 
extra copy, never to your working copy 
or to your original distribution disk. 

Using a do-file considerably reduces 
the tension involved in patching because 
you can check and recheck the accuracy 
of the patch as many limes as you want 
before actually installing it. After in- 
stallment, your do-file contains a record 
of exactly what was done in case some- 
thing doesn't work as expected. 

Using the Racet Speed-Up Kit re- 
quires booting up the system -A-ith a 
Racet modified disk on logical drive ze- 
ro. The initial sign-on messages identify 
disks as containing the Racet modifica- 
tion. Other than that the only difference 
is increased speed. 

The Racet system requires no addi- 
tional memor\, but the contents of 
DOOO-EFOO are destroyed during the 
boot. This will concern you only if you 
work with machine-language program 
development. You can use an unmodi- 



Ftod Lengtli Records 
Record Lragth in B>1h 

^^Mni Vntfy Detect 14 16 M 2S6 

TRSDOS On On 60 87 180 566 1767 

Rxa On On 60 87 127 467 400 

TRSDOS Off Off 60 70 127 400 1770 

Raw Off Off S7 87 127 430 400 

Tahie 9. Reiative lime fvguired to rvad itaia fiks Jnxn Basic programs. 
I don't recommend usrtg the Verify off mode. 



Ftwd I^mgUi Records 
Record Len)ttb tn B>les 

Sytfcm Verify Detect 14 16 64 2S6 

TRSDOS On On 73 140 390 1300 M60 

Racet On On S7 ItO 240 933 2030 

TRSDOS Off Off 60 90 190 593 1770 

Raws Off Off 67 87 130 520 400 

Tabk 10. RtkarvetrrKnquindu>>ihudaafksfi()mBcBkpmparts. 
I <lon'l recommend u^ the Verify off mode 



74 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



THE PROGRRm /TORE 



TRISSTICK 





tromBlgfh/» 

Joy Kick VERSATILITY for mora sxhilarallng arcada ac- 
tion! fVBturas tha (amoua Atari typa joystick with a moldM 
plastic intarlaca module that simply "plugs in" to your 
computar— no modlflcatlona or wiring rvguirw). 

#22521 TRS80 Ml $39.95 
#27212 TRSaO M3 $39.9^ 
Whil* supply lastsl 




LANGUAGE 
TEACHER 

by Cindy and Andrmw Bartorillo from Acorn 
Laarn the Dasici of a foreign language. Language Teacher 
otters hundreds ol word combinations, verb contugallons 
and ptiraaes. There Is en option lor having multiple choice 
answers for being retetted on missed ttems. F=v<l printer 
capabilrty and a great deal ol "human anginearing" further 
enhance I'le programs Teachers *ii' appreciate ine ample 
documentation and the ability to gat prinloiits oi Quizzes. 

AvallabI* tor Frtnch, Spanish, (tallan 
and Qarman. 32K Disk $29.95 aach 
#1 671 5 French I, #1 6704 Spanish I, 
#16661 Italian, #16692 Qarman I, 
#42963 Franch II, #27133 Spanish II 



HAM6URGER 
SAM 

by OuSo't oncf McMomoro 
from Dliplayd VT<Mo 
YUM. YUM' Build hamburgers by collecting buns, lettuce, 
cheese and meal that Orop from level lo level Watch out 
tor the chasing hot dogs, pickles and fried eggs! Protecting 
Sam and getting all five parts together is the challenge. 
Have you ever used pepper as a weapon'' Joystick or 
keyboard control. . ^' 

#30508 leKTapa $15.95 
#29359 16KDIsk $19.95 



PLANETFALL 




JUNGLE 
60Y 

by OuSo/f and McNamaro 
from aipfoyed Vicfto 

Are your reflexes fast enough to swing Jungle Boy from 
Vina 10 vine'' Fast paced arcade favorite — sweep through 
the jungie, swim by the alligators, dodge t>ouldars rolling 
down the hill, save the maiden from lierce warriors Joy- 
stick compatible with sound 

#38281 16KTape $15.95 
#34625 16K0lsk $19.95 




PENGUIN 

by DuBoa and McNamara 
from DUplay^a VWeo 
Over 30 different maies ol ice blocks Kick Ihe obstructing 
bk)Cks and watch Ihem slide or crumble. Survive with 
threatening ice monsters chasing you Beware — they in- 
crease in numtwts and gel smarter with each frame. 
Keyboard or joystick controlled 
#33983 16KTape $15.95 
#30711 16KDi8k $19.95 



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Tied TRSDOS disk to boot up if it's 
necessao to retain the contents of this 
memor>' segmenl. 

The Racet speed-up modification is 
good, but not an unqualified success. 
The disk access improvements are more 
noticeable when writing a file than 
when reading one. They are also pro- 
portional to the length of the file records. 

Only a very slight improvement oc- 



curs in handling files with 1-byte record 

lengths. As the record length approaches 
256 characters, howe\er, the improve- 
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The Racet Speed-Up Kit has consid- 
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system with TRSDOS 2.0. ■ 



• *■■*■• Vi 

mutt Do You Do After You Plug It In ? 

William Barden Jr. 

Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc. 

4300 West 62nd St. 

Indianapolis, IN 46268 

Softcover 

$10.95 

by Mao Casiorowski 

Finally, a comprehensive but en- 
joyable and easy-to-read book for 
beginners on what computers are, how 
10 pick one, and how to use one effec- 
tively. 

Bill Barden suggests that Whai Do 
You Do After You Plug It In? answers 
the questions a person who has just 
bought a personal computer asks. This 
is also an excellent book for the person 
who hasn't yet made the investment for 
a computer system. 

What Do You Do After You Plug It 
In? covers the major areas of computer 
hardware, software, and applications in 
detail. The first chapter is especially 
good if you're looking for information 
before buying. It divides computer 
users into groups by the type of applica- 
tions they need, and makes specific sug- 
gestions for each group. 

A computer system for home use. for 
example, can be fairly small and reason- 
ably priced, allowing for upgrading at a 
later date. A small businessman needs 
lo be more concerned with speed of op- 
eration, storage capacity, and applica- 
tions software. 

Are the new 16-bit computers twice 
as good as today's 8-bit computers? 
This question has no simple answer, 
and Barden presents both sides of the 
argument clearly. He explains the work- 
ings of and options for internal (RAM 
and ROM) and external {cassette tape, 
floppy, and hard disks) data storage, as 



well as several newer developments. 

Barden describes different types of 
printers, some special features, and 
items to watch out for when purchasing 
a printer. He discusses who needs high- 
resolution graphics and who doesn't. 
He outlines additional devices that can 
be useful: plotters, digitizers, light pens, 
and clocks. 

The section on software presents a 
brief history of computer languages, of- 
fers advice for choosing a language, ex- 
plains the operating system, spells out 
the pros and cons of developing your 
own software, and provides tips on buy- 
ing (and otherwise acquiring) software. 

For novices, the organization of the 
chapters in this section could be better. 
Beginning the section with the chapter 
on programming languages gives the 
impression that an active choice and 
perhaps knowledge of that language is 
necessary to use a computer. 

Many applications, such as book- 
keeping, are possible without knowing a 
word of a programming language. The 
chapter on buying software might make 
a better beginning. 

The third section explains disk files 
and those compulerese terms, record, 
field, variable length, random access, 
and ISAM, as well in 10 pages as I've 
seen anywhere. The next chapter covers 
vital back-up procedures— the whys 
and whens. 

Barden doesn't ignore one of the 
more powerful and useful aspects of 
computer use, telecommunications. He 
makes it easy to understand the techni- 
cal considerations and the different fea- 
tures available. Finally, he outlines the 
present difficulties in getting the com- 
puter to talk (speech synthesis), to listen 
(voice recognition), and to control your 
home lights, heating, and lawn 
sprinkler. 

The section on applications would be 
richer if it included explanations of 



78 • eO Micro, Novemtter 1983 



REVIEWS 



more popular applications, such as 
word processing and electronic spread- 
sheets, in addition to the technical sys- 
tem information it now contains. 

One aspect of What Do You Do 
After You Plug It In? makes me slightly 
hesitant . Harden ' s expertise on the 
many computer systems isn't crystal 
clear. 

In some cases he tosses around the 
various computer names as if he knows 
all their features well; in other places he 
quotes an example based on one system 
or one specific brand of peripheral 



"Barden provides general 
and detailed informations- 
he answers the 
necessary questions to 
make the computer 
novice comfortable. . . " 



device— a quotation that, as worded, 
isn't applicable on other systems. How- 
ever, as long as you're reading IVhat Do 
You Do After You Plug It In? for gen- 



eral information, this is no problem. 

miat Do You Do After You Plug It 
In? is a worthwhile book if you're just 
beginning to explore computers. Bar- 
den provides general and detailed infor- 
mation; he answers the necessary ques- 
tions to make the computer novice 
comfortable with his system. 

He explains the major computer 
terms, and discusses the ^vantages and 
disadvantages of the many options. His 
informative and humorous style makes 
reading this book an enjoyable ex- 
perience. ■ 



*••• 

The Benchmark 3.0M 

Metasoft Corp. 

711 E. Cottonwood, Suite E 

Casa Grande, AZ 85222 

Model n, CP/M 

$499 

by Qiarles R. Perdman 

The Benchmark is a sophistrcated, 
comprehensive word processor for 
CP/M systems. It offers a wealth of per- 
formance options that are flexible and 
easy to learn. It performs well in a busi- 
ness environment with heavy and varied 
word processing demands. 

Benchmark's many functions and sin- 
gle-key commands are easy to learn. 
The program runs smoothly with logi- 
cally organized menu panels and a good 
help screen. It offers a variety of form 
features and formatting controls are ex- 
tensive. 

Installation for a Model II with 
CP/M requires only a menu selection. 
The drivers accommodate most widely 
used printers and terminals, and 
5V*- and 8-inch disks are available. Dual 
disk drives help you make a copy of the 
distribution disk and get the most out of 
the software, but Benchmark also runs 
on a single 8-inch drive. 

A minimum of 64K of memory suf- 
fices for typical CP/M systems. With its 
run time module. Benchmark occupies 
about 108K of disk space. To take ad- 
vantage of complex Benchmark for- 
matting, you need a full-function 
printer. 

Using Benchmaric 

You enter the system through a series 
of menus that let you name your file 



with up to 30 characters, then date and 
tag the document with the author and 
operator names. Edit an existing docu- 
ment by accessing the directory that bsts 
file names, date begun, latest revision 
date, and size. 

You select the overall function: Cre- 
ate, Revise, View, Print, Merge, or ad- 
ditional specialized procedures. Then 
specify the working file by document 
number. 

With the View option, you make 
changes in a file and print it out as mod- 
ified without changing the original doc- 
ument or saving the revised file to disk. 

Additional procedures include ASCII 
formatting; time, date, and storage unit 
assignments; indexing; and deleting 
files. The program increments the al- 
phabetical version letter and you choose 
whether to retain the old file for back- 
up on completion of each edit. 

Before file changes become perma- 
nent, you must either execute or cancel 
the modifications. This safeguards 
against inadvertent errors, especially for 
a be^rmer. However, you sacrifice the 
speed of a word processor that acts im- 
mediately upon command entry. 

Initial set up creates a data storage 
unit, a CP/M file that contains all the 
documents you produce with Bench- 
mark. Each floppy drive can exist as a 
separate storage unit and you can divide 
a hard disk into several units. 

This is one of Benchmark's unusual 
aspects. Files aren't in ASCII format, 
and CP/M facilities can't read them di- 
rectly; a Benchmark utility converts the 
files to and from ASCII. 

One of your first tasks is to identify 
Execute and Cancel command keys. 
The TRS-80 Model II with Pickles and 
Trout CP/M assigns these functions to 



hold and escape keys. I quickly became 
accustomed to their use. The location of 
designated keys affects Benchmark's 
convenience. 

Benchmark operates at two levels: In 
the control mode you choose the opera- 
tion you need, and in the active mode 
you alter text. Except for creating a doc- 
ument, which puts you into Insert, the 
keyboard isn't initially active and you 
choose a command to begin operation. 

Commands operate when you press a 
sin^e key, generally the first letter of a 
descriptive word. The plain English ter- 
minology of the commands is helpful. 
Pressing the question mark key calls up 
an alphabetically ordered help screen. 

Benchmark assigns edit functions to 
terminal function keys. In addition to 
the arrow keys, you can use the numeric 
keypad for altemate cursor movement. 
This is particularly useful if your arrow 
keys are not in a convenient cross ar- 
rangement and if your numbers repeat 
when you hold them down. 

Single stroke commands move the 
cursor to the top, bottom, or next 
screen. Benchmark monitors the page 
number at the top of the screen, and 
you can jump to any page in the docu- 
ment. Enter a number higher than the 
last page to jump to the file's end. De- 
pending on the file size and distance 
from the curtent page, jumping might 
generate some disk thrashing. 

For line width format exceeding 80 
spaces, the screen scrolls horizontally as 
required. You can abort an Edit or 
Erase command to the end of a file with 
one key, but you must confirm the 
choice before the program acts. 

Deletmg, moving, copying, and ex- 
changing text is consistent, so you mas- 
ter the technique raoidlv. Benchmark 
80 Micro. November 1983 • 77 



REVIEWS 



hi^ili^ts affected text with inverse 
video before you execute a command 
for permanent change. You make inter- 
active insertion mode changes by back- 
ing up the cursor to delete text. 

Benchmark contains full facilities to 
locate and formal multiple line headers, 
footers, and footnotes with automatic 
page and footnote numbering. The de- 
fault setting doesn't number pages. At 
any point in the file, you can insert non- 
printing directions or comments. 

The search and replace functions are 
thorough. You decide on matches with 
or without regard to upper- or lower- 
case, for whole words only, with ques- 
tion marks as wild cards for one or 
more letters, for any digit, or for para- 
graph terminators. Automatic global 
replacement is optional. 

Interactive printing lets you produce 
a printout of the screen at any time, and 
print any part of a document without 
first saving the file. This is a convenient 
feature that makes testing the appear- 
ance of a portion of your document 
quick and easy. 

You toggle print control status, noted 
at the screen's upper right comer, from 
off to single-page to continuous print- 
ing (to end of the current document) by 
using the P key. In the separate print 
mode you must start at the beginning of 
each file, but you can interrupt printing 
at any point. You can also queue any 
number of files for sequential printing. 

Indicate changes in your files with the 
Edit Marking function . It places a 
character in the margin column of your 
choice for each altered line. You can 
remove or retain markers from prior 
edits. 

The Library, Append, and related in- 
dexing features help with cut and paste 
and forms operations. You assign any 
upper- or lowercase letter a control 
character, word, or group of words up 
to 2,000 characters long by using the Li- 
brary command. 

While inserting, hit Cancel and the 
single letter for the program to write 
your library phrase. Speed up editing by 
assigning single keys to print commands 
for underlining, boldface, and so on as 
part of the library. 

Unfortunately, you can't review the 
library contents from the program. You 
should assign letters mnemonically re- 
lated to the main idea to refresh your 
memory. For example, use U for under- 
line, B for boldface, A for acknowledg- 

78-80 Micro, November 1983 



ment, and H for header. Using this 
shortcut for more than a few phrases 
necessitates maintaining a printed 
master list of the library. 

At any time you can Append a docu- 
ment from a stor^e unit on any drive. 
You can piece portions of text together 
by judiciously using the Erase to end of 
file command. 

You can accomplish fast deletion of 
other sections by marking the end of the 
section you want deleted with a special 
character, such as @, and instructing 
Benchmark to define the text you want 
deleted from the cursor position to that 
character. 

Fomis and Formats 

To construct form letters or docu- 
ments from a bank of standard provi- 
sions, create master indexed files by 
following a prescribed formal and call- 



'*You can build a file 

of standard letters 

for common 

business situations. . . " 



ing the Index facility. Type the identifi- 
cation tag assigned to selected master 
file provisions, and Benchmark assem- 
bles your completed document. 

Although you can scan the whole col- 
lection of standardized provisions on 
the screen by going to the master file, a 
looseleaf reference book is more effi- 
cient. 

Arrange your forms with fill-in vari- 
ables, then Quick Search with one key 
to each variable in sequence. Using 
View and interactive printing, you run 
through the form each time you need it. 

This leaves the original in the file with 
bracketed generic variables for future 
use. You can build a file of standard let- 
ters for common business situations thai 
you can personalize at printout. 

A more sophisticated forms feature 
sets up an information file with just the 
variables. Index this file, combine it 
with a fomi, and you automatically sub- 
stitute all variables with one stroke. 

For example, assemble the boiler- 
plate waiver of notice of a corporate 
meeting with fill-in variables such as 
date and company. Enter date, place, 
company, officers' names, and all the 



other variables in your data informa- 
tion file and index it. Use the index pro- 
cedures to join the two files, press the Q 
key. and your minutes are complete. 

Initial steps for indexing are difficult, 
so effective use of this feature takes 
practice. It's a powerful tool when you 
prepare similar documentation for a 
number of clients. 

At an additional cost. Benchmark has 
a mail list option that merges a list of 
names and addresses with form letters. 
Benchmark lets you manually insert 
variables such as names, addresses, and 
other specific data into a number of the 
same form letters. 

Preparing the master form, referred 
to as a pattern document, follows the 
same rules for variables entry as index- 
ing. The Merge command generates 
form letters by responding to prompts 
for names and other fill-in variables. 

You can print the letters as you go 
along, save them to disk, or both. Sav- 
ing to disk first lets you review for er- 
rors or insert comments before printing. 

With Merge, you must answer each 
variable prompt even if you repeat 
the same variable. Merge is handy for 
t>pical customer response letters sent 
out a few at a time as opposed to bulk 
mailing. 

Benchmark has extensive formatting 
capabilities. You can center pages be- 
tween margins or headings, or center ti- 
tles on a line. 

Top, bottom, ri^t, and left margins 
are individually adjustable. Benchmark 
accommodates line widths of up to 155 
characters. The program retains mar- 
gins as part of the file and sets them 
automatically for your next edit. 

By using the interplay between lines 
per inch and single- and double-spaced 
lines, you can produce the spacing you 
need. The amount of blank space at the 
end of ragged lines, right justification 
with whole spaces, and hyphenation are 
controllable. If you use single-sheet 
feeders, you can cue up to three trays 
by using software commands. 

Automatic widow/orphan control 
settings assure that a minimum number 
of paragraph lines begin or end a page. 
You demarcate any group of lines that 
must remain on the same page or any 
word grouping that you want printed on 
the same line. 

Besides superscript, subscript, under- 
lining, boldface, and overstrike, singly 
and in combination. Benchmark pro- 



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The Next Generation: 



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BYKSoft 

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Now. even ttie beat t\aa been improved! KSoft « ptaaaed to announce SUPERLOG. the next 
generMion ol the LOG tvnty SUPERLOG is not a patchi It is a tolaly rewritten version of ttm 
on^Mi LOG corwepl. tu»y compatible with the LDOS 5 1 .3 operating system currentty 
•ndoraedby Tandy 

SUPERLOG retains al ol ttte versatile features ol LOG white adding many new options 
requested by profesakytal users Floppy or Hard disk Any number ot LOG Ses per diskette 
1 to 32767 pages psr file Paaaword protection and error checking New lent editing com- 
mmda nckjOe automatic text Wrap- Around, Expand and Delete lor entire linea. a Pftoe Copy 
comm«id. and an UrKlo i<ey to reverse editxig cnartges Cursor motion (S more flexible with 
new key corT*Tw>ds plus a Forma ammetor. The SEARCH lunction is greatty enhanced with a 
WU-Card clwacter, caae-rxtependent search, and mulhple word search at 1 pages'sec- 
ond 

Also Note SUPERLOG is now futy intemjpl activaied: it may be accessed Irom pracbcaiy 
M\y lofe(?wjnd task »Kkiding LDOS Utilities, LBASIC, LSCRIPT, EDAS. etc with non- 
destructive return to ttie foreground program No other miormation msnao«ment program « 
thw versMie! 
Wr«e or cm Today? Wei be glad 10 tel you about SUPERLOG and what it can do tor you' 



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SOFTWARE 



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Complele spreodsheei with lull screen cursor 
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^SwUstof AOverttsefs on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 79 



REVIEWS 



vides shadow printing (double strike 
with the second impression slightly to 
the right of the first) and stop print for 
change of fonts or ribbons. 

You insert a caret at the beginning 
and ending limits for print changes, but 
you must call another screen to deter- 
mine the type of special print change in- 
volved. 

Benchmark has several choices in 
tabs: regular, indent for outlining or in- 
serting quotations, numeric for lining 
up decimals, centering for column head- 
ings, dot and underline for creating 
tables of contents, and right-justified to 
line up paragraph numbers in contrac- 
tual documents or page numbers in 
tables of contents. 

Business Graphics is an ingenious util- 
ity for drawing rectangular boxes to em- 
phasize enclosed text. Actually, you can 
print text mixed with any line configu- 
ration you build from thin vertical and 
horizontal lines at 90-degree angles. 

Constructing this takes a consider- 
able amount of time and patience, and 
therefore might be of limited practical 
use, but the function shows what clever 
programming can do with a daisy-wheel 
printer and ordinary characters. 

A real boon is the well-implemented 
Calculator. You can enter a list of bills, 
expense reimbursements, or costs and 
quantities needing extensions in a letter, 
voucher, or statement, and calculate 
the figures without ever leaving Bench- 
mark. Addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation, division, subtotals, and totals 
are available in horizontal and vertical 
directions. 

Accumulated totals and subtotals are 
in real time at the bottom of the screen 
and you can write them an>-where in 
your text. Enhance Calculator with col- 
umn formatting that permits insertion, 
deletion, transposition, and spacing 
changes of columns of figures. This is 
quite a versatile package. 

Benchmark claims to support pro- 
portional printing for the more popular 
Diablo, Qume, or NEC daisy-wheel 
printei^ listed in the documentation, but 
it didn't work with my Qume Sprint 5. 

Daisy wheels for most Diablo and 
Qumes use a different sequence for pro- 
portional wheels than regular fonts. 
Proportional printing wasn ' t possible 
and Metasoft couldn't fmd anyone who 
could explain or correct the problem. 

My other disappointment was the in- 
operable special print option for Span- 
ish diacritical marks, the accent and 

80 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



tilde. Benchmark instructs you to use 
the grave accent to implement this fea- 
ture, but the grave is the one character 
that you can't access from the key- 
board. You can use overstrike proce- 
dures to produce diacritical marks pro- 
vided they are on your print wheel. 

Documentation 

The manual's opening section on 
start-up information apparently changes 
for each major version of the software. 
It's not up to the quality of the re- 
mainder of the manual and would bene- 
fit from screen reproductions or refer- 
ence to the manual sections that cover 
the same information. 

A short introduction on computer use 
is followed by an overview of essential 
procedures, a reiteration of CP/M in- 
formation, and the initial steps in run- 
ning the word processor. 



"... Benchmark is quality 
software that you should 
consider if you need 
a high level of sophis- 
tication and flexibility 
in your word processing. " 



The next !0 chapters each tackles a 
separate essential program aspect. With 
the exception of the section on tabs, de- 
scriptions are straightforward and ex- 
plicit, though they lack sufficient ex- 
amples. The manual should describe 
what happ)ens when you hit the wTong 
key and indicate which commands are 
sensitive to case of letters. 

The central portion of the documen- 
tation contains excellent reproductions 
of program screens. It includes a de- 
tailed table of contents, and a fair-sized 
index, immediately preceded by two 
pages listing brief descriptions for all 
commands and a page of system error 
codes. Other program error messages 
tend to be cryptic cmd need further ex- 
planation. 

Considering the complexity of Bench- 
mark, I feel that the index is sparse and 
needs expansion. Neither proportional 
printing nor foreign language features 
are in the index though they appear in 
the table of contents. However, the man- 
ual's organization is logical and helps 



compensate for the skimpiness of the in- 
dex references. 

The remaining 16 chapters that de- 
scribe advanced techniques are ade- 
quate. A cardboard quick -reference 
command sheet helps you avoid jump- 
ing to the help screen. The last section 
of the manual consists of command 
sheets describing key assignments and 
similar information for approximately 
30 different terminals. 

Overall, the tutorial and reference as- 
pects are well done. Metasoft's planned 
revisions should bring the documenta- 
tion up to the level the software deserves. 

Critklsm 

With my 8-inch floppy system, load- 
ing and saving files and jumping to 
pages in documents move slowly if the 
text is more than a few pages long. Pre- 
sumably a hard disk would improve this 
facet of performance. 

When you save to disk and want to 
continue with the edit, you must reload 
initial menus, ll seems like an eternity 
until you get back to the end of a long 
file. Until you save the file, any power 
glitch or fatal error in processing wipes 
out memory and all current edit changes. 

Most file transfer programs using 
modems require ASCII. Additionally, 
you can quickly skim any ASCII format 
file from CP/M with Type without en- 
tering your word processor. Benchmark 
files require time and disk space to con- 
vert to ASCII before this type o'i pro- 
cessing. 

To examine headers, footers, embed- 
ded print style changes (underline, bold- 
face), and line spacing, you must call a 
secondary display. Also, Benchmark's 
full space justification doesn't produce 
as professional looking documents as 
partial microspace justification. 

Few micro word processors presently 
incorporate full software spooling, 
and Benchmark isn't one of them. If 
your word processing is continuous, 
you might want to consider a hardware 
solution. 

As indicated by the four-star rating, I 
consider Benchmark one of the better 
micro word processing packages. It 
needs some improvements and has some 
drawbacks, particularly in speed of cer- 
tain operations. However, Benchmark 
is quality software that you should 
seriously consider if you need a high 
level of sophistication and flexibility in 
your word processing. ■ 



Everybody's making money 
sellina microcomputers. 
Somebody s going to make money 
servicing them. r^| 



Now NRI Trains You At Home To 

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and Proeramming Personal 

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Growing Demand 
fior Computer Technicians 

This IS onlv one of liw gry"Alh fadon. iiillucncing 
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Learn At Home 
to Service An> Computer 

NRI can train wiu tor this exciting, rewarding field. 
Thun voj at home to service not only niicToconiputeR, but 
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Vbu gpt plent)- of practical experience linder NRIs 
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later in your work. Then yuu use the lab and meter to 
actually access the interior of your computer, .build spe- 
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ywir computer at work and deittwtstrate its pcnwr. 

(TRSW is > mkmark of the Rxlo 
Sliadidlv&lai of 'bndy Oxp. ) 





SamelVainiiw 

Available With 

Color Ccmiputer 

NRI otier^ «)u tlR' opportunity to train with the 
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Tlie same technique for getting inside is enhanced by using 
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offer? y«u a dioice to fit your specific training needs. 

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in addition to training m lUSiC and adi-anced 
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the ne*' electronic age 



Other Opportunities 

NRI has been giving ;unbitious people 
new electronic skills since 19h. Tbday's offering 
also indude TV/Audio Video Sy^ms servicing with 
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Send the coupon for our l(h-p;^ catalog showing 
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iTieres no oH^jatkai other than to yxxirself See how NRI 
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coupon has been remmed. please write to NRI Schools. 
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NRI Schools 

\lc(iraw-Hili Continuing 

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59.^9 llsconsin Avenue 
Washington, DC 2l«)lf) 

We'll give you tomorrow. 
The eaulog is tnt. The trBlnlng is priceless 

Please elieck for one free catalog only 

D Computer Electronics including 

Microcomputers 
D Color T\', Audio, and Mdeo System 

Servicing 
D Electronics Design Ttehnoloft 
3 DigiUl Electronics 
Q CcHiimunications Electronics • FCC 

Lcenses • Mobiki CB • Aircraft • Marine 




.All career counes 

ipproveil iiniler Gl tiill 
D Check fof ileiuli 



I 

I _ 

I Ntme 

I Slreel 

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D Industrial Electronics 
□ Basic Elearonics 
n Small Engine Servicing 
G Appliance Servicing 

a Automotive Servicing 
D Auto Air Conditioning 
n Air Conditioning Heaiii^ 

Refrioeration. & Solar Ttchnolog 
D Building Construction 



(Please Pniit> 



Age 



I(A\\:'ftaU;'l.tf 
AccreUiied bv the WcniKting Comimsslon o( itw Suhxial Home Sudy Council 



»1 79-113 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 81 



THE BVTE 

GEMEHill. 

3 Slerks Lane 
Rostyn Harbor, NY 11576 

24 Hour Order Line 
516-625-0920 



FREE SHIPPING IN THE U. S.A. 



TRS-80 

Model 4 64k, 

RS232, 2 Drives $1549 

Model 100 8k $659 

Model100 24k $859 

Covered by The R/S 
90 Day Warrenty 



Elephant Diskettes: 

SS/SD $16.95 

SS/DD $18.95 

Modems 

Signalman Mark I $74 

Signalman 300/1200 $259 

Smartmodem 300 $199 

Smartmodem 1200 $479 

Novation J-Cat $119 

Printers: 

Prowriter 85l0ap $359 

Prowriter 1550 $645 

Prowriter Ribbons $7 

F10-40cps $1125 

Fl0-55cps $1339 

Tractor for F10 $189 

Bananna Printer .$189 

Epson FX-80 Call 

Epson FX-100 Call 

Buffers: 

Microbuffer32k $209 

Microbuffer 64k $239 

Speed/Ups: 

Holmes Sprinter X 

(ForModel4)8MHz $99 

Holmes Sprinter III $79 

Look Around, Find The Bcsl Prices 
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FREE SHIPPING 

Deafer Inquiries Invited 

TERMS OF SALE: There is a 2% Service Charge 
for Mastercard or Visa. COD Orders Add $2 60 Orders 
Undet $30 please add S2 shipping and handling 

.-383 



REVIEWS 



• •••• 

Finger Print 

Epson Printer Adapter 

DresseUiaus Computer Products 

837 East AlosU Ave. 

Glendora. CA 91740 

S59.95 

by Alan Neibauer 

Finger Print, an inexpensive hardware 
modification for Epson printers 
(with or without Graftrax), controls all 
print functions from the printer's panel 
switches. 

For word processing systems that 
don't allow user print codes, and for all 
other data processing work, Finger 
Print makes it easy to select a fuU range 
of available fonts: double strike, em- 
phasized, compressed, double width, 
and any combination of these. 

While the modification does not re- 
place embedded print codes in word pro- 
cessing, it has many useful features for 
both the writer and programmer, and is 
a valuable but inexpensive investment. 

In addition to switching between 
fonts, Finger Print provides for perfo- 
ration shipover, eight or six lines per 
inch, and has a selectable sLx-space in- 
dentation. The panel switches used to 
select these options still perform the 
normal functions of line and form feed. 

At first, 1 was hesitant about opening 
up my Epson and installing Finger 
Print . However, the instructions are 
easy to understand and include photo- 
graphs that illustrate each step. 

Finger Print is supplied on a small 
circuit board with three integrated cir- 
cuits and two leads attached. Remove 
one integrated circuit from the Epson 
and plug the Finger Print board into its 
location. 



Number of Beeps FuncUon 

1 Resei 

2 Compressed 

3 Double width 

4 Emphasized 

5 Double strike 

6 Perforation Skip 

7 Indentation (six spaces) 

8 Eight lines per inch 

9 Italic 

10 Fine Print 

Tabk 11. Number of beeps necessary to select 
Finger Print Junctions. 



Before you insert the original Epson 
chip into a spot on the Finger Print 
board, you must bend one pin out at a 
90-degree angle. Attach one of the leads 
with an easy to insert terminal to the 
bent pin. 

Clip the other lead, complete with a 
spring hook, to a pin on another circuit. 
The entire modification takes only 15 
minutes. 

Using Finger Print 

It took about the same length of time 
to understand how the modification 
works. Pressing specific patterns on the 
printer's panel switches gives you Epson 
fonts and functions. 

You invoke Finger Print by holding 
down the on line button until a beep 
sounds. The beep means that Finger 
Print is ready to accept commands. 

Select a panicular function by hold- 
ing the on line button until a series of 
beeps sounds. Pressing the form feed 
button activates the function and press- 
ing line feed returns control to the 
printer (see Table 11). 

For example, if you want a listing in 
emphasized t>pe, you press the on line 
button until four beeps sound, press the 
FF (form feed) button to activate the 
font, and the LF (line feed) button to 
pass control back to the printer. 

Activate several options at once by 
combining button sequences. Two 
beeps turn on compressed print, while 
five activate double strike. Press the 
on line button until two beeps sound, 
press the FF button, then hold the on 
line button until you hear five beeps, 
press the FF and LL buttons, and the 
printer produces double-strike com- 
pressed type. 

Finger Print leaves the double width 
function on even after line feeds. In- 
stead of returning to standard size after 
each line, double width printing stays in 
effect until you reset the function. 

Features Lkc italic and fine print type 
are only available on Graftrax models. 

Since I do a great deal of program- 
ming, I appreciate Finger Print's per- 
foration skipwver abilities. After I turn 
the function on, it automatically leaves 
a 1-inch margin, neatly skipping perfo- 
rations. I even use the indentation fea- 
ture to make room for three-ring bind- 
ing of my listings. 

1 am as pleased with the performance 
of Finger Print as I am with its ease of 
installation. ■ 



82 • SO Micro. Novsmber 1983 




Computer 
Protection 

KLEEN 

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supping: $12.75 Und; $45^ Air 

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1 7 1 South hWn SITML Box aaO. NMIek, MMMOtwMm 01760 



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TERMS: VISA. MC. checks, COD Please add S2.00 shipping in U.S. or Canada. 
S5.00 overseas, sales lax in Ca. Most orders fiUed ivitfiln 48 hi^ 



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*■ A MHOLIBALIN, HCH ' I IIRVICI IB NOT RICOHMINKD fOR 
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OUTSIDE OF MICHIAAN. 



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rf Sa» Uai ot MiMrtl99n on Page 307 



80 Micro, Novwnter 1983 • 83 



REVIEWS 



• •*• 

77k Reader ^s Guide to 

Microcomputer Books 

Michael Nkita and Ronald Petmsha 

Golden-Lee Book 

1000 Dean St. 

Brooklyn, NY 11238 

Softcover, 410 pp. 

$9.95 

by Eric Grevstad 

«OAficTO staff 

Michael Nicita and Ronald Petrusha 
have reason to be proud. They've 
read over 400 of the computer books 
flooding the market, assessed each 
one's strengths and weaknesses, and 
compiled a helpful, perceptive guide for 
readers ranging from novice micro 
shoppers to MC68000 Assembly-lan- 
guage programmers. 

They're sometimes more pleased with 
themselves for being cute than for their 
good work, but that detracts only 
slightly from this guide's value. 



"While the IOO~point scale 

is a handy shortcut, 

the guide's merit 

rests in the reviews. " 



The Remier's Guide to Microcom- 
puter Books rates books on six topics: 
computer introduaions, CPUs, oper- 
ating systems and hardware design, pro- 
gramming, software and applications, 
and specific micro systems. The latter 
sections are subdivided to let you, for 
instance, find books on Basic or Pascal 
rather than hunt through all language 
entries. 

VisiCalc and word processing get sep- 
arate mention in the software category, 
and TRS-80, Apple, IBM, Atari, Com- 
modore, and Timex owners can turn to 
their sections of the systems chapter. 

The guide's format is laudably com- 
plete. In addition to a short review, 
Nicita and Petrusha give each book a 



numerical rating from 10 to 100 (award- 
ing 100s to only four books, including 
David Lien's The Basic Handbook and 
Lewis Rosenfelder's Basic Faster and 
Better & Other Mysteries). 

Besides title, author, publisher, and 
price, each entry lists page count, size, 
and ISBN number — everything a book- 
seller needs to order the volume you de- 
sire. The guide includes indexes by title, 
author, subject, and rating, and even 
suggested stock lists for owners of 
small, medium, and large bookstores. 

While the 100-point scale is a handy 
shortcut, the guide's merit rests in the 
reviews. As they're limited to a few par- 
agraphs, Nicita and Petrusha some- 
times bounce back and forth abruptly, 
praising a book's good points and then 
adding reservations about its flaws. 

This flip-flopping in the name of fair- 
ness is most disturbing in reviews of 
books that fall in the middle range of 
their scale (roughly between 60 and 80 
points). 

But their assessment of each book's 



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S4 • 80 Micro, Novomber 1983 



REVIEWS 



best audience, whether elementary com- 
puter students or S-lOO interface archi- 
tects, is excellent, and their knowl- 
edge — or at least the range of topics on 
which they're willing to express opin- 
ions — is encyclopedic. 

The reviewers praise Thomas White- 
side's Computer Capers, a 1978 book 
about mainframe embezzling schemes, 
and general-audience works such as 
Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Ma- 
chine, as well as more technical entries. 

Thomas Crowley's Understanding 
Computers (1967) is "an almost archae- 
ological curiosity," to be "avoided for 
its technological obsolescence," but at 
the same time is "a rare window into 
an earlier generation of computer tech- 
nology." 

Also, Nicita and Petrusha are concise 
and witty writers. They say of an other- 
wise respectable work, "CP/M Simpli- 
fied is at times CP/M disorganized." 
Dismissing Dune author Frank Her- 
bert's Without Me You're Nothing, 
they quip, "We can only hope that [this 



". . . the authors, . . clearly 

relish every opportunity 

to lash bad books 

with smart remarks. " 



book) is not the beginning of a new te- 
tralogy." 

Herbert's not the only author who 
draws their scorn by trying to cash in on 
computers without caring about books' 
quality. T.G. Lewis' How to Profit 
from Your Personal Computer, the re- 
viewers say, should be titled How to 
Profit from Writing About Personal 
Computers by Including the Word 
"Profit" in the Title. 

This is fun, but it grows a little tiring. 
"We make no apologies for the some- 
times acerbic opinions expressed in this 
first edition," the authors boast in their 
introduction, and they clearly relish ev- 
ery opportunity to lash bad books with 
smart remarks. 



Explaining their rating system, they 
say that a score of 90-100 means "excel- 
lent," 80-90 "superior," and 10^10 
"the best thing about these books may 
be the reviews." 

But, if you can tolerate the authors' 
vanity, the Reader's Guide is a valuable 

reference work. No one will ever be in 
the market for every book reviewed 
here — there are 29 specific TRS-80 
books, plus Z80- and language-oriented 
works that Tandy owners might 
use — but someone could conceivably 
use this book to decide which introduc- 
tion to computers to buy, then what 
software guides to buy after getting a 
micro, and finally the best books to help 
in advanced programming and hard- 
ware practice. 

The average micro owner, Comput- 
erworld says, will buy eight books as 
well as peripherals and software. If 
you're a beginner, the Reader's Guide 
deserves to be your first. If you're a vet- 
eran, it might deserve a place as your 
ninth. ■ 



DISPLAYS CORRECT SPEU JNGS; 

If you don't know the correct spt'lling. 
EW will look it up for you. and di.splav 
the dictionary 

VERIFIES CORRECTIONS: If you 
think you know the correct spellin^^of 
a word, EW will check it for you Ix-fore 
making the corrections. 

HYPHENATES AUTOMATIC AIJ.Y: 

(Optional I, Inserts discretionary hy- 
phens throughout text. 

GRAMMAR & STYLE CHECKER: 

I Optional I- Identifies 22 types of com- 
mon errors. Makes suggested cor- 
rections with the strolte of a key, (^ 
Runs within EW. 

50,000 WORD DICTIONARY: Use.s 

only 2',: bytes per word; add as many 
words as you wish, 

FAST CORRECTING: In as little as 
30 seconds. Electric Webster can return 
you to your Word Processing program, 
with your text fully corrected and on 
your screen, 

INTEGRATES: into II different word 
processing programs: Wordstar. Spell- 
binder, Newscript, Lazy Wnter. Super- 
Scripsit, Scripsit, Electric Pencil, Copy 
Art, Superscript. Zorlof. and Magic 
Wand I specify I. Begins proofing at the 
stroke of a key; returns you to word 
processing automatically. 



Electricl 
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80 Micro readers who voted Electric 
Webster the #1 spelling checker ( 1/83 1. 
Take the word of the sc-ores of profes- 
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about Electric Webster. Or. ask your local 
computer or software dealer for a dem- 
onstration, and see for yourself! 



ACCLAIMED: 

"Electric Webster is the best. Just read 
any review in any magazine and I don't 
believe that you will find even one dis- 
agreement to that statement ■■ CINTUG. 
Cincinnati's Users Group Mag.. 4/83 

"In my opinion, the perfect combination 
is Correcting Electric Webster with the 
hyphenation and grammar add-(»ns To 
my surpnse. it fills ever>' reasonable 
expectation. It is fast, easy to use and 
accurate" Desktop Computing. 12182 

Psrformance "Excellent"; Documentation 
"Good"; Ease of Use "Excellent"; Error 
Handling "Excellent", Info World. 8/82 

LOW PRICES: 

TRS-80 Electric Webster $ 89,95 

w/Correcting Feature $149 95 

Hyphenation $ 49,95 

Grammar & Style Checker $ 49 95 

CP/M or MS/DOS 

Electric Webster $209,95 

(includes Correcting Feature 
and Hyphenation Option! 
Grammars Style Checker $ 49.95 



W 



CORNUCOPIA 
SOFTWARE 



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Albany, Ciiilomia 94706 



80 Micro, Nowmber 1983 • AS 



REVIEWS 



*•• 

Draw 
$29.95 

• •••• 

Kwikdraw 

$74.95 

lichen Software 

6603 N. Lee St. 

Spokane, WA 99207 

Modd m, one disk drive 

48K, TRSDOS 1.3 

by Thomas L. Quindry 

Draw and Kwikdraw are screen edit- 
ing programs that let even novice 
users create and simultaneously display 
both gr^hics and text on either a screen 
display or an Epson MX-80 printer (ex- 
cept the MX-80 with Graftrax Plus). 
While both are good programs, Kwik- 
draw is written in machine language and 
is faster and more versatile than Draw. 

Each program comes on a data disk. 
While you need only one disk drive to 
use either program, you need two disk 
drives to transfer the programs to a 
TRSDOS disk. 

You can easily combine text and 
graphics in either Basic or machine-lan- 
guage programs. Draw offers adequate 
but minimal drawing capabilities; Kwik- 



draw offers two or three times the versa- 
tility and much greater speed. 

Draw 

Draw provides 20 commands. You 
use the arrow keys and numeric keys 
1-9 to position the cursor. The numeric 
keys locate the cursor at positions rela- 
tive to the key's location on the key- 
board; for instance, the 5 key positions 
the cursor at center screen. 

The arrow keys display information 
according to how three display keys are 
set. The V key generates a conventional 
display of white on black, the I key dis- 
plays inverse video, and the N key al- 
lows the cursor to move across the 
screen without affecting the display. 

Draw's most useful command is for 
circle drawing. It produces circles of al- 
most any diameter and obviates the te- 
diimi of trying to draw circles freehand. 

Draw's fill command is another use- 
ful feature. It fills in areas of the display 
in either black on white or white on 
black. Switch between these two modes 
with the Reverse Screen command. 

To draw diagonal lines, you have to 
specify the begirming and end points. 
Other commands let you draw horizon- 
tal or vertical lines to the screen edge or 
the nearest intersection of the same spe- 
cified color. 

You can also specify the character 
mode to add text to your display. In the 



character mode, it's fairly easy to en- 
ter commands and return to the graph- 
ic mode. 

The @ key acts as a control key for 
commands. You can also enter all the 
available Model III special characters 
by special command. 

You can load your display into an 
ASCII disk file to save it for later re- 
trieval. You can read this file from your 
Basic program, and so transport your 
art work to another program. You can 
also insert a display into machine lan- 
guage programs, but that's beyond the 
scope of Draw's instruction manual. 

With Draw, you can overlay any saved 
file over an existing display. By creat- 
ing modular shapes and patterns in dif- 
ferent files, you can overlay them for a 
more interesting effect. You can always 
undo the display if you've saved the 
original. 

If you want a printout of your dis- 
play, you have a printer selection of 
TRS-80 mode or MX-80 mode. Draw 
uses the TRS-80 graphic capabilities of 
the MX-80 printers. 

The mode you seiect depends on your 
printer's interior switch settings. You 
can set the Epson switches to either 
mode. Epson's TRS-80 mode recogniz- 
es the graphics character codes in your 
TRS-80 manual. 

The MX-80 mode recognizes the 
gr^hics character codes as having a 




W • 80 Micro, November 1983 



REVIEWS 



value of 32 higher than the TRS-80 
graphic characters. You get the Epson's 
most useful mode if you use software 
and switch selection to choose MX-80 
mode. 

When you give the command to line 
print the display, Draw's current printer 
default settings appear. The printer 
mode you*re using determines the avail- 
able settings. 

You can change the setting for con- 
densed character, normal, or double 
mode, and for emphasized or double- 
strike. The double mode is actually 66 
characters per inch (cpi) rather than 40 
cpi. The condensed printing mode has a 
printout display that closely approxi- 
mates the video screen display. 

Now you can choose to start the 
printout flush left, centered, or flush 
right. A good error-checking routine 
tells you when you can't use a printer 
setting. 

Unfortunately, you can't set the 
MX-80 or TRS-80 mode at this time. 
You must make that selection at the ear- 
lier stage of the program. 

You'll probably need to read Draw's 
21-page manual only onc^. It explains 
the commands adequately, and the pro- 
gram is user friendly. 

While creating your graphics display, 
you can return to the menu at any time 
to call up files that give you helpful in- 
formation. One such file provides all 
the ASCII codes and indicates what ap- 
peal? on the screen if you use the special 
character command. 

You can draw circles or change the 
printer mode only from the menu. After 
you finish using the menu, Draw re- 
stores your graphics screen. 

A program listing in the manual 
shows how to use your displays in a Bask: 
program. I don't know why this listing 
isn't on the disk as a user convenience. 

In addition to the seven files that 
comprise Draw, the disk contains 10 
sample display files and a display file 
that illustrates the fill routine. 

The greatest inconvenience in pro- 
gramming with Draw is that you must 
protect high memory. You must re- 
member what value to set since no re- 
mark statonent in the program indi- 
cates that value. 

I've corrected this in my copy by add- 
ing the following line to Draw, then sav- 
ing the modified program: 

5 POKE 16561,252 : POKE 16562,216 : CLEAR 50 



We have 
CP/M for 

adio Shac 



2,000 new programs for your 
TRS-80® 12. 

C"P/M is the runaway 
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thousands of useful programs 
that operate on CP/M. 

Now you can put the power 
of CP/M into your Radio 
Shack TRS-80 II. 12. or 16. 
and be able to use all the 
popular and useful software — 
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previously out of your reach. 

Use any printer. 

Instead of being chained to 
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and several Winchester 
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up to 80 megabytes. 

Yes! Send me tree infomutiOB 



about CP/M for Radio Sluck. 

Name 



Uses only 8.5K of memory. 

Since our first version 
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Besides the standard Digital 
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and glossary'. 

You'll have your first working 
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Only $200. 

The floppy disk version of 
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80 Micro, November 1983 • 87 



REVIEWS 



Draw works very well, and meets the 
needs of the casual programmer. It's 
painfully slow, but it provides an alter- 
native to a more expensive graphic and 
text editor program. 

Kw&draw 

Kwikdraw is faster, more powerful, 
and more expensive than Draw. Draw- 
ing a large circle takes only a few sec- 
onds with Kwikdraw; Draw needs one 
to two minutes for the same task. Kwik- 
draw includes all Draw's functions, and 
many more sophisticated capabilities. 

One useful command moves one fig- 
ure, text, or the entire display to another 
location on the screen. For example, 
you can move a cloud from the left side 
of the screen to the right side without al- 
tering the rest of the display. 

The wraparound feature lets you put 
half of the cloud on each side of the 
screen. Another option moves the out- 
line of an object and leaves its contents 
intact at the original location. You can 
also duplicate an object and leave the 
original in place. 

One command shifts the whole 
screen right, left, up, or down. With this 
comrrand, you can reposition a symme- 
trical pattern for different graphk: effects. 

You can save Kwikdraw displays in 
two ways: to a disk file or to memory 
buffers. You can save up to 10 displays 
in memory. Kwikdraw will overlay any 
of these displays or one from a disk file 
on the current screen display. With 
Kwikdraw 's settings, you determine 
which part of the overlay dominates 
when the display characters or graphics 
conflict. 

The Juxtapose routine places any 
buffer displays over the screen display, 
but not permanently. The buffer you se- 
lect for juxtaposing flashes over the 
display. 

You can use this feature to copy part 
of the display from the buffer to your 
screen display manually or to see how 
the combination might look. 1 find it 
useful to juxtapose a buffer to see what 
it contains before I save my current 
screen display to it. 

One feature of Kwikdraw reverses the 
image of your display around a hori- 
zontal or vertical axis. I'd like a com- 
mand that provides a mirror image of 
the left side of the screen on the right 
side without eliminating the left side. 
Then you'd get some great symmetrical 
or kaleidoscopic designs. 
88-80 Micro. November 1983 



"Kwikdraw offers much 
more control than Draw. " 



Line printer control is better with 
Kwikdraw than with Draw. You can 
print specified buffers on the screen dis- 
play. Printing any of the buffers is a 






Figure 3. Window command shifa symmetriad 
display for different effects. 



background operation. You select which 
buffers you want printed, then return to 
the screen display or perform any other 
function while printing resumes. 

You can even change the contents of 
the buffers you've selected for printout. 
After a buffer has been printed, you can 
fill it with another display and reselect 



the buffer for printing. You can do all 
this before the current printing opera- 
tion is complete. 

Kwikdraw has three file saving op- 
tions. In addition to an ASCII file, you 
can save the display as a Basic subrou- 
tine file or an object code file. The three 
files load back into the Kwikdraw pro- 
gram without conversion. 

You can merge the Basic subroutine 
with your Basic program and call it. The 
ASCII file is called from Basic in much 
the same way as in Draw. The object 
code file is placed anywhere in memory 
for later use by your Basic or machine 
language program. 

The manual gives examples of each 
type of file. Four examples are on the 
disk as demonstration programs. You 
can easily incorporate these demonstra- 
tion files into your program to save typ- 
ing and eliminate keying in errors. 

Kwikdraw offers much more control 
than Draw. As in Draw, you display 
programming information on the 
screen to give you the command codes 
available or the current settings for the 
controls. 

If you don*t like the default settings 
in Kwikdraw, you can change them and 
save your own file with the specified set- 
tings in it. You do the same for printer 
settings. 

The manual for Kwikdraw is 54 
pages and full of information. 
Kwikdraw is very user friendly, so 
you'll probably read its manual only 
once also. 

I fmd no major faults with Draw or 
Kwikdraw. Some idiosyncracies do ex- 
ist. Using Draw for circles that don't re- 
side entirely on the screen can produce 
some unexpected results. 

Using the routine to move a figure 
outline without moving its contents 
sometimes causes problems. Also mov- 
ing a figure that extends to the edge of 
the screen doesn't always work. After 
you experiment, you'll learn what to ex- 
pect and how to avoid any surprises. 

If you expect to use graphics displays 
only on a limited basis. Draw is a good 
bargain. If you plan to use extensive 
graphics displays, spend the extra mon- 
ey for Kwikdraw. Both are good pro- 
grams and will serve you well. 

Nearly any display you create with 
Kwikdraw you can also create with 
Draw. It just takes longer with Draw 
and requires more ingenuity to ac- 
complish the same results. ■ 



^^VIEW Dlc^ 



Radio Shack Model 4, Tandy/Radio 
Shack, One Tandy Center, Fort 
Worth, TX 76102, $1,999. 

". . -the Model 4 is a very power- 
ful, flexible computer system. It can 
be used equally as well in a home as 
in a place of business. Either way, it 
is well worth the. . .price." Interface 
Age, September, p. 79. 



The Official SUkon VaSey Guy 
Handbook, Patty Bell and Doug 
Myrland, Avon Books, New York, 
NY, 105 pp., $3.95. 

". . .the authors have managed to 
produce a gentle and surprisingly 
sensitive spoof of the stereotypical 
computer wunderkind lurking about 
laboratories and back rooms . . . : 
average-looking, bespectacled, his 
pale-blue polyester trousers a trifle 
too short, a wrinkled corduroy jack- 
et (tan, of course), and a plastic pock- 
et protector abulge with writing im- 
plements. And an ID badge. And a 
clip-on tie. And a beeper on his belt. 

"...About the only people who 
won't appreciate it are in-house sys- 
tems analysts, programmers, field 
engineers. . ." Personal Computing, 
September, p. 164. 



CoCo-CooIer, Rem Industries Inc., 
9420 "B" Lurline Ave., Chatsworth, 
CA 91311, Color Computer, $39.95. 

"...Thank goodness for CoCo- 
Cooler, a cooling fan from Rem In- 
dustries. 

"... If you use your Color Com- 
puter for serious functions such as 
word processing, programming, or 
setting high game scores, you should 
invest in a CoCo-Cooler. The rea- 



sonable price of $39.95 may save you 
from your next system crash..." 
Creative Computing, September, 
p. 64. 



The Computer Camp Book, Yellow 

Springs Computer Camp Inc., Yel- 
low Springs, OH, 227 pp., $12.95. 
"...There's no quarrel with the 

information in this book Even 

educators and planners interested in 
establishing an extracurricular activi- 
ty could gain a wealth of ideas and 
insight from TTie Computer Camp 
Book. 

"...Sounds like a fine book, 
doesn't it? It is, if one stops at con- 
tent and organization and has no in- 
terest in the quality of the physical 
product. . . .the overall design sug- 
gests a cheapness unworthy of the 
book." Personal Computing, Sep- 
tember, p. 167. 



Martian Patrol, Melbourne House, 
Dept. CS 347 Reedwood Drive, 
Nashville. TN 37217, Models I and 
III, 32K, $19.95 disk, $15.95 
casserte. 

"You man a sophisticated land 
rover that just happens to be well 
armed and highly maneuverable. 

". . .The object of Martian Patrol 
is to explore various sections of the 
planet surface. ...As you bounce 
along the surface you must avoid 
large craters, outcroppings of rocks, 
and land mines. . . , Combine all of 
these hazards with concentrated air 
attacks from enemy shipw, and you 
have one heck of a game." Creative 
Computing, September, p. 161. 



Tbesaurus and Tbesaunis Builder, 

Refware, POB 451, Chappaqua, NY 
10514, Models I and III, $89.95 and 
$149.95. 

". . .is Refware's Thesaurus genu- 
inely practical? ... I don*t think so. 

"... Some TRS-80 owners will en- 
joy the novelty... while others will 
howl about the price — more than 10 
times the cost of a Roget paper- 
back." Popular Computing, Sep- 
tember, p. 197. 

Moptown, The Learning Company, 
Follett Library Book Company, 
4506 Northwest Highway, Qystal 
Lake, IL 60014, Color Computer, 
16K Extended Color Basic, $45 disk, 
$40 cassette. 

"...The Moptown program is a 
series of eleven learning activities, 
each designed to be progressively 
more difficult. Students from ages 
six to thirteen will have a challeng- 
ing experience working through the 
Moptown activities. 

" . . . As the activities progress, the 
students must learn to identify dif- 
ferences and patterns, and develop 
strategies to solve more complex 
problems." The Color Computer 
Magazine, September, p. 115. 

Penguin, Displayed Video, 111 Mar- 
shan St., Litchfield, MI 49252, 
Models I and III. 48K, $19.95 disk, 
$15.95 cassette. 

"The graphics in Penguin are 
cute, and the gameplay is light- 
hearted, but the sound effects are 
definitely lacking in intensity and 
complexity. . . . Penguin is still a 
quality game that deserves a place in 
any software library. ' ' Creative 
Computing, September, p. 158. 





The 



PRODUCER 

The Professional Program Writer, 



»- 59 



What has your computer done for you 
lately? You bought it to be a powerful and 
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software keeps you frustrated and makes 
your computer an expensive and idle 
gadget, The PRODUCER is here to solve 
your problem. 

Now you can design and produce 
professional quality programs that meet 
your exact specifications and you don't 
even need to understand programming at 

all. 



THE PRODUCER IS A SOFTWARE PACKAGE 
THAT WRITES PROGRAMS FOR YOU. 

Even though you have no knov\/ledge about how to write 
programs, you can nov^ create impressive, sophisticated 
and functional software to manage your data. You answer 
simple English questions, draw your screen on your 
monitor exactly like you want it, and The PRODUCER 
writes the entire BASIC program by itself. 

THE PRODUCER WAS DESIGNED FOR MICRO 
COMPUTER OWNERS WHO CANT FIND THE 
SOFTWARE PROGRAM TO DO WHAT THEY 
WANT IT TO DO. 

You may never need to buy another computer program to 
store and retrieve information, perform calculations on 
your data and get displayed and printed reports. The 
PRODUCER can create customized software of truly 
professional quality. 

The PRODUCER makes the micro computer a useful tool 
to the novice and saves many hours of programming time 
for the experienced computer professional. 

IF YOU ARE A NOVICE 

The PRODUCER can make you feel like a pro. The Basic 
code is written for you. You push buttons, answer 
questions and watch the program develop in this 
remarkable process. 

IF YOU ARE A PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMMER 

The PRODUCER can be the time-saver you need to 
increase your productivity and make your job easier. The 
PRODUCER provides many of the advanced features 
found on products that cost many thousands of dollars 
more. You'll be proud to show your clients the 
professional quality programs created by The 
PRODUCER. 




Listen to what one of our users wrote recently: 
The PRODC/CEii has prouen to be the greatest lusedto 
^)0icL 70% qfmy time writing przigmms to create, Tnaintain, 
sort, and Ust data. No More. Days and u«eJcs of 
programming are now reduced to minutes and hours. The 
PRODUCER has increased tfie pradnctiuity qfmy custom 
sqftwarejirmby 400%. This product is in a dass reserved 
^r (he best a. Copelle, Northbrook, Illinois. 



HOW DO I LEARN TO USE THE PRODUCER 

In each TRS-80 version, we have provided a systematic 
guided tour of The PRODUCER program generator 
process. For the Model I and III, an audio cassette tape 
tutorial is part of your package. One of your fellow 
PRODUCER owners talks to you as you go through the 
step-by-step lessons. The tapes not only teach you the 
operating process, they enable you to actually create a 
program of your own design while you learn. 

We have provided over 200 pages of thorough 
documentation in The PRODUCER Reference Manual, 
but we encourage you not to read the manual until after 
you have completed the tutorial. We've had many rave 
reviews from our users, like this one from S.R, Foster of 
Pensacola, Florida: 

The tutorkil was an exc^lent starter. Jt oioWfld me to get 
an wiOiitwUhoutdaysanddays a/reading. Veryh^Jid. 



WHAT DO YOU GET 
WITH THE PRODUCER? 

You will be impressed with the 
professionalism of the PRODUCER 
package: 

D)SKeTTE(i) containmg PRODUCER 
Program Development System. 
REFERENCE MANUAL of over 200 pages of 
extensive, easy lo read, well organtzed 
material Attractive hardback 3-ring binder 
Color keyed index tabs separate the 
chapters Comprehensive alphabetical 
Index refers to specific chaptersubsections. 
QUICK REFERENCE CARD 
REGISTRATION CARD 
TUTORIAL SESSION including audio 
cassettes and detailed foliov^-aiong outline, 
v^rjtten and produced by fellow PRODUCER 
user. 

FREE HOME INVENTORY MANAGE- 
MENT PROGRAM ($5995 value as a 
sample) allowing you to use a finished 
program immediately 

ONE YEAR SUBSCRIPTION to the 
PRODUCER newsletter 

TOLL FREE NUMBER for technical 
assistance, available only to registered 
PRODUCER owners. 




Pictured are the components of the Model III version of The PRODUCER Other versions may vary slightly 



The 
PRODUCER, 



•59 



HOW THE PRODUCER WORKS 

We think you will be impressed with the ease of 
operation and the amazing versatility of features 
you get with the PRODUCER. Here is a step by step 
overview of the program writing process. The 
screen shown is an unretouched photo of the 
Master Menu from which each of these steps is 
selected. 

n Planning Your Program 

The PRODUCER provides a fieiptul planning form you can pnnl on your Own pnnler It 
helps you organize your ihp jgnrs lo create a tailor made Drogram to meet your neeas 

D Creating The Screen 

Visible on your monitor will be ths screen wriefe inforrnaiion will beenierea.editeOana 
disptayea There are su simple steps to follow in crealmg your screen 

1. Draw Your Screen 

Using the arrow keys construct the screen many configuration you desire With single 
keystrokes, enter large graphic letters and borders Edit at will until you are satisfied. 

2. Define Message Areas 

SbIbcI an area of your screen where Tne PRODUCER messages to you will appear 

3. Define Input Fields 

The PRODUCER will ask you questions about the areas where you witl enter the daU 
You specify the length of each area or field, as well as acceptable characters m each 
field 



4. Define Display Fields 

Locale the display fields anywhere you want on your screen These show the results o( 
the calculations you want made on your data 

5. Define Custom Prompts 

You select an area where help messages to yourself can be displayed 

6. Save Your Results 

Assign a working name lor your program and save it to disk. 



_ 1 




Tk PrariuBr 

THE PPOFESSIOfW. PROfiRW WITER 101982 BV R06ER SMITH 














BV <1) PLANNING FORN (D CREATE A SCREEN 

SOFItWPE OF THE <2> LOSOH FILEfWC <2> EtlT B«IC WM 

FUTURE INC <3> REFERENCE fORB <3> BflKE BftSIC LlIC 

PRESS <A) OR B» TO (5> FUTURE HENU <5> BUJU PROSfi* 
SELECT mim «HU <6) UTILITV'S WW (6) EXIT TO MS 




^_ 







D Editing Basic Data 

1 Edit any pan of The PRODUCER program you have created -- screen field names, 
lengths, prompt areas, etc 

2 Type in any help message you want as a custom prompt to help you operate the 
p rog ra m 

3 Easily create calculations for your program using actual field names You can use 
the contents of any numeric field and all main operations including logical operators 

D Making Basic Code 

Press a key. sil bacli and watch The PRODUCER do all the work of creating BASIC 
coOe tor your program You can see the program lines appear on your screen 
Complete error checking is done (or you 



a Building Reports 



Virtually any report is available lo you thru our NEW free form report generator It 
works with any size paper Vou are allowed up to 100 calculations within the report 
You can specify enact position of any ie«t information to any position on your paper 
(even preprinted forms checks etc I An amaiingly versatile tool 

n Building The Program 

Put the (inishmg touches on your program by selecting cursor lype. size, flashing 
speed, auto messages, custom logos, etc Afier your selections have been made, press 
a key and your entire finished program is created in lesslhan 5 minutes That's all there 
19 lo this remarkably simple program generation process 

Continued 



The 
PRODUCER, 



TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

The PRODUCER provides many advanced features which allow you 
to do "magic" with the programs you create. 



The SCREEN GENERATOR 

*Use the full screen (all lines and column positions) 
'Create a professional well organized screen with graphics 
'Save up to 9 separate screens in memory at one time and get 

instant access to each 
'Move the cursor to any location on the screen 
'Replicate bars/lines/graphics to define certain screen areas 
'Access an instantly available Help Menu of all Screen 

Editor commands 
'Insert and delete any character with a single keystroke 
'Clear or erase selected areas of any screen 
'Insert and delete whole lines on the screen 
'Center any text on the screen 
'Move any rectangular block of text anywhere on the screen 

(block move) 
'Create titles with a single keystroke large graphic letter alphabet 
'Move portions of screens between different screens (cut and 

paste) 
'Save any number ot screens to disk at any time 
'Recall any screen from disk any time 
' Crea te BASIC lines to re-create any screen 

FILE and RECORD HANDLING 

■Rapidly access records with BTREE File structure 

'Search for a record with only the first few letters of the 

name or key (partial key) (Example: locate PRODUCER by 

typing PR) 
'Recall and edit duplicate and multiple keys (Example: Several 

last names may t>e the same on a file and you can find 

and edit them individually 

'Fully edit any part of a previously entered record 
•Recover unused space automatically upon deletion of a record 
'Enter data very fast with the special batch mode 
•Recall immediately any record after it's been entered, 

eliminating time consuming sortmg and indexing 
•Rapidly access any record anytime (2-4 seconds average) 
'Globally search and replace data in certain fields in 

selected record range 
'Automatically rebuild any file to meet new specifications. No 

need to re-enter data when a file needs to be restructured. 
•Balance any BTREE file automatically to reorganize and speed 

up file access time 
'Recover from power failure and easily rebuild files that have 

been damaged. Avoid laborious re-entry of long data files 

SCREEN ORIENTED INPUT 
and EDITING of DATA 

•Insert and delete characters at any position in any field No 

"back to start" retyping of data 
'Move forward or back to previously entered fields to edit 

using the arrow keys. Totally non-destructive cursor. Does not 

require re-entering of each data field 
'Move within any field using the arrow keys 
'Move instantly to any field with Control G command 
'Exit from input/edit mode at any point allowing immediate 

escape from data entry mode. Allows partial information to be 

entered for each record without the annoying, time 

consuming need to press ENTER for each blank field not used 

at the time of entry 
'Duplicate field information from a previous record with one 

keystroke. No need to re-enter duplicate information. 

addresses, etc. on consecutive records 
"View a custom prompt, your own custom reminder or help 

message for each field with 1 keystroke 
•Verify each character typed automatically 
'Enter data as fast as you want, even if you are a speed typist 
•View visible display of automatic field length restrictions 
•View prompts for each field showing number of characters 

allowed 



PRINTED REPORTS 

"Create up to 9 separate reports at a time in a finished program 
'Generate any number of reports you want (no limit) 
'Select reports by name from a report menu in the program 
'Select from six different automatic report formats including 

custom mailing labels 
'Instantly print reports by key with no time consuming sort 

necessary 
'Sort and print any other (non key) field with the fast machine 

language sort 

'Sort only records that meet your search criteria 
•Sort on more than one field if desired 
"Use any restrictions or search criteria to determine which 

records will be included in a report 
"Use any number of multiple search criteriea (including logical) 

(Example: You can search for all the males who are single, 

and drive a car that are over 24 years old but less than 

35 years old 
•Send any special command to your printer before or after any 

report 

'Specify any line length needed and any page length desired 
'Select single line or multiple lines per record, even one page per 

record 
'Total any fields dunng the report (running totals) 

FREEFORM REPORT GENERATOR 

'Specify column and row of every heading and field 
'Allow up to 100 of interfield calculations, even string 

calculations 

'Include any text anywhere on the screen 
'Keep sub-totals on any field and print at any time in any format 
"Format any numeric fields anyway you wish 
•print reports on pre-printed forms, checks, etc. 
'Create form letters with merged field data, with no word 

processing necessary 
'Put any field anywhere on the page. No limitations 

ADVANCED CALCULATIONS 

•Globally recalculate any field in any or all records. 

(Example: If file is a list of gold assets and the spot price 

changes, each separate asset may be recalculated with 

a new value for the spot price) 
'Use all math operations including exponentiation and 

trigonometry 

'Use logical calculations such as And. Or, Not, etc. 
'Use any level of parenthesis in calculation formulas 
"Save results in any field and display results in any field 
"Store temporary results m several extra memory slots 
"Pass calculation results between records 
'Determine the exact order of calculations 
"Display or save results at your option in the finished record 

OTHER ADVANCED FEATURES 

'Edit any part of any program without starting over or redefining 

the entire program 
"Create screen and input modules only (for professional 

programmers) 
"Create Calculate-only programs with the easy desk-top super 

calculator program 

'Design custom logos for your program 
'Control cursor type, size, flash speed, etc 
'Design custom prompts or help mfo for any field 

YOU ALSO GET 

"FREE 1 year SUBSCRIPTION to PRODUCER Newsletter 
"TOLL FREE assistance number for all registered users 
•REFERENCE MANUAL of over 200 pages 
•FREE audio TUTORIAL 



The 
PRODUCER, 



WHAT ARE PRODUCER USERS SAYING? 

We continue to receive testimonials from satisfied users almost every day. 
Here's a sampling of the feedback we are receiving: 



VALUE 

VERY impressive! No matter how much / 
use the PROEKJCER. there is no doubt I got 
my money's worth. It is clear the program, 
packaging and tutorial are developed 
with lots of thought.... Very user Jriendly! 
Congratulations! 

R. N. Forbes, Los Altos Hills, California 

The PRODUCER package I received was 
excellent The finest software package I 
have ever purchased. Far beyond my 
expec tations. 

S. R. Foster, Pensacola. Florida 

/ think the PRODUCEJt will save me so 
much time that it will give me the time to 
do the more important tasks that my 
business calls Jor and the money I'll save 

from not having to buy canned programs 
that are overpriced. Now with the 
PRODUCER I can write a program 
overnight to do almost anything I want it 
to do and with written reports to txxtt. 
Talk about saving time and money. I feel 
the PRODUCER will pay/or itself with my 

Jirst three programs. 

S. Tomatore, Canastota. New Yoric 

The PRODUCER is a very impressive 
sojtware package. It is well worth the 
money. While Other micro owners are 
printing mailing labels. I am now selling 
them programs to use. I now have more 
time to spend enjoying my computer. 

V. E. Ryberg. Bloomington, Illinois 

I'm in ioyeuiilh thePKODt/CER. IfsoneoJ 
myjavorite programs. 

R. Selsback. Burlingame, California 

It was very complete and projessionally 
done. The packaging and program seem 
to have been thought out before assembly 
and sale. The value' of the deal 
everything included was the best Tve 
seen to date. 

G. Slasher. Martin. Kentucky 

Very projessional packaging. It gave the 
feeling of getting your money s worth 
before even running the program^. .Very 
easy to use and leaves veryfew questions 
unanswered.. As you can see. I like the 
PRODUCER and was impressed with how 
trouble free it is. 

A. C. Vincent, Napa, California 

Excellent. Attove and beyond other 
software. 

R. Hapgood. Henrietta. Texas 



VERSATILITY 

The PRODUCER is the best all purpose 
program generator I have used, (we have 
tried almost all of them.) The generated 
code is bug free, well commented and 
efficient. 

R. A. Copclla. NorthbnxA. Illnois 

/ bought (he PRODUCER to save time. I 
feel capable of being able to write almost 
all programs I need. The PRODUCER 
generated programs will save a lot of time 
u^riting basic code and debugging. Using 
the PRODUCER I can write a good 
database type program using math 
calculation in about three hours. / don't 
haiJe to tell you how long it would take 
writing the same program from, scratch. 
S. Tomatore. Canastota. New York 

Aspecial thanks to Roger and all of you. 
You ve made my computing life easier 
and better. My 10 year old can't wait to 
get his hands on the PRODUCER. 

J. D. Konkler. Columbus, Ohio 



DOCUMENTATION 

The Reference Manual is a work of art. 
Not only is it attractive and easy to use. it 
is so well organized, documented and 
logically written thai the manual is a 
rarity in the software market place. 

S, R. Foster. Pensacola. Florida 

One of the best Tve seen. We write about 
20 volumes of material per year. Take it 
from a 'pro', it's goodt 

J. Crespi. Sherman Oaks. California 

The PRODUCER Reference Manual is 
professionally written to provide ready 
acess to easily understood answers to 
questions which arise during use of the 
PRODUCER. 

R. A. Copella. Northbrook. Illinois 

The Reference Manual is supreme and 
superior to anything I have worked with. 

R. A. Neuman. Okemos. Michigan 

Very well laid out and organized. One of 
the best Tve seen. 

J. D. Konkler. Columbus, Ohio 



QUALITY 



Thank you for an excellent program. I 
agree that The PRODUCER will change 
the entire concept of program creation in 
thefuture. But for now. you stand as the 
best data-lxise- management-system I 
can buy. 

E. Sung, Vancouver. B.C. 

Your system really is Softuxire of the 
Future. Your staff has insight others of us 
only dream of Congratulations on a 
product of extraordinary design. 

S. R. Foster, Pensacola. Fkirida 

This is an excellent program. At this 
point I am totally pleased This is by far 
my number one software and I will use it 
anywhere and everyuthere I possibly can 
both personal and business. Once again 
congratulations to all of the people 
involved. 

R. A. Neuman. Okemos. Michigan 

Comparison shopping indicates the 
PRODUCER'S superiority to all others. 
And I already own most of the others. 

R. A. Copella. NorUibrook, Ilinois 

Glad to see you take an interest in what 
some of us hackers are up against. I think 
the PRODUCE:r will make the software 
hacfcers upgrade their products to this 
high leitel quality of the PRODUCER. Tm 
sure you realize that there is a lot of 
garbage on the market. 

D. J. Smith, LomtJard, Ilinois 

I was impressed by the professional 
appearance of your program. Other 
software I have received were on copy 
paper and stapled into a booklet with 
very vague instructions. 

W. J. Mahaffey. Absecon. N. J. 



USE 

The program is almost idiot proof. 

J. Crespi. Sherman Oaks. California 

ft is a very friendly friend and we will be 

working together for some time to come. 

R. A. Neuman, Okemos, Michigan 

Very easy to use and leaL<es yery few 
questions unanswered. 

A. C. Vincent. Napa. California 




The PRODUCER 



MODEL I version $149.95 

MODEL III version $149.95 

Available FALL/83 lor 

MODEL II $299.95 

MODELIV $199.95 

MODEL 12 $299.95 

MODEL 16 $299.95 

MODEL 16 XENIX $499.95 

IBM - PC $299.95 



PRODUCER 
SOFTWARE 

Box 1245 
Arlington, Texas 

76004-1245 
Texas 817-274-6998 

800-433-5355 



Hello Bar Codes, 
Goodbye Keyboard? 



b\ Hermes S. Mendez 



;- :*r*!"'":.r':«.i'I5 






Huftiait <arw. ThalS whm can make 
the k<j^<Kird, the mcrtt common means 
oi entering dua imo « coroputCT. 
incfficicni. "nwfs aSso why induaTJes 
^vhow busm^ss requtt« a greai dcai 
or data inpui have encouraged other, 
more ct.)uadcntty accurate, means of 
data entt>'. 

optica! bCinflUit* repfcsents such a 
(iwati-i. In (Tpttcal scanmn*(. the com- 
pute! reads dsia direal}'. trMxis&ing the 
keyboard md the povsihiHiy of hunmii 
etTcir. One method ol optica! suonitius 
thst ciinently enjoys ttidesprcad tmi*- 
rHt'iuaikHi and is expected lo have a 
tTTi^H futuri: In bar code technology'. 
- iiar codes are graphical representa- 
tiom.of bituuv LVikxl data in the imn 

B« • aOMicrti, Nov0fnt>«r1963 



Tfiruugh bar code tech- 
noiog) >'uu can input 
data faster and more cf- 
fkrientb than by keyboard. 



of Wacic and while h>»*co. The data can 
comprise anything adaptable to binar>' 
OKOding— imwitor>- number*, prices, 
prpdua idenufkittion. and vt on. A bset 




te^ Uk bar code, mtnslA^ and trai^- 
feTTinn (be inionnatiof) to a computer in 
a viriu^dly enor-frec enwroaraent. 

A Brief Hriitry 

Before gntmf into the basics of bat 
code technology, you shtmid firv lake a 
look M its hiMory. I dittkej the paivnjs 
granted to bar code technolog>' and 
toimd that in 19^, the U.S. Patent Of- 
fice isEiUcd a patem for circular bar 
codes. By I960, ii patented the Knil 
IdemifKation Symbol by Sylvania 
Following thia oode was a protifctation 
of dirfcrenl bar cocte tedinkfties. 

By iy70 an ad hoc committee for 
U.S. \upcrm:*fkft'i brciwghl abOiH the 
Universal Product Code (UPC)-the 




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QP24-ABC 3-Way Switch f (79 95 

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QCENT-AS 2-Way Switch 1199.95 

QCENT-ABC J^Way Switch »29.S5 



Micro-Logic Corp, - - ^ 
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iniel ) M.CPWOi:«»<. . ■ ■ 



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80 Micro. November 7953 • 95 



most widely known code due to its use 
in grocery stores. The UPC, fornudly 
adopted in the U.S. in 1973, was closely 
followed by a European version of the 
code in 1977. 

The early 1980$ brought wider accep- 
tance of bar codes as the Defense De- 
partment adopted bar codes to keep 
track of supplies and equipment. Bar 
codes have grown to wide acceptance 
and use within such industries. 

The general public became aware of 
bar codes only when grocery chains 
converted their checkout counters to 
automatKally read bar code informa- 
tion. A laser beam, which crisscrosses 
on the food item, detects the bar code 
pattern, deciphers it, and accesses the 
computer's memory for specific infor- 
mation on the item. 

By 1981, over 4,000 U.S. and Cana- 
dian supermarkets implemented the 
ne^ssaiy scaiming equipment. 

Who Benefits? 

Some of the obvious consumer bene- 
fits of grocery-store bar codes are: 
•almost flawless entry of the price in- 
formation; 

•the name and price of the specific 
item on the cash register tape; 



•less time standing in the checkout line 
(studies show a 42 percent average sav- 
ings in time); 

•the promise of lower cost due to sav- 
ings in personnel needed at the store. 

The most obvious vendor benefits 
include: 

• keeping track of inventory and taking 
less store personnel time; 
•checkii^ the movement of each spe- 
ci5c item to detennine which are just 
"warming the bench"; 

• automatically ordering items needed 
from a central warehouse when a mini- 
mum is reached; 

•<x>ntrolling shoplifting by tracking 
the placement of items. 

There are also benefits that apply 
equally to the consumer and the vendor. 
One is the electronic transfer of funds 
between accounts. At the checkout 



A bar code reader for the Model 
too was not amiable at press time. 
The topk will be covered in a future 
issue.— Eds. 



counter this system debits your bank ac- 
count for the total price of groceries and 
instantly credits the store's account by 
the same amount. 

The railway system has also put bar 
codes to ^xkI use. By reading the hori- 
zontal bar codes on the side of the car, 
automatk laser scaimers along the track 
of a station can detect what cars are on 
the line and their k>cations. This can 
also keep track of the contents of each 
specific car. 

Many Ubraries around the nation are 
converting their card catalogs to 
computerized systems. Recently, I 
became familiar with this at the Univer- 
sity of Central Florida and found it a 
great help in research work. Many of 
these same libraries use bar codes on the 
books to help increase the speed and ef- 
ficiency of checking books in and out. 

Even the health care industry has dis- 
covered how bar codes can increase the 
efficiency of the hospital as well as keep 
costs down due to loss of items or the 
failure to charge patients for goods 
used. The hospital issues each patient a 
bar code symbol at the time of admit- 
tance. With bar coded items, the hospi- 
tal can easily charge the individual by 
running the scarmer over the psuient's 



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1234 



Figure I. 2 of 5 code. 



code, the item's code, and the employ- 
ee's code. 

Another example of the health indus- 
try using bar codes is in keeping track of 
units of blood. Workers tag units with a 
bar code symbol that, when scanned, 
provides pertinent information as to 
blood type, source, and blood donor. 
This method uses the Codabar symbol. 
Health agencies nationwide use it to 
provide accurate and rapid processing 
of blood and related products. This 
code is also known as 3 of 9 Code. 

Magazines and paperbacks sold in 
most stores already use UPC coding. 
Magazines add another portion to the 



4 1 



STOP 



r< 



2 

Figure 2. Interleaved 2 of 5 code. 



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Model 100. 24k ram. ... S 850 

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Model 4, 64k, 2-drive $1650 

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DMP-2100 pfinter $1599 

DMP-200 primer . S 599 

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Eagle HIE. 2-dnve */780k per drive $2999 
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ProWnler 1550 printer . . . $ 675 

Otcidata ML-92P printer $ 525 

Okidata ML-80P printer $ 350 

Okidala ML-82PS printer S 450 

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Box 10 Verbatim 8" diskettes 

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8" flip tile, holds 50 $ 35 

5Vj" fhp-pak, holds 10 $ 5 

8" flip-pak, holds lO. .. . $ 6 
Disk drive head cleaner kit 

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gvi" X 11" paper, 1250 shts, 

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^ 500 Ust of AOMftlsars on Page 307 



he Phone Line 

Hwv 11 Soulli Trenton GA 
1 404-657-6948 



80 Micro. November 1983 • 97 





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M • dO M/cro, Nowmber 1983 




code called the UPC Addendum which 
indicates the issue date. You can Tind 
this type of code on the cover of this 
magazine. 

The military has adopted a bar code 
called LOGMARS (Logistics Applica- 
tions of Automated Marketing and 
Reading Symbols). This method pro- 
vides a standard for identifying all jjiip- 
ments to the Defense E>epartment and 
promises to provide greater efficiency in 
the management of U.S. supplies and 
materials on a worldwide basis. The 
U.S. Armed Forces require all manu- 
facturers providing goods to their 
branches to use the code. 

Manufacturing in general greatly 
benefits fix>m bar code techniques. For 
example, the Chevrolet Motor Division 
in Buffalo. NY, has used bar code labels 
on its axle assemblies since 1975. The 
scaimer reads the label, soits, and 
routes the axle assemblies to their prop- 
er locations. To identify 33 possible 
combinations of carburetors, distribu- 
tors, and exhaust gas recirculation 
vah/es, the Pontiac Motor Division uses 
bar codes on its engine blocks. It identi- 
fies any mismatching in the assembly 
instant^. 

Another example is the employees at 
the Research Center of Xerox Corpora- 
tion in Webster, NY, who have bar 
codes on their I.D. cards. When sup- 
plies are distributed, an attendant scans 
the bar codes on the supplies and on the 
employee's I.D. card. The computer 
automatkally bills the appropriate de- 
partment for the supplies. 

The list goes on and on. As you can 
tell, many bar code applications already 
exist and many more will come. 

Why Bv Codes? 

Basically, reading bar codes is fast 
and accurate. Keyboard entry ranges 
from one character per second (cps) to 
several cps, depending on the speed of 
the operator, the complexity of the 
data, and the environment. Keyboard 
entry in general is subjea to many mis- 
takes, estimated at one error for every 
few hundred keystrokes. 

For example, BeD Telephone Labora- 
tories reports that the uncorrected nu- 
meric keying errors in typing mailing 
addresses range from .42 to .48 percent 
of the total numeric keystrokes; that's 
about one error to every 208-230 char- 
acters typed. Other research flnds lower 
accuracy. 

Contrast this to industrial bar code 
reading, accurate to one error for every 
several million characters entered. Re- 
search, accordiiig to Datalogic, shows 
errors per 3 million entries to be: 10,000 



using keyboard; 300 using OCR; one 
using Code 39 bar codes. 

There are many types of bar codes in 
use, most evolving from specific appli- 
cations and methods of interpretation, 
rn briefly describe a few of the many 
different bar codes presently in use. 

2of5Code 

This code originated in the late 1960s 
for use in warehouse systems. Com- 
panies also use it to identify envelopes 
as well as airhne tkkets. This is a very 
simple code in wluch the information 
depends on the width of the bars (see 
Ftg. 1). The bars are either narrow or 
wide, the wide bars being three times the 
size of the narrow bars. The narrow bar 
is equivalent to a zero bit and the wide 
bar to a 1 bit. Spaces are equal to the 
width of the narrow bar but do not con- 
tain any information. For this reason, 
the 2 of 5 code is called a discrete code. 

Inlcrieavcd 2 of 5 Code 

This code is similar to 2 of 5 codes ex- 
cept that the spaces between the bars do 
contain information. Warehousing and 
heavy industry use this code widely (es- 
pecially the automotive industry). Bars 
represent odd-numbered digits, and 
spaces represent even-numbered digits. 

On the left, the start character con- 
sists of a narrow bar, narrow space, 
narrow bar, and narrow space. The stop 
character consists of a wide bar, narrow 
space, and narrow bar (see Fig. 2). It is a 
self-checking code since every character 
has a built-in check to avoid errors due 
to printing defects. It is continuous 
lathier than discrete since there is infor- 
mation in the spaces. The width of the 
wide elements ranges from two to three 
times the narrow. 

3or9Code 

The 3 of 9 code, also known as Code 
39, provides for 44 data characters. 
Three of the nine elements are wide and 
the remaining six narrow. Each charac- 
ter consists of five bars and four spaces 
(nine total characters) in which two bars 
and one space are wide. Digits zero 
through nine are represented in the 
same way as in the 2 of 5 code. This 
code is also discrete and self-checking. 
This is a popular code with many appli- 
cations, including the health industry. 
It's probably the most widely used bar 
code in industry and the Department of 
Defense. 

CodabarCode 

Libraries and the heahh field put 
Codabar codes to wide use. A variation 
of this code was one of the eariy con- 





IT HAD TO GO SOMEWHERE 



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An Unlistable, Unbreakable Program 
Adding Commands to BASIC 
Programming in Tiny Pascal 
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A Better LDOS KSM 
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-- Sw Uat or Aiiwftiatn on Page 307 



80 Micro. November 1983 • 99 




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tendere for the Universal Product Code. 
It is the standard for use on bkxxl bags. 
Discrete and self-checking, Codabar 
codes consist of four bars with three 
spaces. The complete bar code symbol 
consists of a stop/start character, the 
data characters, and another stop/start 
character. Since it's a variable-length 
code, it is versatile but limited to 16 dif- 
ferent characters — the 10 digits; the 
period, hyphen, and colon; and the 
plus, slash, and dollar signs. 

Code 11 

You can find Code 1 1 labels on tele- 
communications components and equip- 
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data characters, 10 digits, and the dash 
symbol. Each character consists of 
three bars with two spaces. This code is 
discrete but not self-checking. 

UPC/EAN Codes 

After the U.S. adopted the UPC in 
1973, the Europeans became interested 
and adopted the European Article 
Numbering (EAN) Code in 1976. The 
two are fully compatible. In fact, the 
UPC is a subset of the EAN. 

The U.S. considered many factors in 
adopting the UPC, including ease of 
printing the codes on packages, quality 
of the print, and its omnidirectional 
scannabUity. 

In the middle of the code two thin 
alignment bars project above and below 
the rest of the code, separating the right 
section from the left. You will find two 
similar bars at the beginning and end of 
the code. 

A combination of seven bars and/or 
spaces make up the digits. The thin 
spaces represent a binary zero and the 
thin bars a binary 1. Multiple thin bars 
adjacent to each other ^pear as a wide 
dark bar. 

The left half is coded differently from 
the right half. The left half identifies the 
manufacturer, and the ri^t half identi- 
fies the specific item. Each half consists 
of six digits, with the last digjt on the 
right half a check digit computed from 
the preceding 1 1 di^ts. Each character 
also contains a parity check giving this 
code a high level of error-checking. The 
character parity determines the scan 
direction instead of the start/stop char- 
acter. In 1975 an addendum aUowed 
magazines and periodicals to place in- 
formation as to the specific issue num- 
ber (see 80 Micro's UPC on the cover). 

A number of codes exist that I won't 
cover here, including the Plessley Code, 
Ames Code, Nixdorf Code, and others. 
As applications grew many companies 
developed their own symbology, but the 



basic properties are the same. A good 
bar code symbol should have as many 
of the following properties as possible: 

• Self-checking 

• Constant character width 

• Structurally simple 

• A large alphanumeric character set 

• Constant number of bars 

• Useful at variable scarming speeds 

• Generous tolerarKC in printing the 
barcodes 

• High density 

Depending on the application, the po- 
tential user may trade off one property 
for another. 

Reading Bv Codes 

In order to read bar codes you need a 
fixed or portable scarmer and a de- 
coder — usually a hardware/software 
combination thai converts the bar code 
into ASCII characters. A grocery 
checkout counter provides a good 
example of the fixed scanner, since the 
items move over the scanner itself and 
don't have to touch its surface. The por- 
table scarmer usuaUy consists of a pen- 
like instrument, or wand, and related 
hardware. 

These wands work on a simple princi- 
ple. The scaimer emits light which re- 
flects back from the code to a photo 
sensor inside the wand. The voltage 
produced by the photosensor and 
related electronics is propxjrtional to the 
code's pattern. The black regions ab- 
sorb li^t and the light areas reflect it. 
Scaimers come with a white or red light 
source. Portables use red more often 
because white light requires more 
power. Red li^t reads codes printed in 
all colors except red. 

Two factors are critical to a success- 
ful scan. First, you need hi^ contrast 
between the light and dark areas of the 
code. Contrast ratios of 80 to 90 percent 
greatly improve the efficiency of the 
whole system. 

The second critical point is the widths 
of the code segments. Wide bars and 
spaces are two, two and a half, or three 
times the narrow bars. For a successful 
read, the decoding unit must be able to 
distinguish a narrow bar or space from 
a wide. 

Once the code is read, your software 
determines how to handle the data. ■ 



Hermes S. Mendez teaches computer 
science at Forest Lake Academy. He 
can be reached at the school at 3909 
East Semoran Road, Apopka, FL 
S27m. 



100 • aO Micro. November 1983 



BBB 



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rf Set List of AOwnisars on Page 307 



80 Micro. Nwmber 1963 • 101 



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Bi »1 50tor CODs , 

■ Foreign orrMrs welcon^e. please specify n' or 
surface At(shJpP"igch»fBes»ssumedby purchesei 

I 

■ wnon ordering by mail Mease specity comouler 
I'nodel number [I. II. or I III. drive configuration, and 
I T^mory s^re 



1 ^^] AND \J^ J 

Cheertully Accepted 



^ Sae Ust ol Acfiwrrtsors on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 103 



UnLITY 



•S) 



LOAD 80 



Bars and Stripes Forever 



by Davey S. Thornton 




B 



ar codes — they're fast, they're efficient, 

they're accurate, they're everywhere! Now 

you can print them on the Model III — here's how. 



Most people think of bar codes as the 
striped labels on grocery items that 
identify a product and its cost. But bar 
code applications are more cxten- 
sive^they are used in both industrial 
and commercial sales, inventory con- 
trol, and equipment and product status 
accounting. 

Several different types of bar codes 
exist. Grocery stores use the Universal 
Product Code (UPC); a description of 



Interleaved 2 of 5 



- COMD >■ sans - 



-CODfa <t SMCtS 



UPCs along with a program to produce 
them appears on page 114. This article 
explains how industrial bar codes work 
and provides a Model III program to 
generate the standard bar codes: In- 
terleaved 2 of 5, 3 of 9, and Codabar 
barcodes. 

How the Codes Woiic 

A bar code is a self-contained mes- 
sage that rapidly transmits data between 



Data Character Set 






Wide ban and spaces 


= 


Binary 1 






Narrow bars and spaces 


= BinarvO 




Each data character 


contains 


5 binar>' 


elements 


2 of the 5 are binary 


Is 










Data 


Wei^led Position 


Character 


1 


2 


4 


7 


P 











1 


1 





I 


1 











1 


2 





1 








1 


3 


1 


1 











4 








1 





t 


5 


1 





1 








6 





1 


1 








7 











1 


1 


8 


1 








1 





9 





1 





1 






independent systems with relative secu- 
rity and minimal hardware. Since bar 
codes interface with computers, binary 
notation is the basis for the algorithms 
used to encode and decode data. 

The Interleaved 2 of 5 code has a 
maximum of 2 of 5 bits as binary Is 
(wide bar or wide space) in any code se- 
quence. The Interleaved 2 of 5 code 
consists of a set of start and stop bits 
with a maximum of five groups of bars 
and spaces representing 10 numeric 
characters (see Fig. 1). A narrow bar or 
space represents a logic zero and a wide 
bar or space a logic I . In each group of 
bars and spaces, the bar^ represent the 
first charaaer and the spaces represent 
the second character. Figure 1 gives the 
code sequence for the Interleaved 2 of 5 
code. 

Interieaved 2 of 5 code represents only 
numeric characters while the 3 of 9 code 
represents both numeric and alphabetic 
characters. Each character in a 3 of 9 
code consists of 9 bits with five bars and 
four spiaces. The 3 of 9 code is so named 
because no more than 3 of 9 bits can be 
logic Is (wide bar or wide space) in any 
one sequence. Further, the space between 
the characters is not significant because 
of the discrete nature of the code. 



104 



Figure I. Interleaved 2 of 5 code sequence. 
80 Micro, November 1983 



The Key Box 
Model ni 
16KRAM 

Cassette or Disk Bask 
Epson MX-80 Printer 




BEUEVE IT OR NOT WEVE ADDED MORE 
NEW FEATURES to the ONLY INTERACTIVE 
BASK COMPILER for the TRS-BO I 

' speed increase o> 10- 100 dmes s'e typical after cotnpitMion 

2 Compiled code can be RUOCATID ro run anywhew <o memory Code n c^en 

ROMable' 
i Z8ASIC2 2NOW SUPPORTS BOTH RANDOM and StQUiNTIAL DISK ) O 
J ZBA'ilC 2 2 i\ no** a super tool lor bunnea programm^\ fiA\OOM 4CCf <"< 

riilS. and PRIKT VStSC uaiem-ni: are supponed as y>ell ai s HIGH PRKI- 

5)ON MATH px.kage (yiilh no rounding problemii 

5 Special BUIL TIN MACHISt LASCUACl t OMMASPS to inaeaie progtam 
opetation bv ■»» much as lOOO times' Special commands are implemented tor 
tan memon searching I CPDR CPIRl block memot\ moy.^(LDIR. LDDRl <n- 
putdnft and pnntinn HEX numben. imening MACHISl LA\CUACt into 
COMPILED CODl diisbhng and enabling intettupty <n\erting memory. 16 bit 
PltKiand POK[i. atKl itaci- control, debug and much more 

6 ZBaSiC 2 2 compilei the £N TIRt PRCKRAM into ISO machine language 
(Not 8080 code or a combir\ation ol BASIC and machine language ''^p vsme 
other comprtert) Oumivl/NKINC LOADtRS. and RUNllMt KIODVlfS ate not 
needed. 7BASIC 2 2 creates a read\ to run MACHINl LASCUACi ptoiitam 

\0 RO^ALTItS impoiedon registered Z BASIC ovtnets 

8 Typical COMPn.ATI()\ IIMt i\ TWO SICONDS tor a 4K program 

9 Use TR'i-BO Basic to ftite ZBASIC programs' 

10 Compile some etisting program^ wit/i only mirm chanftei I8ASIC program 

tning experience i\ required I 
> I fullv compatible with both the Model I and the Model III Mcxi I compilerl 

programs v*ofl on a MODH III, and ^ice-sersa ZBASIC norks \silh 

MWDOS^) \fUDOS+ DOSPLUS LOOS MLLTIDOS. ULTRADOS. 

IRSDOS etc INot 1RSDOS Mod I dnuhle densuM 
12 BUIl TIN and nrwch impiosvd Ml'SK and SOUND IfflCTS commands 
1 i Improved i HAININC. hi disk iist^s 
14 r/Mf ( no** available on DISK wrsion 'Mod I onlyl 
?i Z8ASIC 2 2 noss hai an INPUT @ c omrrtand I similar to PRINT iff i 
lb The TAB function vtill nnv. tab .">5 columns on a printer I8ASIC canrmi ub 

past column W ( 

17 NlViiDOSaojOUSiRScanusetheCMD dos command lunction' 
(DOSPLUS rrsav use name rtos command's 

18 N(V\ and I. *tSllR to use USR COMMANDS 

19 New math functions to calculate XOR and IN nCfR RtMAINDtRS of a 
DIVISION 

20 Logical STRING COMPARISONS ate novi, supported 

21. The disk commands INSTR MiDt ASSlC^MiNJ are noss supported on both 
DISK AND TAPE ZBASIC 

22 DtFSTR IS now supported 

23 fight disk files rnay tie opened simultaneooslv. rtndom. sequential or mned 

24 LINt INPUTH. is rxw supported 

25 Invoke the compitef bv simply hitting these fwo kevs^ - 

26 Ni£W60+ PACt MANUAL WITH DtSCRIPI IONS AND IXAMPLi 

27. ZBASIC 2 2 Comes with CMDfILt C MD proffam Irom MISOSn, to allon ap- 
pendifift or merging complied programs and rrvchine fdnguage programs froir 
(ape or disJt 



lOMIN. 2 SIC. 

:7MIN.14»C. 

lOMIN. lasic. 

I I9S arTES 

12711 BTTES 



ZBASIC 2.2 DOES NOT SUPPORT THESE 
BASIC COMMANDS! 

1 ATN. EXP. COS. SIN. LOG. TAN, ano eiponentiation (However, 
subroutines are included in the manual (or these functions 1 

2 ERROR. ON ERROR GOTO, ERL ERR RESUME 

3 Nodirett commands like AUTO. EDIT. LIST LUST ETC, aithougn 
these tomm^fxJs may be used when writing programs 

4 Others NOT supported CD8L, CINT. CSNG, DEFFN, FIX FRE 

5 Normal CASSETTE I/O [ZBASIC supports it S own SPECIAL 
CASSETTE I/O statements I 

6 SOME BASIC COMMANDS MAV DIFFER IN ZBASIC For 
instance END jumps to DOS READY. STOPjumps to BASJC 
READY etc 

7 MEMORY REOUIREMENTS to approximate the largest BASIC 
program that can Be compiled in your machine |at one iimej enter 
BASIC and type PRINT (MEM-6S00I/2 Remember, you can merge 
compiled programs together to till memory 

ZBASIC 2.2 SPEED COMPARISON DEMO 

To help give you an idea how fast compiled programs are. we have 
included this demo program 

ZBASIC 2.2 DEMO PROGRAM 

Time 10 compile ana run complete program 

BASIC Execution speed MOD i LEVEL II 

ZBASIC Execution speed MOD I , LEVEL (I 

BASIC Program size (WITHOUT VARIABLES) 

ZBASIC Program Size [WITHOUT VARIABLES) 
(Remember that the ZBASIC program incUdes an 1879 byte sub- 
routir»e package | Program shown exactly as compiled and run in 
BASIC and ZBASIC 

■ • •......--. IB0SIC S.S EXOMPLC PROeHAM BND TtIC TEST— — -• 

£« CLSiCLEnNlMiDCTINT a-Ii[>EF5Tn 7:DIH 00(6*, 24> , 7 (Ml i IMMDOM 
3a n0-|«aiBB--l>CCiCC-3iDD--3iEE--999Si5T»-'-STOflT TIHf --Tl»*» 
•e FOB l-ir0137STFP5 iFDH J^*7rDiSTEB-3iIX-P0INT( 1, J) iS£T(l, J) 
M Ki-I I -JJ /CC«i7*I*Ji :>I-BBS' INT (BND I !.Ji-«01»7l iRESCKI, Jl 
b9 II-PEEKd^Ji :POKEi;j3&e-!*J, J |0UT?S3,J AND <3*J ) i II-INPI 1 1 
70 nB«-5TR«(I*J) iBa*-LEFT*inB*,3i iW)<l/3, J/3)-V()t.(M«1>l)0<3 
M Ba«-Ba*-Bi(3HT*<Bn«, I)SD(3) > iXX-INSTRi l, »a«, -9") ilri-BQflM*JI 

90 Ba«-nto«iBa«,3,3> ihid«ibo«, i, 1 1-7 I IF IK T«N laa else cls 

ISe IF l.EN(BA«)>3 OR SGNIIXI-l OND OSC'BP«1-32 THCN PRINT-***-) 
lie IFPaS(Bl)&3 TkCN TRONiTROfFiPBINT ELSE I »-MOT ( RND (99M * !•• 

ue Q»-iNKEy»iiF nt--y OR o«-"y- »nd iJi2e Ti^u print-truc. . - 

138 RESTORE iREflDO. C, 7 IJ 1 . DiGOSUBl 7«iOOSUB 1 7» : QOSUBl 7Bi 30T021B 
1«» KXI :PftlNr-«",!Ne»Tl :CLSiBRINT»512,ST», -STOP Tl* -|TIIC« 
IW STOP' •••■•"■-™" END OF HOIN TEST LOOP -—..——-..--- 
Ib0 [>OTp 123*5. -1, -TEST-, -9999 
170 ON RND(6> GOTO IW, IM, ZW, IM, I9«, 2«« 

lae RETURN 

19» RETURN 

tW RETURN 

Bin OH RNDOi GOSUB IM, I9«. ?M, IM, 19a, SM. IM, 19«, 2M 

2S» eOTOiaS 

f^OTKI ZBASIC J OCnVNtRS \ou (ano|>»tr-icte vmir /BASK ; Oli.imn Imik.- IuM 
lend UH V(>UI <»i|t<n<il di-Jii^lPf ni^cITi' dixl St lUO Mith luui D^iMeml m^iaI numbci 
andcopv nl vmifimoH-p VNevMllwctdmirZHASir.' J dndui)d,iif-«irivcHir mdnudl 

VISA MASIIR(.ARL) AMIHIC »S UPRfiS C OD (JRDIRbtAll 

800 52a-1149 order lln« 

ZBASIC 2 2 DISK VE«ION AND MANLJAl, „ 89 95 

ZBASIC 2 2 lAPf VERSION AND MANUAL — 79 95 

ZBASIC 2 2 DISK t TAPt VERSION AND MANUAL - ''9 99 

MANUAL ONLV lAPPUES TO PUBCHASEI 2', 00 

SIMITEK CIMPITEI PIIIICTS INC. 

TECHNICAL QUESTIONS PLEASE CAU («02| J21-9391 
4197 E. SPEEDWAY, TUCSON, AftlZOPM8S712 ^ ,2 

meoisimorPadiatfock iTandyCorp 



^ Sm U$t of Admrtiaan on Page 307 



80 Micro. Novembw 1983 • 106 




As Reviewed in 

80 Micro 12/82 
80 US 2/83 
Electronic 
Learning 6/83 



Access 7/82 

Byte 12/81 

LDOS Quarterly 183 

SoflSide a36 



Standard Pascal with many 
special features including 
random files up to 16 mega- 
bytes, peek, poke, and call, 
accessable pointer variables 
(like C), include, chain, and 
rename, graphics. Call or write 
for FREE descriptive brochure. 

NOTE: We do have a trade-in 
available tor those who purchased 
the old obsolete Ramware or 
Ram Parts Pascal 80. 

NEW! High Resolution Graphics 
package (requires Radio Shack 
board) including character 
generator and turtle graphics. 

Pascal 80 $99 + $2 shipping 

Pascal 80 School Package $295 
Pascal 80 Trial Version $14.77 
Graphics Package $39.95 



]S^EV^'jQLASSlCS 
3 OFT WARE 



239 Fox Hill Road 

Denville, NJ 07834 

201-625-6838 



Char 



P»ll«m 



Bar> 


Spaces 


10001 


01fi0 


01001 


0100 


11000 


0100 


00101 


0100 


10100 


0100 


B1100 


0100 


00011 


0100 


10010 


0100 


01010 


0100 


00110 


0100 


10001 


0010 


01001 


0010 


11000 


0010 


00101 


0010 


10100 


0010 


01100 


0010 


00011 


0010 


10010 


0010 


01010 


0010 


00110 


0010 


10001 


0001 


01001 


0001 



diar Patteni Ban Spam 

^ ^ ^ a ■ ■ 11000 

[: ■ ■ ^ ■ ^ 00101 

^ ■■ ■ ^ ■ ■ 10100 

; ■ ■■ ^ ■ ■ 01100 

2 ■ ■ ■ ^ ^ 00011 

^ ■■ ■ ■ Hi ■ 10010 

^ ■ ^ ■ IB ■ 01010 

^ ■ ■ ^ Hi ■ 00110 

". ^ ■ ■ ■ ^ 10001 

,. U ^ ■ ■ ^ 01001 

'' tm IB ■ ■ ■ 11000 

r; ■ ■ ^ ■ ^ 00101 

, Hi ■ ^ ■ ■ 10100 

^ ■ ^ ^ ■ ■ 01100 

~ ■ ■ ■ IH ^ 00(«ll 

' ^ ■ ■ 11 ■ 10010 

SPACE! ^ ■ ^ ■ 01010 

> ■ ■ ^ Bi ■ 00110 

;■■■■■ 00000 

/■■■■■ 00000 

«■■■■■ 00000 

!■■■■■ 00000 



0001 
0001 
0001 
0001 
0001 
0001 
0001 
0001 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1110 
1101 

laii 

0111 



Figure 2. 3 of 9 code sequence used as start /stop code only. 



Numbvr 7-bit code Bar pattern 

000001 t iolo|cio|o| t I 1 I 

III ■ 

1 0000' 10 c f ' 1 n 

IIB I 

a 0001001 000 1 ' 

11 IH 

3 1 1 00000 ' ' C 

■ III 

4 OOIOO'O CO 1 CO 1 

■ ■I I 

5 -OOOC'O ■ ■ 

■ II I 

G 0100001 n 1 (.'0 1 

I IIH 

T OtOOtOO 1 CO 1 CO 

I IHI 

■ OnoOOO 1 ' C 



I 



II 



1001000 1 ' 

■ I II 



Character 7>bH ooda Bar pattern 


- 


0001100 


|o|oIo| 1 1 1 |o|o| 

11 ■■ 


» 


OOltOOO 


1 1 

IH II 




toooioi 


1 00 ' C 1 


/ 


1010001 


1 1 1 




1010100 


' U ■ 1 


* 


DOiOtOl 


001010' 


■ 


0(11 1 010 


1 10 10 

IB 1 1 


b 


(1 1 1 DO 1 


1 1 00 1 

1 1 IB 


e 


.:x)0 1 c n 


■ ■ ' 

II 1 ■ 


d 


OOOnto 


C C C ' 1 '0 

II ■ 1 



Figure 3. Codabar code sequence. I Reprinted with permission from Bar Code News.> 



Lt»SI OiV) t*CH ISH(CO""tNDfD FDO 
OPTIMUtl "•NO-»ElO ■e»DII>6 B£BfOHMA»ltt 



irmiHHU* BAH oontooi? 

r*-*<oc iA» oibs 1 001' 

-» (•-tlO BETBEEN C-'SBACTfUS ■ fO »> 



•^ [«-lniDS SMCE QlSa I OOIT 

, •-- NAHBOW 5PAC( DO') I OOl' 




Figure 4. MIL-STD- 1 JS9 code dimensions. 



The 3 of 9 code uses the spaces be- 
tween bars to point to one of five char- 
acter groups. Within the group, the bar 
identifies the specific character. These 
bar codes use the same binary sequence 
as the Interleaved 2 of 5 code (see Fig. 
2). This pattern holds for all but four 
special characters represented by bars 
equal to logic zero and spaces with alter- 
nate three logic Is. Figure 2 gives the 
code sequences for the 3 of 9 code. 

Codabar code includes a numeric set, 
six special characters, and four inter- 
changeable start/stop codes. Unlike the 
2 of 5 and thei3 of 9 codes, you can scan 
Codabar codes in either direction. The 



106 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



FLURP» 



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If you need a muftillnear regressskxi package with the accuracy of a 
number-crurvchef, you need FLURP (Fiynn Laboratory's Uttimate 
Regresskxi Package). FLURP has easy data input, dtsk file archrving, 
and outputs a complete set of statistics Tfiese include;mulrtcollinear 
ity diagnostics, hypotf>esis testing, an analysis and plot of the 
residuals, and rnore. FLURP is availal3le for 8" CP/M (requires 
MBASIC). TRS-80 1 and III. and soon fof the IBM PC 

□ My $99.95 is erx;k>sed rush me FLURP (add $5.00 for foretgn 
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n Enclosed is $29 95 for ttie manual (credit to ttw purctvase of 
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□ Bill company (inclixJe purchase order) 

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D PLEASt SEND QUANTITY DISCOUNTS 

Card No 



flCfurt(S Vl^ YOfln 10 

libets wVy Boxes wt 
sold wparaiely We 
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as Being ttie laslesl arfl 
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Computer make & model Disk? (y/n) 



^ Sw Usi ot AdMnisera on Page 307 



80 Micro. Novwnbv 1963 • 107 





UPC/EAN 


3 of 9 Code 


Interieaved 

2 of 5 


Codabar 


(luracterSel 


Numeric 


Alphanumenc 
plus - .•$/ 
+ ^t and spstx 


Numeric 


Numenc plus 
S-:/.+ 


Number of Characters Encoded 


10 


43 


10 


16 


Start and Slop Codes 


Unique, both 
(101) 


Unique, both 


Stan NB/NS/ 
NB/NS 
Stop WB/NS/ 
NB 


4 possible 

a/i,b/n,c/'. 
d/e 


Number of Modute Combinalkins Used 4 


2 


2 


2 


Maximuin Substhutitm [-'.rror Rate 
withoul Check Digh (CD) 


CD required 


lin 10* 


1 in Iff 


1 in Iff 


Manmum Substitutioii Krrur Rale 
nilh C^Kdi Digil (CD) 


t in 10* 


1 in 10' 


1 in 10- 


I in 10* 


Ten-character Length for .010- 
Inch Modute (INominal) 


.70 inch 


1 .4 inch 


.90 inch 


1 .0 inch 


Variable I«nti;th 


No 


Yes 


May be w /CD 


Yes 


DisciTte 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Self -Checking 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Date Introduced 


1973 


1974 


1972 


1972 


C^Htified in Standiuds 


UPCC/IAN 


US02&3/ANSI/ 
DOD/AlAG 


USDI/ANSl/ 
AIAG 


USD4/ANSI/ 
CCBBA 


MarVel Influence 


Retail 


Industrial & 
Govern mcnl 


Industrial 


Medical /Photo/ 

Libraries 


Table 1. 


Comparisons of popular bar-code symbologies. 





length of the Codabar character isn't 
fixed as in the 2 of 5 and 3 of 9 codes 
shown below. 

through 9. -,$ L1=5*X + 2"N'X 

:./... +.A. B. C. D L2 = 4*X + 3*N*X 

The difference in LI and L2 lengths 
shows up as (N - 1)*X, but is not signif- 
icant and can be made up in the inter- 



CODABfiR rODE 



character gap. Since the code is discrete, 
the intercharaaer gap change doesn't 
affect code readability. Figure 3 gives 
the Codabar sequence. 

Printing Code 

Next, determine if you can use a spe- 
cific dot-matrix printer as an inexpen- 
sive and convenient bar code printer. 





INTERLEEAVED 2 DF Z CODE 





Using MIL-STD-1189 (see Fig. 4) and 
the ANSI bar code specifications (see 
Table 2), you can determine the density 
of printable bar code characters, and 
whether a specific printer can print bar 
codes. However, the vast majority of 
dot-matrix printers with graphics capa- 
bility are capable of printing bar codes 
of some density. (For a more rigorous 
evaluation of this subject, I recommend 
an article by Wellman Hoff in the 
winter issue of Computer Technology 
Review, the System Integration Source 
Book, West World Productions Inc. 
This article includes a Basic program 
for evaluating dot-matrix printers.) 

Since my system includes an Epson 
MX-80 FT printer, my evaluation is 
limited to this printer. The MX-80 
prints 120 columns per inch in the high- 
resolution mcxle. This equals a horizon- 
tal spacing of .00833 inches. The verti- 
cal spacing is restricted to the minimum 



1 S -3. -* S <£i 7^ s *? t:> 



3 OF 9 CODE 



ilH 





C;or)E TEST SEQUENCE 



Figure 5. Sample bar-code printoui. 



108 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



platen shift, which equals .00463 inches. 
The dot separation, .01388 inches, de- 
fines the dot diameter. 

There are two relationships you must 
examine to determine if a specific print- 
er is capable of printing a bar code. 

The first is the overall ratio of narrow 
to wide elements. This depends heavily 
on the ratio of the dot diameter to the 
vertical and horizontal spacing. With 
the Epson MX-80 this difference is ap- 
proximately 1.6-to-l (.O1388/.0O833 = 
1.666) and 3-to-l (.01388/.0CM63 = 
2.998) for the vertical spacing. 

This amount of overlap also tells you 
that the second relationship — the dot 
^Lp between both vertical and horizon- 
tal dot placement is not significant be- 
cause of the size of the dot diameter. 
With a dot radius equal to or greater 
than the separation between dot posi- 
tions, there is little or no dot g^. 

Thus, for the Epson printer, the dot 
over-print is the controlling factor and 
affects the narrow-to-wide element ra- 
tio. Table 3 gives a list of narrow- to 
wide-element dot-row widths and the 
density in characters per inch. 

The Program Listing provided here 
produces 2 of 5, 3 of 9, and Codabar 
codes. The program asks for a code se- 
quence and the input specifies the type 
of code you want produced. If you de- 
sire 3 of 9 code, you must use a se- 
quence of up to 30 alphanumeric char- 
acters. (The 3 of 9 code has a restriction 
of 43 characters but the listing prints 
only 30 characters in compressed mode 
and 20 characters in standard mode.) 

If you desire 2 of 5 code, then a peri- 
od precedes the code sequence and you 
can use only numeric characters. With 
the 2 of 5 code, the sequence must be 
less than or equal to 10 characters. 

If you want the Codabar code, then 
in addition to preceding the code se- 
quence with a period, you must include 
a stop/start code after the period and 
before the code sequence. Since the 
Codabar start/stop codes are inter- 
changeable, you can use a different 
code at either end. If you desire a differ- 
ent code at the end of the sequence, in- 
clude it during the entry; otherwise, 
the program assumes that you want 
the code specified as a start code as a 
stop code. 

Scanning the Code 

To help those of you who are ready to 
jump up and write the definitive scan- 
ning routine, here are a few tips. 

First, assuming that you use a 
TRS-80 Model III, you can make some 
assun^jtions about the speed of the 

^ Sm List oi Advertisers on Page 307 



scanning algorithm and the problems 
you're likely to encounter. Assume that 
the algorithm takes 50 microseconds to 
execute, then estimate that the routine 
has a sampling rate of about 20,000 
samples per second (sps). 

If you wave the reading wand at the 
average rate of about 30 inches per sec- 
ond (ips), you find that each sampling 
period corresponds to a wand travel of 
about .0015 inches (30 ips/20,000 sps). 
As discussed earlier, the narrow-bar 
spacing is .01666 inches based on a dot 
row equal to two dot rows for a narrow 
bar or space. Thus, you can see that a 
narrow bar or space consists of approxi- 
mately 10 samples — each representing 



about 10 percent of the narrow-bar/ 
space width. 

This teDs you that a read syston, based 
on the TRS-80 Model III, is susceptible 
to errors in acceleration/deceleration 
and variable speed of wand motion. In- 
correct readings used in calculations 
contribute to additional errors. 

Bar code scaimers have circular view- 
ing areas or apertures (which vary from 
.0045 to .017 inches in diameter). This 
increases the chance for error since re- 
flected light entering this ^>erture is 
converted from an analog agrial to a bi- 
nary digit. The scanner di^neter adds 
additional error as a result of the 
amount of li^t admitted, and the size 



i^'^ "'■ 







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^' 



r*»» 



>c^-^ 



'^''J^.^^' 



«* 



.^^^^ 









.US'*' 



1^ 







^727 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 109 



BAR com. 


EbKMKNrs 


blKMENT WII>TH TObbRANCb T 


Wil)b-T(>. NARROW 
bl.KMKM RATIO N* 


lNTERLLAVtD2-0^■5 


NARROW BAR W 
NARROW SP.'VC F W 
W IDE BAR 
W IDE SPACE 


--{''^y 


2:1 TO 3:1 

(MUST EXCEED 2.2:1 W HEN- 
EVbR NARROW ELbMbNT 
<0,02 IN WIDb) 


_VOF-y 


SAME AS ABOVE 


. J_(S 2/3)U' 


SAMb AS ABOVE: 


(ODABAR 


•* BAR WIDTHS 
10 SPACE WIDTHS 


. 0.a)15 ^^ ELEMENT 
0.0065 WIDTH 


lX>bS NOT APPLY 


N ^ THi: RATIO OK THE WIDTH OF THK WIDL LLtMLNT TO THl: WIDTH Ol THt NARROW tl bMhNT 
(NOMINAL RATlO:N MUST BL: HLl.D CONSTANT WITHIN AN INTLRLhAVtD 2 0[ 5 AND 3 Ol 9 BAR CODL SYMBOl ). 

KOR All. THK ABOVK BAR CODt>: 

BAR CODL Hl'IGHT MINIMUM IS 0,25 IN, iOR HAND SCANNING OR \S'>o Ol THli BAR CODl 1 LNCiTH. WHlCHbVLR IS 
GRbATHR: MINIMUM OF 1.25 IN. OR 25«o Ol THt BAR CODl LENGTH. WHICHbVtR IS GRbATbR. FOR TRANSPORT 
PACKAGES 

MINIMUM NOMINA! WIDTH OF NARROW blEMENTS IS 0,0075 IN, EXCEPT FOR DIRECF PRINTING ON CORRUGATED CON- 
TAINERS, W HERE 0,CHO IN. IS REQUIRbD 

VOIDS OR SPOTS MEETING EITHER OF THE FOl I OW ING ARE PER.MITTED: 

(1) CONTAINED WITHIN A CIRCI E WHOSE DIAMETER IS 0.4 TIMES THE NOMINA! WIDTH OF THE NARROW ELEMENT. 

(2) OC CUPIES NO MORE THAN 251^0 OF THE AREA OF A CIRCLE WHOSE DIAMt I ER IS 0,8 TIMES THE NOMINAL WIDTH OF THE 
NARROW ELEMENT, 

MINIMUM PRINT CONTRAST SIGNAl IS TS'o IN THE B653 SPECTRAL BAND, 

Table 2. Summtny of A NS/ bar code specifications. (Reprinted with permission from Compuler Technology Review.y 



of the bar/space reflecting thai light. 

The elements scanned are represented 
by two widihs. The ratio of narrow-to- 
wide should be between 2-io- 1 and 
3-to-l. The algorithm should compare 
neighboring elements in consecutive 
fashion , Compare bars to bars and 
spaces to spaces. Comparing these ele- 
ments to their nearest neighbor mini- 
mizes errors resulting from speed 
changes (acceleration/deceleration). 

Use the start/ stop code as a known to 
identify the start of a code sequence as 
well as to define the narrow and wide 
bar/space widihs as determined by the 



DolRow 


Dot Row 


Densitj 


Nwrow 


Wide 


in 


Demefits 


Omnits 


ChiiracleiVInch 


• 2 


5 


4,1379 


** 2 


7 


2,8583 




8 


2.6667 




9 


2.1827 




10 


2.0698 




11 


1,9680 


•Program Listing in standard mode. 


'•Program Listing in compressed mode. 


TabkS. MX-80 FT printer evtdualion. 



wanding rate. Use these values to evalu- 
ate successive code bits. All of these cal- 
culations can'l be made during the scan- 
ning process without further reducing 
the .scan rate, which is unacceptable. It 
is possible, however, to store the scan 



data and perform the calculations after 
the stop code is received. ■ 

Contact Davey Thornton at 8128 
Brucar Court, Gaither^ibur^, MD 

20877. 



Program Listing. Bar code print routine. 

\^ •*•**••****••■•••••*********••*••«••••■•■■* 

20 '• BAR CODE PRINT ROUTINE • 

30 '• by * 

40 '* Davey S. Thornton * 

50 ■* 81^8 Brucac Court • 

60 '* Gaithersburq MD. 20877 * 

70 '• Print Interleaved 2 of 5, 3 of 9 * 

80 '* and Codaoar codes ' 

100 CLEAR2000:DIM R ( 255) ,DS { 5 5) , E S ( 1 0) ,CS ( 3 3) , ASl 4) 

110 FOB 1=1 TO 59 

120 '•••* LOAD BINARY CODE ••** 

130 HEAD D$( I) :NKXT I 

140 DATA "011000100",,,, "010101000", "000101010",,,,, "010010100", "0 

10001010",, "010000101-, "110000100", "010100010", "000110100" ,"100100 

001", "001100001", "101100000", "000110001", "100110000" 

150 DATA" 001110000" ,"000100101", "100100100", "001100100",,,,,, ff"10 

0001001", "001001001", "101001000", "000011001", "100011000", "00101100 

0", "000001101", "100001100", "001001100", "000011100" 

16 DATA"100000011", "001000011", "101000010", "000010011", ■100010010 

","001010010", "000000111", "100000110", "001000110", "000010110", "110 

000001 ',"011000001 ","111000000", "01001 0001", "110010000" 

170 DATA"011010000" 

180 FOR 1=1 TO 10:READ E$(I):NEXT I 

190 DATA" 001 10 ","10001", "01001", "11000", "0 01 01"," 10100'," 01100". "0 

0011", "10010" , "01010" 

200 FOR 1=1 TO 33:READCS(I) :NEXT I 

210 DATA"0011000", ,,,,,,"0010101",,"0001ie0","1010100" , "1010001" »" 



110 • 80 Micro. Novemberl 983 



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1-800-343-0728 
extension 191 



00B0011-, 'BBBBllB', '0001001', 'llBflBBfl'.'eflieaifl'r '1000010' r '010000 

1", "0100100", "0110000", '1001000",, "10B0101",,,,,," 0011010" 

220 DATA" 0101001 ","0001011", '0001110" 

230 FOB I-l TO 4:READAS(I) :NEXTI 

2 40 DATA" 0101100 ","1001010 ","1101000", "011 1000" 

250 CLS:INPUT "ENTER 'L' FOR STANDARD FORMAT OR 'C FOR COMPACT FO 

RMAT";QS 

260 IF aS-"L" THEN Cl-3:C2-:4 ELSE IF QS="C" THEN Cl = 2:C2-3 ELSE G 

OTO 250 

270 CLS 

260 'INPUT SEQUENCE ***** 

"." "A.B,C,D" SEQUENCE ■A,B,C,D" CODABAR 

"." SEQUENCE 2 OF 5 CODE 

290 ' SEQUENCE 3 OF 9 CODE 

WHEN ENTERING CODABAR CODE THE STOP CODE MAY 

BE LEFT OFF IF THE SAME CODE WAS USED AS START CODE. 
300 'EXAMPLE 

CODABAR .A1234 567B90-S:/+D 

2 OF 5 .1234567890 

3 OF 9 ABC-XY21234567a90.S/ +% 
310 INPUT"ENTER CODE SEQUENCE";QS 
320 IF LEFTS(QS,1) -"." THEN 440 ELSE TS="" 
33B t***** PRINT 3 OF 9 CODE ••** 

340 IF LEN(QS)>20 AND Cl-3 OR LEN(QS)>30 AND Cl-2 THEN PRINT'STRIN 
G TO LONG REENTER":GOTO310 
350 PRINT"3 OF 9 CODE" 
360 LPRINT"3 OF 9 CODE":LPRINT 
370 FOR 1=1 TO LEN[QS) 

380 T$=TS+D$(ASC(MIDStQS,I,l))-31)+'0':NEXT I 
390 TS=D$(ll)+"0"+TS+D$Ul) 
40fl FOR I-l TO LEN(TS] 
410 R{I)-VAL(MIDS(TS,I,1)) 
4 20 NEXT I 
430 GOTO600 

440 TS="':SS="":QS=RIGHTS(QS,LEN(QS)-1) 
450 ■••••• PRINT 2 OF 5 CODE •••• 

460 IF ASC(QS)>=65 THEN 650 

470 IF LEN(QS)>11 THEN PRINT'STRING TO LONG REENTER" : GOTQ310 

480 PRINT "INTERLEAVED 2 OF 5 

490 LPRINT "INTERLEAVED 2 OF 5 CODE":LPRINT 

500 FOR 1*1 TO LEN(QS)-1 STEP2 

510 TS-T$+ES(ASC(MIDS!QS,I,1))-471 : SS = SS+ES ( ASC(MIDS (OS, I+l , 1) ) - 

47 J 

520 NEXT I 

530 S$=SS+" ":RS='" 

540 FOR 1=1 TO LEN{TS1 

550 RS=RS+MIDS(TS,I,1)+MIDS{SS,I,1) :NEXT I 

560 RS-="0000"+RS+"100" 

570 FOR 1=1 TO LEN[RS) 

580 R(I)=iVAL{MIDS(RS,I,l] ) :NEXT I 

590 TS=RS 

600 Nl-LEN(TS) :K=0:N6=0 

610 FOR 1=1 TO LEN!TS) :IFK=0 THENK=1ELSEK=0 

620 N6=N6+R{I) *C2+C1:NEXT I 

630 G05UB 770 

640 GOTO310 

650 Q=ASC{QS) : QS=RIGHTS ( Q$ ,LEN ( QS) -1 ) :TS="' 

660 Q1=ASC[RIGHTS(QS,1) ) :IF Ql>=65 THEN QS-LEFTS ( QS ,LEN ( QS) -1 ) ELS 

E Q1=Q 

670 i***.* PRINT CODABAR CODE *•*• 

680 IF LEN(QS!>17 THENPRINT'STRING TO LONG REENTER" : GOTO310 

690 PRINT "CODABAR CODE" 

70H LPRINT"CODABAR CODE":LPRINT 

710 FOR I-l TO LEN(QS) 

720 T$=TS+C$(ASC(HIDS(QS,I,1) ) -35) +"0' : NEXTI 

730 TS-CS{Q-65)+TS+AS(Ql-65) 

740 FOR 1=1 TO LEN(TS] 

750 R(I)-VAL(MID${TS,I,1)) :NEXTI 

760 GOTO 600 

770 '•***• PRINT BAR CODES *•** 

780 FOR M-1 TO 8 

790 LPRINT CHRS(27)"A"CHRS(4); 

800 N4-FIX(N6/256) 

B10 LPRINT CHRS{27)"L"CHR$t(N6/256-N4)*256)CHRS(N4) J 

820 Ki=0 

830 FOR J-1 TO Nl 

840 IF K=0 THEN K=l ELSE K-0 

850 FOR I-l TO R(J)*C24C1 

860 LPRINT CHRS(127*K)j 

87 NEXT I 

880 NEXT J 

890 LPRINT 

900 LPRINT CHRS(27)"^»j 

910 NEXT M 

920 LPRINT CHR$(27} "0" 

930 LPRINT CHRS(27)CHRS(14)"* " QS" *" 

940 RETURN 

950 END 



112 • 80 Micro, November 1983 







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60 Micro, Novembw 1983 • 113 



GRAPHICS 



LOAD 80 



Check-out UPCs 



by Davey S. Thornton 




T 



he Universal Product Code is probably the bar 

code you*re most familiar with. Here's some 

of its history and a program that generates UPCs. 



Just about everybody has seen bar 
codes, the most ubiquitous being the 
Universal Product Code (UPQ on gro- 
cery items. Their convenience is most 
obvious at the checkout counter, where 
a laser beam reads and not only rings up 
the item, but identifies it and adjusts the 
store's inventory accordingly. 

The UPC seemed to come out of no- 
where, but today it's commonplace. In 
this article I'll examine Universal Prod- 
uct Code technology and some of its 



BAR CODE BIT PATTERN 
CORRESPONDING TO 3 " 

'o-ini-o-i' 



history, as well as provide the means to 
print the standard UPC-A code with a 
Model III and an Epson MX-80 printer 
with Graftrax (see Fig. I). 

UPC History 

The idea for point-of-sale data cap- 
ture by bar codes isn't much more than 
15 years old. The roots of the UPC go 
back to the early 1970s when an ad hoc 
commiiiee developed and standardized 
a point-of-sale data s>^tem. Initially the 



BARCODE BIT PATTERN 
CORRESPONDING TO 4 
'l-0-lll-OO' — 



BAR CODE BIT PATTERN 
CORRESPONDING TO AT- 
LEFT (CODE SYMBOL) 




41735 . 252 10 i 



GUIDE BARS 

Hgure I. Standard UPC-A code. 
114 * 80 Micro, November 1983 



committee felt that the system should 
provide the produa name and price 
with a single action, thus reducing time 
required for product sales, improving 
system accuracy, and ultimately paying 
for the implementation cost through 
these savings. 

The grocery industry fomied the Uni- 
form Grocery Product Code Council, 
comprising representatives of the gro- 
cery manufacturers and supermarket 
chains, to oversee the development of 
the UPC and to maintain code assign- 
ments. During code development, the 
Uniform Grocery Product Code Coun- 
cil established a subcommittee to 
oversee the development of a standard 
code. The subcommittee reviewed op- 
tical symbols, suggested changes, and 
reviewed study results. The guidelines it 
initially defined include: 

• A succttsful first-read rate of 99 per- 
cent; 

• A substitution rate of 1/10,000; 

• A scan rate from 3 to 100 inches 
per second; and 

• A code length of 10 characters (re- 
vised to 12). 

From its initial development, the 
code was meant for use with fixed scan- 
ners. Later the subcommittee, in an ef- 
fort to provide versatility, included 



The Key Box 

Model I and m 
32KRAM 

Assembly Language 

Editor/ Assembler 

Epson MX-80 with Graftrax 



UPC 


Cluncter Fonnd 


A 


Regular SXXXXX-XXXXXC 


B 


Dnig B SXXXXX-XXXXXX 


C 


12-characlcr XSXXXXX-XXXXXC 


D 


U+ncharaaer SXXXXX-XXXXXCXX 


E 


Zero suppression XXXXX 




X = infoimation character 




S ~ code decinu! character 




C = modulo 10 check character 



Table I. UPC charxKter speciftcation. 



requirements that would allow reading 
UPCs with a hand-held wand and the 
naked eye. 

Code De^gn 

Figure 1 is an example of the UPC 
found on grocery products. The UPC is 
classified as a multilevel code, which 
means that the code, appearing as mul- 
tiple levels of bars and spaces, uses 
width modulation to encode data. Each 
bar or space represents one bit of binary 
data and corresponds to a level of en- 
coding. The binary encoded data of the 
UPC has reflective spaces (blank areas) 
that represent logic zeros, and non-re- 
flective bars (sobd lines) representing 
logic Is. 

Because of the diversty of consumer 
product size and shape, users found 
that they must design more than one 
code to meet the needs of the whole in- 
dustry. Table 1 gives the specifications 
of the five UPC codes developed. All 
versions, with the exception of E, use 
the nimiber of the code symbol charac- 
ter to identify both the type of code and 
the type of item. 

Sdf-Testing 

The UPC has a self-test feature that 
assures an accurate read. It's found in 
an UPC codes except versions B and E. 
The self-check feature involves a value 
called the modulo 10 check digit. A 
modulo 10 check digit verifies correctly 
coded data. It does so through a series 
of calculations, the result of which must 
ZCTO out; otherwise the read is unsuc- 
cessful and a new read is required. 

The modulo 10 of a number is its re- 
mainder when divided by 10. For exam- 
ple, the modub 10 of 16 is 6. 

The equation used in determining the 
modulo 10 of a UPC is: 

moduk) I0(3X{UPC symbol + UPC even digits)^ 
UPCodddigiu) 

The modulo 10 of this number is its re- 
mainder when divided by 10. 



As an example, use the UPC in Hg. 2 
to cak:ulate the modulo 10. Here, the 
code symbol is zero and the code num- 
bers that fall in even positions are 1, 3, 




Figun 2. Ideai UPC. 

2, 2, and 0. The UPC numbers in odd 
locations are 4, 7, 5, 5, and 1. So the 
modulo 10 equation looks like 

modulo 10(3X(0+l + 3 + 2 + 2 + 0) + 4+7 + 3 + 
5+1) 

or 46 divided by 10, or 4.6. The re- 



mainder, 6, is the moduk) 10 of this 
UPC. 

Once the computer determines the 
modulo 10, it uses this figure to deter- 
mine the check digit using the equation 

0=10- (modulo 10 + the check digit) 

The check digit is encoded into the UPC 
so that, when the calculation uses the 
self-check calculation, it produces a 
value of zero if all the UPC numbers arc 
properly read. 

The check digit for this particular 
UPC is 4. The calculation is now 

0=10^(6 + 4) 

Since both »des of the equation are 
equal to zero, the computer indicates a 
successful read of the UPC in the exam- 
ple above. 

Code Structure 

The actual structure of the code 
makes it possible to scan from either di- 
rection. The UPC has two codes (right 
and left) separated by one guide strip. 
This guide strip is a binary representa- 
tion of 01010. Guide strips appear at 
cither end of the code sequence so that 
the binary code 101 identifies the start 
or finish of the code. Figure 1 shows 
these as the bars that extend below the 
code. Table 2 is a representation of the 
binary code sequences for the UPC. 

These left/ri^t bit codes provide 
further checks of scanning accuracy. 
The left code begins with a logic 1 and 
ends with a logic zero while the right 
code begins with a togic zero and ends 







Program Listing. UPC- A printer. 




9030 


43 






8031 


4^ 






8032 


55 






8033 


52 






8034 


53 






803^ 


45 






9036 


20 


00190 DEFM ' FLATTEN SHIFte' 




B037 


50 






(J038 


4C 






8039 


41 






803A 


54 






803B 


54 






803C 


45 






803D 


4e: 






8B3E 


20 






BB3F 


b3 






6040 


48 






8041 


49 






8042 


46 






8043 


54 






8944 


40 






BB45 


22 


00200 MSC3 DEFM '"SHIFT" OP ARRO ' 




8046 


53 






8047 


48 






8048 


49 






8049 


4t> 






8e4A 


54 






804B 


22 






Be4C 


20 






804D 


55 






604E 


50 






604F 


20 






8050 


41 






8051 


52 




liiiing conlmurd 



eo Micro. Novemb9r1 983 • 115 



Lisnng conlmurd 

8052 52 

BQ53 4F 

8054 Si 

B0S5 20 

6056 4b 

8057 49 

8056 4E 

8059 45 
e05A 20 
805B 50 
60 5C 4C 
605D 41 
805E 54 
8tSF 54 

8060 45 

6061 4E 

6062 20 

8063 53 

8064 48 

8065 49 

8066 46 
6067 54 
606 6 40 
806 9 45 
806A 52 
806B 52 
B06C 4r 
Steo 52 
806 E 20 

Ȥn 



3C40 

3CBf 
01C9 
• BF8 
3C»0 

0049 

aaaa 46 

3001 52 

6002 41 

8003 to 

B004 45 

8005 20 

8006 50 

8007 52 

8008 49 

8009 4E 
e00A 54 
B00B 45 
80eC 52 
B00D 20 
8a0E 26 
80flP 44 
8111 45 
8811 50 
6012 52 

8013 45 

8014 53 

8015 53 

8016 20 

8017 22 

8018 45 

8019 4E 
601A 54 
6015 45 
801C 52 
801Q 22 

aeit 20 

801F 54 

8020 4F 

6021 20 

8022 45 

8023 58 

6024 49 

6025 54 

6026 40 

6027 55 
B02a 50 
3029 20 
B02A 41 
602B 52 
e02C 52 
80 2D 4F 
802E 57 
e02P 20 
806F 49 

8070 4£ 

8071 20 

8072 50 

8073 52 

8074 49 

8075 4£ 

8076 54 
B077 20 
6076 43 
8079 48 
80TA 41 
807B 52 



00210 



'W FINE FLATTEN 



00230 KSG4 



'SHIFTS' 



'ERROR IN PRIKT 



00000 

00010 : 
00020 : 
08830 : 
88840 : 

00050 I 

00060 ; 
00070 t 
O808B ,••"•• 
00090 CUKAD2 
00100 CURAD3 
00110 CLSCN 
00120 PRTOUT 
00130 CURADS 
00140 KBWAIT 
B0150 HSGl 



ORG 



8O00H 



UNIVERSIAL PRODUCT CODE 
UPCA 
PRINTER 
BY DAVEY S. THORNTON 
8128 BRUCAB COL'RT 
GAITMEBSBURG, MARYLAND 20877 



with a logic 1. Further, the left code has 
an odd parity (odd number of logic I's) 
and the right code has an even parity. 
Uniquely identified by its structure, the 
code provides multiple methods to 
check accuracy. 

Look at the code closely and notice 
that the 5 binary bits that represent the 
decimal code (excluding the first and 
seventh bits) provide 16 code combina- 
tions with odd parity and 16 codes with 
even parity. Of this 32-code total, the 
UPC uses only 20 so that each code se- 
quence has two light and two dark bars. 

With the code uniquely identified, 
you can devise a print algorithm that 



EQL' 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
ECU 
DEFM 



iC40H 

3C80H 

1C9)I 

0FfiH 

3C001I 

4 9H 

'FRAME PRINTER ( 



00160 



■DEPRESS "ENTER" 





Representation 




Di|it 


Left 


Right 





0001101 


1110010 


1 


0011001 


! 1001 10 


2 


001001 1 


1101 100 


3 


on 1101 


1000010 


4 


0100011 


1011100 


5 


0110001 


1001110 


6 


0101111 


1010000 


7 


0111011 


1000100 


8 


0110111 


iOOlOOO 


9 


000101 1 


1110100 


Table 2 


UPC le/t/righ! 


bit codes. 



Idol/bar 


1 dots bar 3 dots bar 


number of 


logic 


logic logk 


bam 


spaces 


1 


10 10 






.01388 .01072 


.02208 .18920 ,03028 .02712 




1 


.01104 .00946 


.01924 .01766 .02744 .02586 




2 


.01009 .00901 


.01827 .01724 .02649 .02544 




3 


.00962 .00883 


.01782 .01703 .02602 .02523 




4 


Table 3. Dot-matrix bar/space widths 







00180 NSG2 



■UP ARROW COURSE' 



■CHARACTEae^ 



Lisiiitg cvniinued 



suitably prints the desired code. 1 wrote 
the program in Assembly language in 
order to improve the speed at which the 
program prints. To print the bar codes 
with a dot-matrix printer, you must en- 
sure that the bars and spaces produced 
by the printer are acceptable to the scan- 
ning algorithm (see the Program Listing). 

Printing the UPC 

Figure 2 shows an ideal UPC bar 
code divided into equal segments defin- 
ing the bars and spaces. The closer the 
printed code comes to this ideal, the 
greater the first-read rate. 

The dot-matrix printer prints bars by 
using dots as shown in Fig. 3. The mim- 
mum dot separation and the dot overlap 
caused by the constraints cause varia- 
tion in the thickness of the bars and 
spaces (see Table 3). 

This problem also shows up in the 



116 • m Micro, November 1933 



iPMgggg^gMgggMggggggggggg^ 




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$29.95 

><ss0mei/ed & Tested 



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All kits include printed circuit board, 
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ElOG 



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3BE 



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By Computex 

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$180 
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5%UNE OEFINATION ERROR 



6 HORIZONTAL DOT SPACE 
B LOGIC "l"0NE BAR 
C LOGIC "O" ONE SPACE 

D logic"i"two bars 



Figure 3. Printer dot pattern. 



definition of the spaces. Since the bor- 
dering bars define the space, the radius 
of a single dot at each bar/space border 
reduces the actual width of the space. 
To overcome this problem, the print 
algorithm inserts two additional spaces 
with each group of spaces. 

Figure 4 outlines the algorithm for 
printing UPC bar codes. The flowchart 
shows the six major modules of the 



print programs. First you enter the data 
and the program checks to ensure that it 
is an ASCII representation for decimals 
zero through 9. Next it converts the data 
from ASCII to decimal by subtracting 
30 hex. It then exchanges these decimal 
digits for their corresponding bit pat- 
terns (sec Table 2). 

It loads these patterns into a bit buff- 
er that contains the guide bar codes, and 



Lisiing coniuiued 


ae7c 
eeTD 
eeTE 

SflTF 

aese 

8881 


41 

43 
54 
45 

52 
40 














8B32 


7 26 6 


00250 


PNTBT 


DEFW 


e672H 






8084 


6C42 


00260 




DEFH 


4 26CH 






8036 


5C4E 


00270 




DEFW 


4E5CH 






8088 


Se44 


00260 




□ EFW 


44S0H 






80BA 


4874 


00290 




DEFW 


7448H 






seac 


0D19 


00300 


PNTLT 


DEFW 


190DH 






809E: 


133D 


00310 




OCFW 


3D13H 






8090 


2331 


00320 




DEFW 


3:23H 






6092 


2F3B 


00330 




DCPU 


3B2FH 






B094 


370B 


00340 




DEFW 


0B37H 






6096 


FP00 


00350 


BIT8LT 


DEFW 


0FFH 






809B 


00Ff 


00360 




DEFW 


0FF00H 






B03h 




00370 


LPRNT 


DEFS 


36H 






8U[>t5 


i'ildii 


00380 




DEFW 


B 






m\i2 


t-F0L' 


00390 




DEFW 


0tFH 






8HD4 


aBFK 


00400 




DEFW 


0FF00H 






8BD6 


0Bee 


00410 




DF.KW 









0036 




00420 


RPRNT 


DEFS 


36H 






81 at: 


FF-BB 


00430 




DEFW 


0FFH 






8110 


0BFF 


00440 




DEFW 


0FF00H 






8112 


3031 


00450 


D I GELT 


DEFW 


3130H 






8114 


3233 


00460 




DEFW 


3332H 






8116 


3435 


00470 




DEFW 


3534H 






8118 


3637 


00480 




DEFW 


3736H 






BllA 


3839 


00490 




DEFW 


39381! 






aiic 


30 


00500 




DEFB 


30H 






BUD 


31 


00510 


DIGCK 


DEFB 


31H 






OBiiC 




00520 


DIGITS 


DEFS 


0CH 






812A 


B6 


00530 


SKPLN 


DEFB 


6 






812B 


05 


00540 


TABLN 


DEFB 


5 






ei2(: 


4 5 


00550 


«SG5 


DEFM 


'ENTER CODE SYMB' 






812D 


4£ 














812E 


54 














812F 


45 














eiae 


52 














8131 


20 














8132 


43 














8133 


4F 














8134 


44 














8135 


45 














8136 


20 














8137 


53 














B138 


59 














8139 


4D 














813A 


42 










I. HI lit lonunutil 



118 • 80 Micro, Novemben 983 



^ 



o. 



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«5 



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(2I5)4til-5300 

777 Henderson Blvd«, 

Folcrvft, FA 19032 



Sa» Uat of A&mfi9%n on P«g» X7 



X-R DATA - WEST 

WATO.XdA.OK 

80 Micro, November^ 983 • 119 





























SET 
DK3IT 




ENTER CODE 




DISPLAY 
MESSAGE 










































FRAME 
PRINTER 










DISPLAY 
MESSAGE 


































DIGIT 
CHECIOCONVERT 




CALCULATE 
CHECK DIGIT 




ERHOR 


































EXCHANGE 
PRINT BIT COOES 






DISPLAY 
MESSAGE 






























BIT 
LOAD 






LEFT BIT 
LOAD 


























RK3HT BIT 
LOAD 








































PRINT BAR CODE 




SET 
GRAPHIC 
COOES 


























PRINT DECIMAL 
CODE 










SET 
GRAPHIC 
CODES 



































Figure 4. UPC prim flow diagram. 



passes control to the bar code print 
routine. The print routine passes the 
contents of the bit buffer to the printer 
substituting 255 for the logic Is. This 
drives the printer in the dot graphic 
mode to fire all or none of the dot print 
pins during the print operation. 

The program has an additional fea- 
ture which allows the printer to advance 
a line or a portion of a line to set the 
print head in a desired position. This is 
called framing and is available prior to 
each beir code print sequence. Another 
point to mention is that the printer only 
prints in one direction. This is because 
the printer drifts when it prints in two 
directions. This has an adverse effect on 
the quality of the printed bar code. 

The minimum width chosen for bars 
and spaces fixes the length of the code. 
Ideally, this is easy to calculate but for 
the dot-matrix printer, you must take 
other things into consideration. The 
code sequence has 29 spaces and 30 bars 
including the guide bars. The equation 
below gives the overall length of the 
code that considers the addition of 
spaces to compensate for bar overlap. 

L= .01388 + 95«(.0083)*n + 29*(.0083)'2 

where n equals the number of dots de- 
fining nunimum width. Table 4 gives 



/ iiling conlinued 
















813B 


4F 


0S560 


DEFH 


'OL 0-9g' 






813C 


4C 












813D 


20 












S13E 


38 












813F 


2D 












8140 


39 












8141 


4B 












6142 


45 


00570 MSG6 


DEEM 


'ENTER 10 DIGIT ' 






8143 


4E 












8144 


54 












8145 


45 












8146 


52 












8147 


20 












6148 


31 












6149 


38 












814A 


28 












B14B 


44 












81 4C 


49 












81 4D 


47 












814E 


49 












814F 


54 












6150 


28 












8151 


44 


00580 


DEFH 


'DECIMAL CODESe' 






8152 


45 












8153 


43 












8154 


49 












8155 


4D 












8156 


41 












8157 


4C 












8158 


20 












8159 


43 








Lisiinf conlinued 



Minimum width 


3ode length (inches) 


n Bars 


Spaces 




1 .01388 


.01102 


1.28 


2 .02221 


.01932 


2.07 


3 .03048 


.02762 


2.86 


4 .0388 


.0359 


3.65 


Table 4. 


UPC bar code lengths. 



the minimum bar/space widths and 
lengths for each of the code specifi- 
cations. 

The Test 

To test my program, I enlisted the 
help of a local grocery store and their 
systems people to test the codes pro- 
duced by the Epson printer. The results 
prove my printed code completely 
readable by the IBM 3867 supermarket 
scanner.! 



You can write to Davey S. Thornton 
at 8128 Brucar Court, Gaithersburg, 
MD 20877. 



120 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



TEACHERS! 

sriifir «ji«i£ srsrEi 

Thi cMpliti griding pickigi 
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Print or diipliy elm lifts, 
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AutDiitic data prottction. 
Pricii 175.00 ^b3 

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Tinksr T«chniqu«s 
435 Brm9T\¥tmy Av». 
Trenton, NJ 08618 



UPGRADE Your Model 4 from 64K to 



128K 



For Only 



»8995 



Kit includes 8 - 64K RAM chips & 

REQUIRED PAL device. You must 

already have 64K installed or order 

separately below 

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For Only ^19 
(Kit includes 8 - 64K RAM chips & 
REQUIRED jumper.) 



64K 



16K 



For 
Model 3 



M5 



95 



Kit includes 8 - 1 6K RAM chips 
Rated @ 150 nanosecond access times. 



Logix 



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AUSTIN, TX 78760 
51 2/445-6427 

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^ 232 






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Set Volume Control to Ma«imum and Forgel It 

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Auto Retrieval of Taped Disk with Formatting 

Wil Backup Most Popular Dos Made Disks 

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25 



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-48 



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^ See List of Advenisers on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 121 



Listing conlmurd 






815A 4F 




01500 ,•***•.*.«......•....•...•...«•..••** 


B15B 44 




01510 ;• DIGIT CHECK/CONVERT 


815C 45 




01520 ;*•****•***••**•«♦•-.«..■.••..*.».*** 


815D 53 




S22fl 068C 01530 LD B,0CH 


815E 40 




6222 211261 01540 LD HL.DIGBUF 


815F 2D 




8225 0O211E81 01550 LD IX, DIGITS 




Biee 2D 




8229 7E 01560 DIGLOP LO A,(HL) 


B161 2D 




B22A 37 01570 SCF 


6162 20 




822B 3F 01560 CCF 


8163 20 




822C DE30 01590 SBC A,30H 


8164 20 




822E 77 01600 LD (HL) ,A 


8165 20 




822F DD7700 01610 LD (IX), A 


8166 2D 




6232 3002 01620 JR NCUPLMT 


8167 20 




8234 1810 01630 JR ERROR 


B1E8 20 




8236 FE0A 01640 UPLMT CP 0AH 


8169 40 




8236 3802 D1650 JR C.CNTU 
823A 180A 01660 JR ERROR 






0B610 !* SET DIGIT BUFFER 


e23C 23 01670 CNTU INC HL 






8230 DD23 01630 INC IX 


816A 3E30 


00630 BEGIN LD A,30H 


823F 10E8 01690 DJNZ DIGLOP 


816C 060C 


00640 LD B,0CU 


8241 CD9983 01700 CALL CALCDT 


816E 211281 


00650 LD HL.DIGBUF 


8244 1810 01710 JR EXPBT 


8171 77 


00660 SETLOP LD (HL) ,A 


017 20 ■*»••******»*••■■•*■*•••»••■•••■••■•• 


8172 23 


00670 INC HL 


01730 ;• ERROR SUBROUTINE 


8173 10FC 


00660 DJNZ SETLOP 


01740 ;•**••**»••*••**••••••••••••■■••••**• 

6246 CDC901 01750 ERROR CALL CLSCN 








00700 ;• ENTER CODES 


8249 DD21003C 01760 LD IX.CURADS 






8240 216980 01770 LO HL,MSG4 


6175 CDC901 


00720 CALL CLSCN 


6250 CD2864 01780 CALL DSPMSG 


8178 OO2le03C 


007 30 LD IX.CURADS 


8253 C36AB1 01790 JP BEGIN 


B17C 212CB1 


00740 LD HLjMSGS 




eiTF CD28a4 


00750 CALL DSPMEG 


01618 ;■ EXCHANGE PRIST BIT CODES 




00760 ;•■• ENTER CODE SYMBOL 


01820 ;•**•*•**•'*••••••■••••"•••••••**•• 


6182 CD4900 


00770 CALL KBWAIT 


B256 0606 01830 EXPBT LD B,6 


B185 FD211281 


00780 LD lY.DIGBUF 


B256 CD57B4 01340 CALL LNFEED 


8189 FD7700 


00790 LD (lY) ,A 


B25B 0606 01850 LD B,6 


eieC FD23 


00800 INC lY 


3250 DD211281 01B60 LD IX.DIGBUF 


818E CDC901 


00810 CALL CLSCN 


8261 1600 01870 LD D,0 


8191 DO21003C 


00620 LD IX.CURADS 


8263 21BC60 01880 LD HL,PNTLT 


8195 214281 


00630 LO KL,H5G6 


B266 OD5E00 01890 EXCl LD E,(IX) 


6198 CD2884 


00840 CALL DSPMSG 


6269 E5 01900 PUSH HL 


B19B DD21403C 


00850 LD IX,CURAD2 


B26A 19 01910 ADD HL.DE 


B19F 215F81 


00B60 LD HL,KSG7 


326B 7E 01920 LD A, (HL) 


B1A2 CD2B84 


00870 CALL DSPMSG 


b26C DD7700 01930 LD {1X),A 


B1A5 DD21B03C 


00860 LD IX,CURAD3 


826F DD23 01940 INC IX 




00890 ;•'" ENTER 10 DIGIT CODE 


8271 El 01950 POP HL 


81A9 060A 


00900 LD B,0AH 


8272 10F2 B1960 DJNZ EXCl 


81AB CD4900 


00910 ENTDIG CALL KBWAIT 


B274 0606 01970 LD B,6 


81AE FD770fl 


00920 LD (lY) ,A 


B276 218280 01980 LD HL,PNTRT 


81B1 DD7700 


00930 LD (IX) ,A 


B279 DD5E00 01990 EXC2 LD E,(IX) 


B1B4 FD23 


00940 INC lY 


e27C E5 02000 PUSH HL 


81B6 DD23 


00950 INC IX 


B27D 19 02010 ADD HL,DE 


aiBS 10F1 


00960 OJNZ ENTDIG 


B27E 7E 02020 LO A, (HL) 




00970 ' i>««t*»»«mlil»*t«»«*****«« *•«•***««****« 


il27F DD7700 02030 LD {IX) ,A 




00980 ;• FRAME PRINTER 


8282 DD23 02040 INC IX 




00990 ;*»*••**••*••••••••*•••*••*•••****•«*** 


ti264 El 02050 POP HL 


81BA CDC901 


01000 START CALL CLSCN 


15235 10F2 02060 DJNZ EXC2 


81B0 DD21003C 


01010 LD IX.CURADS 


207 ;•••'•••'*•««*••**.••**••**••**.•*••• 


elCl 210080 


01020 LD HL,MSG1 


02080 ;* LEFT BIT LOAD 


81C4 CD2e84 


01030 CALL DSPMSG 


020 90 ,.*•***••***•**•**••••*»■**•«••••**••• 


81C7 OD21403C 


81040 LD IX,CURAD2 


B2a7 FD219A80 02100 LD IV.LPRNT 


8iCB 212780 


01050 LD HL,MSG2 


a26B 0606 02110 LD B,6 


BICE CD2ea4 


01060 CALL DSPMSG 


328D DD211281 02120 LD IX.DIGBUF 


81D1 DD21803C 


01070 LD 1X,CURAD3 


8291 DD7E0O 02130 LTBTLD LD A, (IX) 


8ID5 214560 


01080 LD HL,MSG3 


B294 DD23 02140 INC IX 


8108 C02884 


01090 CALL DSPMSG 


6296 CDFle3 B2150 CALL BITLOD 




01100 ; 


d299 10F6 02160 DJNZ LTBTLD 




01110 .- KEYBOARD LOOP "ENTER" TO EXIT 


2170 :•-••*•••**•*•••**••**••••••"•■■••■ 




D1120 ; 


02130 ;• RIGHT BIT LOAD 


61DB CD4900 


01130 KBLOOP CALL KBWAIT 


02190 ' ■■*■*■**■"'■**■***'***********"**** 


SIDE F5 


01140 PUSH AF 


b293 0606 02200 LD B,6 


81DF F5 


01150 PUSH AF 


e290 FD21D880 02210 LO IY,RPRNT 


eiE0 FE5B 


01160 CP 5BH 


a2Al DD7E00 02220 RTBTLD LD A.IIX) 




01170 ; COURSE SHIFT 


d2A4 0023 02230 ISC IX 


81E2 2B0C 


01180 JR Z, COURSE 


ci2A6 COF183 02240 CALL BITLOD 


61E4 Fl 


01190 POP AF 


d2A9 10F6 02250 OJNZ RTBTLD 


61E5 FEIB 


01200 CP IBH 


0226 ;■•••*••••••*•••**••••••■'•••**••** 




01210 ; FINE SHIFT 


02270 ;■ PRIST BAR CODE 


81E7 2818 


01220 JR Z,FINE 




B1E9 Fl 


01230 POP AF 


62AB 09 02290 EXX 


BlEA FE0D 


01240 CP 0DH 


B2AC D60C 02300 LD B,0CH 




01250 ; EXIT "ENTER" 


B2AE D9 02310 OUTNXT EXX 


eiEC 2628 


01260 JR Z, ENTER 


D2320 ; BAR CODE INDENT 


81EE 18EB 


01270 JR KBLOOP 


a2AF CD69B4 02330 CALL TABIND 




01280 ;•**• COURSE SHIFT 


32B2 CD4884 02340 CALL ESCAP 


81F0 3E9B 


01290 COURSE LO A,9BH 


82B5 3E41 82350 LD A,41H 


81F2 C03B84 


01300 CALL OUTPUT 


a2B7 C03BB4 02360 CALL OUTPUT 


81F5 3E30 


01310 LD A,30H 


B2BA 3E04 02370 LO A, 4 


81F7 CD3BB4 


01320 CALL OUTPUT 


B2BC CD3B84 02380 CALL OUTPUT 


81Fft 3E0A 


01330 LD A,0AH 


B2BF CDDA83 02390 CALL GRFSET 


61FC CD3B84 


01340 CALL OUTPUT 


02400 ; PRINT LOOP 


BIFF IBDA 


01350 JR KBLOOP 


82C2 DO2196B0 02410 LD IX,BITBUF 




01360 ;•■•■ FINE LINE FEED 


82C6 067C 02420 LD B,7CH 


8201 CD4884 


01370 FINE CALL ESCAP 


B2C8 OD7E00 02430 OUTLOP LD A, (IX) 


B204 3E41 


01380 LD A,41H 


82CB C03BB4 02440 CALL OUTPUT 


B206 C03BB4 


01390 CALL OUTPUT 


82CE CD3B84 02450 CALL OUTPUT 


3209 3E02 


01400 LO A, 2 


B2D1 DD23 02460 INC IX 


6208 CD3B84 


01410 CALL OUTPUT 


82D3 10F3 02470 OJNZ OUTLOP 


820E CD4EB4 


01420 CALL GARRET 


B2D5 CD4E64 02480 CALL CARRET 


6211 CD57B4 


01430 CALL LNFEED 


62D8 CD57e4 02490 CALL LNFEED 


6214 1BC5 


01440 JR KBLOOP 


02500 ; ESC "@" RESET PRINTER 




01450 ;•••• ENTER (EXIT) 


62DB CD4884 02510 CALL ESCAP 


8216 3E9B 


01460 ENTER LD A,9BH 


82DE 3E40 02520 LD A,40H 


8218 CD3B84 


01470 CALL OUTPUT 


82E0 CD3BB4 02530 CALL OUTPUT 


B21B 3E40 


01480 LD A,40H 


82E3 D9 02540 EXX 


821D CD3Be4 


01490 CALL OUTPUT 


1 82E4 10C8 02550 DJNZ OUTNXT 

Lining continued 



^22 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



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eo Micro, November 1983 • 123 



LaiiHg coniinutd 












B2E6 CD48B4 


82568 CALL 


ESCAP 


83CD C60F 


83620 AND 


OFH 


B2C9 3E40 


82578 LD 


A,49H 


83CF DD7700 


83618 LD 


(IX) ,A 


B2EB CD3BB4 


02580 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8302 00211081 


83640 LD 


IX,DtGCK 


82EE D9 


02598 EXX 




B3D6 007700 
B309 C9 


83658 LD 
83668 RET 


(IXI ,A 


S^C \ Ik it DDIUil* blllUP 




82EP DD219AS0 


V40jv 1 PRINT NvHCfii^ \,wz. i 




03680 ]* CRPSET 


SUBROUTINE 


82638 J ••••••••■••••■ 

82630 LO 


IX.LPRNT 








82F3 0636 


82640 LD 


B,36h 


e3DA DO219680 


03700 GRPSET LD 


IX,eiTBUF 


82FS 3E00 


82658 LO 


A,0 




03710 ; 


SET DOT GRAPICS N1(N2 




02660 1 


CLEAR BIT BCFFER 


e3DE C04S84 


03720 CALL 


ESCAP 


82F7 DD770e 


02678 LBUFC LO 


(IX) ,A 


e3El 3E4C 


03730 LO 


A,4CH 


B2FA DD23 


02680 INC 


IX 


83E3 CD3B84 


03740 CALL 


OUTPUT 


B2FC 10F9 


02690 DJNZ 


LBUFC 


83E6 )£F8 


03750 LD 


A, OFBH 


B2FE OD21DBB0 


02700 LD 


IX.BPBNT 


83b:8 JD3BB4 


03760 CALL 


OUTPUT 


B302 0636 


82718 LD 


B,36H 


83tB 3E00 


03770 LD 


A,0 


8304 DD778e 


82728 RBUFC LD 


(IX) ,A 


eSEO CD3B64 


037 60 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8387 OD23 
3309 10F9 


82730 IMC 
02740 DJNZ 


IX 
RBUFC 


83F0 C9 


03790 RET 








3306 CD6964 
B30C CDDA33 


027 50 CALL 
02760 CALL 


TABIHD 
GRPSET 




03610 ;• BIT LOAD 


SUBROUTINE 








B311 067C 


02770 LO 


B,7C8 


B3F1 DS 


03830 BITLOD PUSH 


DE 


B313 DD2196SB 


02780 LD 


tX.BlTBUF 


e3F2 E5 


03648 PUSH 


HL 


B31T DDTE0O 


02790 PBUF LD 


A,:ixi 


B3F3 07 


03850 RLCA 




B31A DD23 


02800 IHC 


IX 


e3F4 07 


03860 BlTl RLCA 




631C CD33B4 


02810 CALL 


OUTPUT 


S3F5 210700 


03870 LO 


HL,7 


831P CD3664 


02620 CALL 


OUTPUT 


83F8 110100 


83880 LD 


DE.l 


B322 10P3 


02830 DJNZ 


PBUF 


83FB 3011 


03890 JR 


NC, SPACES 




82840 J SET LINE SPACING TO 5/216 INCH | 


81FD FD3600FF 


03900 BARS LO 


(IV) ,8FFH 


S324 CD4ee4 


828Se CALL 


ESCAP 


8401 FD23 


03910 INC 


It 


8327 3E41 


02869 LD 


A,41H 




83928 ; CHECK FOB LAST BIT | 


8329 C03B84 


02871 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8403 37 


03930 SCf 




832C 3Ee5 


02BBB LD 


A, 5 


8404 3F 


03940 CCF 




332E CD3Be4 


02890 CALL 


OUTPUT 


6405 ED52 


03950 SBC 


HL.OE 


8331 CD4E64 


02900 CALL 


CARRET 


8407 2B1C 


03960 JR 


:,BTN1 


6334 COS7B4 


02910 CALL 


LNFEED 


8409 07 


03970 RLCA 






03920 : PRINT NUHCRIC VALUES 


840A 3002 


03980 JR 


NC, SPACES 


6337 CD69e4 


02930 CALL 


TAB 1 NO 


B40C 18EF 


03998 JR 


BARS 


833A 3E94 


02940 LD 


A,94H 


84BE FD36OO0B 


04808 SPACtS LO 


(lY) ,0 


e33C CD3B84 


02950 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8412 F023 


84010 INC 


lY 


833F 3E2e 


0296B LD 


A,29H 


8414 FD36000e 


84020 SPACl LU 


(IY»,0 


8341 CD3B84 


82970 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8418 PD23 


04030 INC 


lY 


8344 D0211E81 


O29B0 LD 


IX, DIGITS 




04040 ; 


CHECK FOH LAST BIT 


8348 DD7E88 


02998 LD 


A, (IX) 


B41A 37 


04050 SCP 




B34B C638 


03000 ADD 


A.IOH 


a41D 3r 


04060 CCP 




B34D CD3BS4 


03010 CALL 


OUTPUT 


841C £052 


04070 SBC 


HL.OE 


B350 3E20 


03020 LO 


A,30H 


841 E 2805 


04080 JR 


I, RTNl 


6352 C03Be4 


03030 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8420 07 


84098 RLCA 




835S C03S84 


03040 CALL 


OUTPUT 


8421 30F1 


04100 JR 


NC.SPACl 


8358 8605 


03050 LD 


B,5 


8423 1808 


04110 JB 


BARS 


835A DD23 


03060 INC 


IX 


8425 Fl 


04130 RTNl POP 


HL 


835C DD7E8a 


B3O70 NUHLPl LO 


A, (IX) 


8436 01 


84130 POP 


DE 


835F C638 
8361 CD3BS4 


039B0 ADD 
03090 CALL 


A,3eK 
OUTPUT 


8437 C9 


84148 BET 








8364 D023 
8366 10F4 


03100 INC 
03110 DJNZ 


IX 
NUHLPl 




84160 I* DISPLAY MESSAGE SUBROUTINE 1 


04170 ;•••••••••••■• 




8368 3C28 


03120 LO 


A,20H 


6428 0640 


04180 DSPHSG LD 


8,4eH 


836A CD3B84 


03130 CALL 


OUTPUT 


84 2 A 7r. 


04190 DSPLOP LO 


A, (ML) 


636D CD3B84 


03140 CALL 


OUTPUT 


842B F5 


04200 PUSH 


AF 


6370 CD3BB4 


03150 CALL 


OUTPUT 


842C F£40 


04310 CP 


40H 


8373 CD3BB4 


03160 CALL 


OUTPUT 


842E 3809 


04220 JR 


Z,RNT2 


8376 8685 


03170 LD 


B,5 


H430 Fl 


04230 POP 


AF 


8378 OD7S80 


03189 NUHLP2 LO 


A,(IXI 


8431 007700 


04240 LD 


(IXt.A 


837B C630 


03190 ADO 


A,30H 


8434 33 


04250 INC 


HL 


837D CD3B84 


03200 CALL 


OUTPL'T 


8435 DD23 


04260 INC 


IX 


S380 DD23 


03210 INC 


IX 


6437 10F1 


04370 djn: 


DSPLOP 


8382 10F4 


03220 DJNZ 


NU(1LP2 


8439 Fl 


84268 RNT2 POP 


AF 


8364 CS4E84 
8387 CD5784 


03230 CALL 
W3240 CALL 


CARRET 
LNFEED 


843A C9 


04290 RET 








838A CO6034 
8380 3A2AS1 


03250 CALL 
03260 LD 


NORKLS 
A,(SKPLN) 




04310 ;• OUTPUT 


SUBROUTINE 






e390 47 


03270 LD 


B,A 


843B F5 


04330 oi;tpjt push 


AF 


8391 CD5784 


03280 LFEOLP CALL 


LNFEED 


843C DBFS 


04340 LOOPCr IN 


A.ioFati) 


8394 lOFB 


03290 djh: 


LFEDLP 


843e E6F0 


04350 AND 


OFOH 


6396 C36A81 


83300 RTN5 JP 


BEGIN 


8440 FE3e 
8442 20F6 

8444 Fl 

8445 D3F8 
8447 C9 


04360 CP 
04370 JR 
04380 POP 
04390 OUT 
04400 RET 


30H 

NZ.LOOPOT 
AF 
(OFBH) ,A 




03320 ;• CALCULATE 


CHECK DIGIT SUBROUTINE 


8399 DD2Hnei B3340 CALCDT LD 


IX, DIGITS 


S39D OD7E00 


03350 LD 


A,(IX} 


6448 3E1B 


04418 ESCAP LO 


A.lBtf 


83A0 87 


03360 ADD 


A, A 


S44A CD3BB4 


04420 CALL 


OUTPUT 


eSAl 27 


03370 DAA 




8440 C9 


04430 BET 




S3A2 DC6680 


033S? ADO 


A,{1X) 


844E CD4884 


04440 CABBET CALL 


ESCAP 


93A5 27 
e3A6 069^ 


mma DAA 




8451 3E8E 


04450 LO 


A,BEH 


01400 L.0 


6.5 


6453 CD3Be4 


04460 CALL 


OUTPUT 


e3A6 DD23 
a3AA DO860B 


03410 IKC 


IX 


8456 C9 


04470 RET 




03420 AODLOP ADO 


A,IIX) 


8457 CD4884 


84480 LNFEED CALL 


ESCAP 


83AD 27 
a3AE D023 


03430 DAA 




B4SA 3E8A 


04490 LD 


A, BAH 


83440 :NC 


IX 


845C CD3B84 


04500 CALL 


OUTPUT 


e3B0 008688 
S3B3 27 


03450 ADD 


A, (IX) 


845F C9 


04510 BET 




03460 OAA 




8460 CD4884 


84520 NORnLS CALL 


ESCAP 


83B4 008680 


03470 ADD 


A, (IX) 


8463 3e32 


04530 LD 


A,33H 


83B7 27 


03480 DAA 




6465 C03B84 


04540 CALL 


OVTPUT 


83B8 DD860O 
83BB 27 
e3BC DD23 
B3BE 18EA 
83C8 F6F8 
63C2 C68F 
83C4 47 
83CS 3E8A 
S3C7 37 
e3CB 3F 
83C9 98 
83CA 27 
B3CB F6FB 


03490 ADD 
03SOO OAA 
03510 INC 
O3S20 DJNZ 
03530 OR 
03540 AND 
03550 LD 
03560 LO 
03570 scr 
03560 CCF 
03590 SBC 
03600 DAA 
03618 OR 


A, (IX) 

IX 

ADDLOP 

eFOH 

OFH 

B,A 

A.OAH 

A, 6 
OFBH 


8468 C9 

8469 3A2Bei 
B46C 47 
B46D 3C20 
B46F CD3BB4 
8472 lOFB 
8474 CD4E84 
8477 C9 
816A 
80080 Total 


84550 RET 




84570 ;• INDENT 


CODE SUBROUTINE 


04590 TABIND LD 
84680 LD 
04610 LD 
04630 TBLOOP CALL 
04630 OJNZ 
04640 CALL 
04650 BET 
04660 END 
Errois 


A,(TABLN) 

B,A 

A,30H 

OUTPUT 

TBLOOP 

CARRET 

BEGIN 



124 • 00 mem, November 1983 



GRAPHICS 



DOTDRAW 

MICRO-ART 

NEWDOT 



DISK OASHD SOFTWARE 
TRS-Bl) MODEL I. III. IV 
Includi^.s Printer Options for EPSO\' ^^ 

-<n< W 

— fnrtln->'i)iinHS( "lonngiil H(^iirt,32K $27,50 

— PowertulGriiphii, UcbigniT [or A(Jiills.4HK $37,50 

— Tdols 81 Enliirliiinmenl for ProKrammf;rs. 48K $47,50 

FREE Catalog & Information ^33 

Write or Call 

ISLAND TECHNOLOGIES 

P.O. BOX 856 

STATE COLLEGE, PA 16801 

(814) 234-4589 



LET'R'WRYT 



<A>DO AN ADDRESS TO ADDRESS FILE 
<C>HAhtGE AN ADDRESS 
eH>UNT TOH A NAME <V>IEW AN ADDRESS 
<Z> TO ALPHABETIZE THE ADDRESS FILE 
<:L>1ST all ADDRESSES ON PRINTER 
iC>a TO DIFFERENT ADDRESS FILE 
<W>RITE OR rtODIFV A PARAGRAPH 
tS>HOW A PARAGRAPH ON SCREEN 
<F>OftMAT LETTERS AND ENVELOPES 
<PJRINT LETTERS AND/OR ENVELOPES 
(KilLL OLD PARAGRAPHS AND ADD. FILES 



LBT'R'WRYT is Dore Chan a form letter 
oc mailing list. tout letter contains 
only paragraphs of interest to your 
client or friend. Then you send 
letters to only those you wish — there 
are several selection pcoceduiea. The 
menu shown at left la only 1/12 of the 
prompts which ggide you through all 
caaka without dependence on programming 
skills. All options are stored on disk 
BO you don't have to reenter them. 
These include format, greeting, 

closing. nickname, search, sort, 

selective nailing, etc-no dead ends. 
Models 1.3,4. ONLY S*1.99 

MEYER'S PLACE 
5132 Kitson Lane ^2^b 

W Bloomfield, MI. (8033 



CHECK-CO. D.-M.O. 



313-683-5094 



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o 


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p 


AUTOTRO)N 


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PutRNDWORD- to Work! 


• Menu driven system 

• Solves popular word find puzzles 

• User manual included 

• 10 day money back guarantee 


MOD 1 or MOD III (specify) 

Min. sys: 32K & 1 disk. Printer optional. 


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plus $5-00 shipping & handling 




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HOUSTON. TEXAS 77098 

1-409-245-7692 -J^ 



^pof^ 




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AT WHOLESALE PRICES 

-Thousands of Satisfied Customers- ^ 
Compulcr Hobbyists- Public School Districts-Governtnenl Agencies 



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with custom T\,Lvk Envelope. Add 15C 
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*250,500 Quantities without labels, 


With labels Add 4c | 


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200*4'*'* ■ ■]■ shipping « handling 
lOOO^lS"' - ■■ shipping & handling 

These labels are for cassettes 

TM 



TAPE-PACK SPECIAL 

6 E*ch; C-5, C-IO. c-20. c-30 



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caddy 

' . .)- snipping ft 




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Orders 1-800-553-0035 Ext 80 
OnLY 1-80O-528-6050 Ext 3005 

Inquiries 1-206-675-6143 



V See List ol Advertisers on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 125 



Aerocomp's 
Proven 
Best-By Test! 
The 



II 



» i 



Double Density Controller 

* Technical Superiority 







At last! A double density controller for Model i with higher probability OF DATA RECOVERY than with any other 
DOUBLE DENSITY CONTROLLER ON THE MARKET TODAY! The "DDC ' from Aerocomp. No need to worry about the pro- 
blems that keep cropping up on existing products. AEROCOMP'S new analog design phase lock loop data separator 
has a wider capture window than the digital types currently on the market. This allows high resolution data center- 
ing. The finest resolution available with digital circuitry is 125 ns (nano seconds). The DOC analog circuit allows in- 
finateiy variable tuning. Attack and settling times are optimum for 5-1/4 inch diskettes. 
The units presently on the market use a write precompensation circuit that is very "sloppy". Board to board 
tolerance Is extremely wide - in the order of + 100 ns. The 'DDC" is accurate to withint 20 ns. 
The bottom line is state of the art rellabltlty! 

* Test Proven 

Tests were conducted on AEROCOMP'S "DDC", Percom's "Doubler A"* and "Doubler II"* and LNW's "LNDoubler"' using 
a Radio Shack TRS80" ' Model i, Level 2, 48 K with TRS80 Expansion interface and a Percom TFDIOC * disk drive 
(Siemens Model 82). Diskette was Memorex 3401. The test diskette chosen was a well used piece of media to deter- 
mine performance under adverse conditions. The various double density adapters were installed sequentially tn the 
expansion interface. 

The test consisted of formatting 40 tracks on the diskette and writing a 6DB6 data pattern on all tracks. The 6DB6 
pattern was chosen because it is recommended as a "worst case' test by manufacturers of drives and diskettes. An 
attempt was then made to read each sector on the disk once - no retrys. Operating system was Newdos/80, version 
1 with Double zap, version 2.0. Unreadable sectors were totalled and recorded. The test was run ten times with 
each double density controller and the data averaged. Test results are shown in the table. 



• Features 

TRS80 Model I owners who are ready for reliable double 
density operation will get (l) 80% more storage per 
diskette, (2) single and double density data separation 
with far fewer disk I/O errors, (3) single density com- 
patibility and (4) simple plug-in Installation. Compatible 
with all existing double density software. 



• TEST RESULTS • 



SUMMER SPECIAL $99.00 

for the Best 00 Controller on the market. 



MFR & PRODUa 


SECTORS LOCKED OUTiavci 


AEROCOMP "DDC" 





PERCOM "DOUBLER H" 


18 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 


LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 



"DDC" and LDOS $1 69.95 

$149.95 for "DDC" with DOSPLUS 3.3D (limited quantity) 



Not«; test results available upon written request. All tests conducted prior to 8-2S41 

Aerocomp's ia dav monev Back guarantee applies to hardware only. 

Special? will be prorated. Shipping S2-00 in Cont. US. See opposite page for details. 



Data Separators 

The advances that make the "DDC" great are incorporated 
and Double Density Data separator ("DDS"). 

• Has your original manufac- 
turer left you holding the bag? 

I( you already own a Percom "Doubler A", "Doubler II" or LNW 
"LNDoubler" or Superbrain, the AEROCOMP "DDS" will make tt right. 
Look at the test results: 



In the new AEROCOMP Single Density Data Separator ("SDS') 



MFR. & PRODUa 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT 


WITHOUT 'DDS" 


WITH "DDS" 


PERCOM "DOUBLER II" 


18 


1 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 





LNW LNDOUBLER" 


202 






• "DPS" $49.95 

(Use 1731 chip from vour DO Con- 
trollen 

'A' OUS witn Olsk controller 
ctilp included $'9-95 

ic Disk controller 

chip $34.95 

isNpptng $2.00 Cont US ■ see ooPOMe 
page for detaH 



Nota same test orocedures as "OOC'. 

• Trademark of Percom Data Co. 

• * Trademart of uw 

• • • Trademark of Tandv Corporation 



Plugs directly Into your existing 
Double Density Controller. 



DO you need a 
single Density Data 
separator? 

ine Internal data separator In tne 
WD1771 cnip (R'S Expansion interfacel 
Is NOT recommended by wo for 
reliable data transfer. Do vou Have any 
of tnese proDlems: Lost data, tracks 
locked out, CRC errors, disk retry? you 

NEED ONE< 

• "SDS" $29.95 

(For Mod. I: sNpping $2.oo) 



See opposite 
pagei^mi 



126 • 80 Micro, November 1983 




DISK DRIVES 

40 & 80 TRACK 

SINGLE & DOUBLE SIDED 

$169 



PACESETTERS ^* 

Aerocomp leads the way to the BEST value in 
disk drives on the market Quality, performance, 
reliability, warranty, service plus free trial - 
that's what you get from the leader. 
AEROCOMP! 

BEST FEATURES 

■*■ Fast 5 ms. track-track access 
■*■ Single or double density 

* Easy entry door 

■*■ "Flippy" feature allows read-write to the 
back of the diskette to cut media cost in 
half! (MPI) 

* Disk ejector (MPI) 

* External drive cable connection 

(no need to remove the cover to hook up 
the cable] 

NEW! 



3s low as 



COMPLETE DRIVES 

TRS80 Mod I & III. IBM PC & Tl 99/4A Power 
supply S enclosure. Specify silver or almond 
5.25 inch. 

* 40 track single side (Tandon) $199 

* 40 track SS "Flippy" (MPI) $239 

* 40 track Dual Head (either) $279 

* 80 track SS (MPI) $299 

* 80 track SS "Flippy" (MPI) $329 

* 80 track Dual Head (Tandon) $379 

Shippaig & Handling S5 00 per dnve 




HALF-HIGH DRIVES 

Two complete drives In the space of one. 
Complete with power supply & enclosure. 
(Tandon). 

• Two 40 track SS $389 

• Two 40 track Dual Head . , . , $539 

• Two 80 track Dual Head .... $579 



BARE DRIVES 

Internal drives for TRS80 Mod. Ill 
99/4A. 5.25 in (controller required) 



IBM PC, Tl 



* 40 track Single Side (Tandon) $169 

* 40 track Dual Head (either) $249 

* 80 track SS (MPI) $269 

* 80 track Dual Head (Tandon) $339 

*■ 8 inch Single Side Thinllne $260 

* 8 inch Dual Head Thinline $375 

SniDpmg i, Hanging M 00 Per Drive 



MODEL III DRIVES 

Convert your cassette Mod, 111 to disk. Complete 
internal drive kits witti 40 track SS drives, disk 
conttoiter, power supply, mounting towers, hard- 
ware & cables (Tandon), 

• Drive Kit Only (no drives) $199 

• One Drive System Kit $369 

• Two Drive System Kit $539 

Shviwig & HancSng S8.00 Pef Sysism 



MODEL I STARTER PACKAGE 

One 40 track SS drive. 2-drive cable, 
TRSDOS 2.3 disk & manual, freight & 
insurance (Tandon). 

$249 



MISCELLANEOUS GOODIES 

• TRSDOS 2.3 disk & manual $20 

• LDOS(Mod I or III) $119 

• NEWDOS/80, 2,0 (Mod I or III) $129 

• Diskettes (10 in litxary twx) $23 

• MX80 ritjbons $9 

• 5.25" Drive Power Supply & case $59 

• 2-Drlve Cable $24 

• 4-Orive Cable $34 

■*■ Extender Cable $13 

Shipping & HandUoQ S2.0D 



8" EXPANSION BOX 

Complete with power supply & 
fan (Tandon slimline) 

Two 8" Single Side $699 

Two 8" Double Side 849 



FREE TRIAL OFFER 

bseyouf AEROCOMP drive lof up 10 14 days If you 
are not satislied for ANY REASON (except misuse 
or improper handling), return m the original shipping 
container for a full purchase price refurid. Applies to 
hardware only Sorry, we cannot refund on software 
We have confidence in our products and we know 
you will be satisfied 

WARRANTY 

We offer a six months warranty on parts and labor 
against defects in materials and workmanship In 
the event service becomes necessary for any 
reason, our service department is fast friendly and 
cooperative. Our goal is 48 hour turnaround on all 
warranty or repair drives* 

100% TESTED 

AEROCOMP disk drives are 100% subjected to 
burn-in and bench test We even enclose a copy o( 
the test check list signed by the test technk:ian, 
with each drive AEROCOMP means reliability! 

ORDER NOWl 

Order by mail or call TOLL FREE TO THE 
NUMBERS BELOW. Please note toll free lines will 
accept orders only. We accept VISA or MASTER- 
CARD. Be sure to include card number and expiration 
date We will not charge your card until the day we 
ship Order by mail with credit card or send check or 
money order Rease allow 2 weeks for personal 
checks to clear our bank Order COD. No deposit 
required but all COO's will arrive cash, certified 
check or nwney order only. We'll send a card 
showing the exact COD arnount before your 
shipment arrives. Shipping is not included in the 
prices shown. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. 
NE)a DAY SHIPMENT on all in stock items. 



CALL TOLL FREE FOR FAST SERVICE 
(800) 824-7888, OPERATOR 24 

FOR VISA/MASTCKHAKOI/C.O.D. ORDIItS 

Colifornio dial (800) 852 7777 Operator 2< Aloska 
and HowQil dial [BOOJ 824 7919 Opvrotor 24 
TOll FKII LINES WILL ACCIPT CWDCH ONLTl 

for ApplicQiions and Techoieal irilormalion call 
(2M| 337-4346 or drop u» o card 



Dealer inquiries invited 



AE^CCCIilP 

Redbird Airport, Bidg. 8 
P.O. Box 24829 
Dallas, TX 75224 



^82 



^ Sm Ust oi Aitmtlaan an Paga 307 



eO Micro. November 1963 • 127 



UTILITY 



"•) 



LOAD 80 



Decoding Bar Codes 



by Robert S. Craft and Richard G. Beplat 




N 



ow that you have a solid background in bar 
codes, you're ready to use them with these 
applications programs and your Model III. 



Okay, you've heard all about bar 
codes. You know they're a fast, effi- 
cient, and accurate means of data input. 
You've read about UPC, 2 of 5, 3 of 9, 
and Codabar codes, and modulo 10s, 
check characters, and read rates. You 
know that there are many scanners 
and readers on the market, but as of yet 
you haven't found a way to use one 



with a Model III. 

This article brings bar code technol- 
ogy to Model III owners. It includes 
sample programs for the three types of 
bar code data transmission — on-line, 
talk-only, and block -transfer uploads — 
that you use in a wide variety of applica- 
tions, such as point -of-issue (or -sale) 
inventory control, materials tracking. 



Program Listing i 



BAR CODE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM II 

ON-LINE USE OF A BAR CODE READER 

in a MENU DRIVEN APPLICATION PROGRAM 



R.S. Craft 



by: 

of: 

TAURIO CORPORATION 



R.G. Beplat 



This pcogram is intended tor use on the 

TRS-80 Model III / 48K ram / 2 Disks / RS-232C 

under the 

DOSPLUS 3.5 operating system, 

by Micro-Systems Software, Inc. 



10 CLS 

20 ' 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 CHD"RS232 (WAIT=N) " 

190 CLEAR 500 

200 DEFSTB A 

210 INPUT@448, "Enter today's date as HM/DD/YY 

220 CHD"FORCE 0KI 9RS" 

230 CLS 

240 OPEN "D",l,'DOCDAT:l",64 

250 FIELD 1,50 AS AA,3 AS AB,3 AS AC , 8 AS AD 

260 R1=L0F(1) 

270 OPEN "D",2,"USRDAT:1",16 

280 FIELD 2,10 AS Al,5 AS A2,l AS A3 

290 R2=LOF{2) 

300 CLS 

310 LPRINT -•=*=•=•=*=•" 

320 PRINTCHRS(23) 

330 PRINTe86,"KAIN MENU" 

340 PRINTe202,"WAND: FOR:" 



',8,-$-iAT 



Listing I conlinurd 



document control, properly control, 
library status, transaction recording, 
and more. 

Converting to Bar Codes 

Bar code readers scan and interpret 
bar code labels to produce a series of 
ASCII characters that the computer ac- 
cepts and processes. An important aspect 
of adding bar code technok)g>' to any 
microcomputer application is a well- 
thought-out data manipulation plan. 

Converting existing applications to 
bar code technology requires additional 
processing operations. Il is important, 
therefore, that you understand how 
software handles bar code data. 

You may have to modify your exist- 
ing applications programs to accept in- 
formation that you normally enter 
through the keyboard from the bar code 
reader or from a specially created file on 
a mass storage medium. Applications 
that require a software package written 
from scratch can use either technique. 

We'll present examples of program- 
ming each way. These techniques apply 
not only to bar codes, but to almost any 
portable data collection device, and 
many other peripheral devices that 
transmit data to a microcomputer. 

The key to using a bar code reader 
with a microcomputer is communica- 
tion between the two devices. This in- 
volves both hardware and software 
compatibility. 



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128 • 60 Micro. November 1983 



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Most computers are able to send data to the printer at 
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During most of this time the computer is waiting for 
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BO Micro, Novamber 1983 • 129 



Withdcawal' 

Re t u r n ■ 

Status Printout" 

Close of Business' 



■,5,-S«";A 



,4,"S*";A 



( iMing I loniinued 

350 PRINT@334,"1 

360 PRINTe462,"2 

370 PRINTg590,"3 

380 PRINTe718,"9 

390 A-INKtiY? 

400 IF A<> "9" AND A<>"1" AND A<>"2' AND A<>"3" THEN GOTO 390 

410 IF A-^'l" THEN GOTO 540 

420 IF A="2" THEN GOTO 870 

430 IF A-"3" THEN GOTO 1000 

440 CLS 

450 PRINT'CLOSING FILES" 

460 CLOSE 

470 PRINT 

480 PRINT'RETURNING TO KEYBOARD CONTROL" 

490 CMD'FORCE gKI 0KI" 

500 PRINT 

510 PR I NT "RETURNING TO DOSPLUS 3.5* 

520 PRINT 

530 CHD 

540 CLS 

550 INPUT§64,'Wand Document Id Label 

560 IF LEN{A)<>5 THEN GOTO 540 

570 N=VAL(RIGHTS(A,4) ) 

5B0 IF N >R1 THEN GOTO 540 

590 GETI1,N 

600 PRINT@192,AA!PRINTe320,AB 

610 lNPUT@44e,"Wand User Id Label 

620 IF LEN(A)<:>4 THEN GOTO 800 

630 H=VAi.{LEFTS[A,3) )-100 

640 AZ=RIGHTS(A,1) 

650 IF M>R2 THEN GOTO 800 

660 GETi2,M 

670 IF Ai<>A3 THEN GOTO 800 

680 PRINT@512,Al;A2 

6 90 PRINTe704, "DOCUMENT WITHDRAWAL APPROVED" 

700 LPRINT AT 

710 LPRINT "DOCUMENT RECORD • ";N 

720 LPRINT AA.AB 

730 LPRINT "ISSUED TO "!LEFTS(A,3) 

740 LPKlNT A1,A2 

750 LSET AC=LEFTS(A,3) 

760 LSET AD=AT 

770 PUT»1,N 

780 CLS 

790 GOTO 310 

600 CLS 

810 PRINTCHR$(23) 

820 PRINT§320, "WITHDRAWAL DENIED" 

830 PRINTe640,"USER NOT AUTHORIZED" 

640 FOR 1=1 TO 2500:NEXT I 

850 CLS 

860 GOTO 3 20 

870 CLS 

880 INPUT@64, "Wand Document Id Label ",5,"S*";A 

890 N=VAL{RIGHTS(A,SJ ) 

900 IF N>R1 THEN GOTO 880 

910 GETIl.N 

920 PRINT@192,AA;PRINTe320,AB 

930 PRINT?44B, "RETURNED" 

940 LSET AC=" 

950 LSET AD=" 

960 PUT»1,N 

970 LPRINT AA,AB 

980 LPRINT"RETURNED " ; AT 

990 GOTO 300 

1000 CLS 

1010 PRINTCHR$(23) 

1020 PRINT@320,"Wand 4" 

1030 PRINTe448,"when the pcintet is ready" 

1040 A-INKEYS 

1050 IF A<>"4" THEN GOTO 1040 

1060 CLS 

1070 LPKINT 

1080 LPRINT AT 

1090 LPRINT 

1100 LPKINT"LABEL DOCUMENT 
CPY USR DATE" 

1110 LPRINT 

1120 FOR I-l TO Rl 

\\M I^l'U^HEN AS.-000-+RIGHTS(STR$(I),l):GOTO 1180 

1 " F <100 THEN AS = "00"-fBIGHTS{STR$(I).2):GOTO 180 

U60 IF K1000 THEN AS-"0-+RIGHT5(STRS { I) .3} :GOTO 1180 

1170 AS-RIGHTS(STR${I) ,41 

"jACf" ";AD 



1180 AR='"D"+AS 
1190 LPRINT AR; " 
1200 NEXT I 
1210 GOTO 300 



■AA; " ";ABj" 



Hardware Interfacing 

Bar code software transfers ASCII 
data throu^ an RS-232C serial input/ 
output G/O) interface, available as an 
option for both the microcomputer and 
most bar code readers. Consult the 
technical manuals for both devices be- 
fore purchasing (or fabricaling) the re- 
quired interconnect cable. Proper cable 
selection ensures that the transmit line 
for one device connects to and is com- 
patible with the receive line on the other 
device. 

For example, if transmitted data ^ 
pears on pin 2 on one device and on pin 
3 on the other, then received data ap- 
pears on pins 3 and 2, respectively. This 
requires a normal straight-through RS- 
232C cable. Should both devices use the 



"Each barcode 

reader operates 

differently with modems. " 



data, then reverse pins 2 and 3 on one 
end of a normal RS-232C cable. This 
type of cable configuration is called null 
modem. 

Parity, word length, baud rate, and 
number of stop bits are either switch- or 
menu-selectable on portable bar code 
readers and menu-selectable on the 
Model UI. Set the same parameters for 
both devices. 

You can also interface bar code read- 
ers with microcomputers via telephone 
lines. This requires a modem and 
modem software on the microcomputer 
end, and additional communication 
equipment on the bar code reader. 
Modem communication is well-suited 
to applications involving remote data 
acquisition and batch uploading. 

Since each individual bar code reader 
operates differently with modems, the 
manufacturer is the best source of in- 
formation concerning modem interfac- 
ing. The software discussion that fol- 
lows concerns only direct connection 
through the RS-232C serial interface. 
Note that the same application 
programming principles apply to batch 
processing whether you upload data 
directly or through a modem link. 

Software 

Program Listings 1, 2, and 3 provide 
the software needed to interface bar 



130 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



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code readers with your Model III. The 
data manipulation and storage tech- 
niques demonstrate the relative ease 
with which you can implement a plan. 

After oq)erimenting with a number 
of the disk operating systems available 
for the Model III, we found DOSPLUS 
3.5 by Micro-Systems Software to be 
the choice for interfacing input devices 
through the serial port. The progruns 
here only operate under DOSPLUS 3.5. 
After you boot the system and before 



loading Basic, install the RS-232 driver. 
Do so with the command: 

ASSIGN O RS RS/DVR 

If you attempt to invoke this command 
from Basic using the CMD function, 
the system performs a wann boot back 
to the operating system (not Basic) on 
completion of the driver installation. 

Once you install the driver, set the 
commumcation parameters (baud rate. 



word length, number of stop bits, pari- 
ty, and wait mode). When initialized, 
the interface is set for 300 baud, 7-bit 
words, 1 stop bit, even parity, and wait 
mode on. You may change any of the 
first four parameters to be compatible 
with the bar code reader. You must, 
however, turn off the wait mode. If you 
don't, Basic executes only one line at a 
time and expects a carriage return from 
the operator after each executed line. 
You can change the parameters from 



10 CL5 






20 








30 


BAR CODE DEMONSTRATION 


PROGRAM 


12 


«0 








bz 


BATCH UPLOADING - TALK 


ONLY - 


NO CONTROL 


60 








70 CLEhR 10000 






80 DIM A$ (1000) 






90 CHD ■RS232 (WAIT-N) ' 






100 


CMD "FORCE SKI gRS" 






110 


OPEN 'D'flj'HOLDATil'.a 






120 


FIELD 1,8 AS BS 






130 


CS-"ENDENDEN" 






140 


1-0 






150 


I-I+l 






160 


INPUT AS{I) 






170 


IF A$(I) OCS THEN GOTO 


150 




180 


CHD "FORCE gKI gKl" 






190 


FOR J-i TO (I-l) 






200 


LSET BS-AS(J) 






210 


PUT #1,J 






220 


NEXT J 






230 


PRINT "CLOSING FILE" 






240 


CLOSE 






250 


PRINT'RETURNING TO DOSPLUS" 




260 


CMD 






Program Listing 2. Batch uphading, laik-only applicatioa. 



10 CLS 
20 



BAR CODE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM 13 



BATCH UPLOADING - BLOCK TRANSMISSION 



30 

40 

50 

60 

70 CLEAR 500 

60 OPEN "D-,l,"HOLDATtl",128 

90 FIELD 1,12B AS F$ 

100 B$-CHRS(3) !TS-CHRS(4) :CS-CHRS(13) :SS-CHRS(32) :Z$=CHRS(17) 

110 CHD "RS232 (WAIT-N) " 

120 PRINT"WHEN THE DISKS STOP SPINNING, TRANSMIT THE DATA" 

130 CMD'FORCE gKI gRS" 

140 CMD"FORCE §DG gRS" 

150 DS-"" 

160 AS-INKEYS 

170 IF AS-"' THEN GOTO 160 

180 IF A$-BS OR AS-TS THEN GOTO 220 

190 IF AS-CS THEN A$-SS 

200 DS-DS+AS 

210 GOTO 160 

220 LSET F>-DS 

230 PUT •I 

240 DS-"" 

250 IF AS-B$ THEN PRINT ZStGOTO 160 

260 CHD"FORCE gDO gDO" 

270 CLS 

280 PRINT"DISPLAY RESTORED" 

290 PRINT"RETURNING TO KEYBOARD CONTROL" 

300 CMD"FORCE WI PKI" 

310 PRINT"CLOSING FILE" 

320 CLOSE 

330 PRINT" RETURNING TO DOSPLUS" 

3 40 CMD 

Proffmt Listing 3. Batch uploading, biock iransmission appiication. 



''The first step toward 

successful programming for 

batch data processing 

is the development of a 

data collection plan. " 



the Operating system using the RS232 
command, or while operating in Basic 
with the CMD"RS232" command. Re- 
member to include WAIT = N in the list 
of parameters. Note that you can load 
these commands into JCL keyboard 
queue file and either invoke auto-start 
or access them with a single command 
from the keyboard. 

On-Line Data Entry 

When you use a bar code reader (or 
any peripheral device) for on-line data 
entry, you have to signal your Model HI 
to expect incoming data from the RS- 
232C port. Do this in Basic by rerouting 
inputs using the Force command. This 
command takes the form: 

FORCE normal device new device 

To reroute the data from the keyboard 
to the RS-232C port in Basic, type: 

(line number) CMD"FORCE @KI @RS" 

The computer now expects subsequent 
Input, Input®, InkeyS, Line Input, 
and Line Input® commands from the 
bar code reader instead of the key- 
board. Note that the display still func- 
tions normally. Don't forget to insert a 
Force @KI @KI before the end of the 
program to return control to the board. 

Program Listing 1 uses two data files 
simultaneously. You must specify this 
as it loads initially in Basic. Call Basic 
with the suffix -F:2 (BASIC -F:2). 

This program illustrates how to use 
bar codes in the technical library of a 



132 • W Micro. NovambT 1983 



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Hello thayuh. This is Eben Flow, propriGlor 
of the Fish or Cut Bait Company, buyer and 
seller of lobstah bait for 49 years. My hobbies 
arc collecting linoleum samples, squashing flies 
and playing pac person on my home computer. 

But here on Martinicus Rock, off the coast of 
Maine, the power can be a tad erratic. So, to 
cure the brownout and blackout problems, 
and to keep them spikes and surges off my 
picture tube, I got me a MAYDAY 
Uninterruptible Power Supply from SUN 
RESEARCH. Them fellas fixed me up real good 
and real light on my pocketbook, too. Got me 
a MAYDAY for my mini calcaputer with a 
voltage regulator and everything for only 325 
clams They even included the battery in a nice 
waterproof box. Handy out here, you know. 
Now, if MAYDAY would only keep them sea 
dogs out of my barrel. . . 

MAYTJAY - Protection even you can afford! 



SUN RESEARCH, INC. ^28& 

Box 210 

New Durham, NH 03855 

603/859-7110 

TWX 5102974444 




Sm Uai ot Arfwfiisers on Pege 307 



BO Micro. Novemberl 983 • 133 



Variables 


No. of Oiaraders 


Field Description 


AA 


50 


Document Title 


AB 


3 


Copy Number 


AC 


3 


Current User 


AD 


8 


Date Issued 




TaWe /. Data box simcture. 



small corporation. (You can expand it 
for use at the circulation desk of a small 
lending library.) In this application, the 
librarian applies bar codes to all docu- 
moits and affixes bar code labels to 
empbyee ID cards. The librarian issues 
documents to authorized employees 
and uses bar codes to record the date of 
issue and the borrower's identification. 
The system uses a custom-made bar 
code label board for entering menu 
selections. 

A direct-access data file (DOCDAT:l) 
stores the document dma base. Each 
document receives a label with the letter 
D and four numbers, such as D0025 or 
DI0I4. The D signifies that the label is a 
document, and the four numbers repre- 
sent the record number of the document 
in the file. Opening the file sets the 
logical record length to 64 characters. 

Table 1 shows the structure of this 
data base. The first two fields, AA and 
AB, don't change as they identify the 
document. The last two fields, AC and 
AD, are blank until a document is issued 
to a user. At this time, these two fwkls 
take on the ID number of the user and 
the date of issue, respectively. When the 



borrower returns the document, these 
fields revert to their original, null 
values. The program also records trans- 
actions on a printout. Table 2 shows a 
sample of the document data base. 

The program stores the employee 
data base in a direct-access data file 
(USRDAT:!). Each employee's ID card 
has an affixed bar code label with an en- 
coded employee number, three digits, 
and an authorization letter. Employee 
numbers begin with 101. Subtract 100 
from the employee number to obtain 
the record number for that employee. 

Table 3 shows the structure for the 
employee data base. The logical record 
length of this fite is 16 characters. Table 
4 shows a sample of the employee data 
base. Table S presents the list of general 
variables for this program. 

This is but one of many on-line appli- 
cations for a bar code reader and your 
Model III. The techniques it presents 
apply to almost any system that requires 
operator interaction from a peripheral 
data entry tenninal device. 

Baicta Data Entry Device 

Most bar code equipment manufac- 



turers market portable bar code 
readers. These devic« are stand-alone 
data collection and storage devices that 
you can program to prompt the opera- 
tor for input in a regular sequence. This 
is especially useful in on-ihe-shelf inven- 
tory data coUeaion and similar applica- 
tions. The progranunability provides 
the options for accepting specifically 
formatted data, such as set field lengths 
and data types for each pronipt. You 
can also collect free-form (unprompted 
and unformatted) data with some of 
these devices. 

After you collect data, you subse- 
quently upload it into the Model III for 
on'-line proces»ng in an applications 
program. Uploading and processing 
take place in two distinct steps. Upload 
and format (if necessary) all data prior 
to its use in the applications program. 
The demonstration programs present 
the two general methods with which you 
can upload and store batch data. Your 
choice depends on the form of dau col- 
lection and method of reader transmis- 
sion to the microcomputer. 

The first step toward successful pro- 
gramming for batch data processing is 
the development of a data collection 
plan. Remember, you can coUca data 
in either free-form or program- 
prompted modes. The two scenarios 
that follow describe these approaches. 
The method of choice depends on pro- 
gramming for operator convenience or 
programming for assurance of correct 
data entry. 



l^iel [>ocuineiil 

D(lfMH DOSPl US VER 3.5 USER'S MANUAL 

D(a}2 MIL STD 1 189:STANDARD SVMBOLOGY FOR MARKING UNIT P 

D000.1 MIL-STD I29H:MARKING I OR SHIPMENT AND STORAGE 

DOOM 80MICRO OCTOBER 83 

[XM05 80MICRO OCTOBER 83 

DO0O6 80M1CRO OCTOBER 83 

D0007 DBASE II USER'S MANUAL 

D0008 STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

DOOW STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS 

DOOlO STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR COMPUTER ENGINEERS 

DOOM STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR MARINE ENGINEERS 

D00I2 STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR MARINE ENGINEERS 

D0013 STANDARD HANDB(X)K FOR MARINE ENGINEERS 

D00I4 FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS PART 61 

D00I5 FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS PART 91 

D0016 FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS PART 121 

DOOr FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS PART 135 

D0018 CG-16I 

D00I9 CG-232 

DOOaO CG-169 

D002I TRS-80 MODEL III OPERATION AND BASIC LANGUAGE REFE 

DO0C2 TRS-SO MODEL III OPERATION AND BASIC LANGUAGE REFE 

T<Me 2. Sample data box printout. 



CTR 


tSR 


Dale 


001 


102 


10/07/83 


«0I 


101 


07/04/83 


001 


101 


07/04/83 


001 






002 






003 






001 


102 


10/07/83 


001 


105 


(M/ 14/83 


001 


105 


04/14/83 


001 






001 


103 


11/14/82 


002 


109 


07/17/83 


003 


113 


09/17/83 


OUI 


l(M 


12/10/82 


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001 






001 






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114 


06/09/83 


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134 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



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80 Micro, November 1983 • 135 



Free-Fonn EhUa CoHectioii 

Free-form data collection is possible 
with some portable bar code readers. In 
this mode, data field length, structure, 
and type don't affect data collection. 
You can't select data validity confirma- 
tion, however. This is a useful mode for 
collecting different types of data in a 
regular but uncontrolled sequence. 

For example, suppose thai all the fur- 
niture in a building has a bar code label 



Variable 


No. of Characters 


I-lHd Descripliofl 


Al 


10 


Last Name 


A2 


5 


First Name 


A3 


1 


Authorizaiion Letter 


Table 3. Structure for tmptoyee data base. 



for inventory control. Each room also 
has a bar code label, along with the reg- 



Employee H 


Last Name 


Prst Name 


Auth 


101 


BEPLAT 


RICHA 


A 


102 


CRAFT 


ROBER 


A 


m 


CLARK 


JAIV 


A 


104 


MODER 


KIM 


A 


105 


MECHAUD 


DENIS 


A 


106 


CROW 


VIRGI 


A 


107 


SMYTHE 


DONAL 


B 


108 


JOHNSON 


JANE 


B 


109 


RICHARDS 


SEAN 


B 


110 


AUFRANC 


ERNES 


B 


111 


BJELKIER 


SAM 


D 


112 


FERGUSON 


FRED 


D 


113 


GEEBEE 


MARG 


C 


114 


WILLIA.MS 


JARRO 


D 




Table 4. Employee data base sample. 





ular room number tag, on its waD. You 
want to inventory each piece of furni- 
ture and its room location. 

You can accomplish this in the free- 
form mode by instructing the operator 
to scan the room label, then scan the 
label on every piece of furniture in the 
room, repeating this for all rooms. This 
is more efficient than forcing the oper- 
ator to scan the room label before (or 
after) scanning each furniture label, or 
predicting the average number of items 
in a room and scanning the room label 
for every nth ftimiture label. 

A comprehensive data collection and 
processing plan establishes the labeling 
convention so that room and furniture 
labels have either different scannable 
field lengths or unique imbedded char- 
acters or both. This is so the microcom- 



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puter can distinguish between a room 
number and a furniture number, and 
format the data so the output report ac- 
curately reflects the corresponding 
rooms. 

Prograniined Data Colection 

You can program all portable bar 
code readers to prompt the user for data 
entry and to accept specifically fonnat- 
ted data. The specific formats include 
data type, such as alphanumeric or nu- 
meric, and field length, which is a max- 
imimi and minimmn, or exact number 
of scannable characters. The bar code 
reader accepts no data that doesn't meet 
the specified format, and usually re- 
prompts the user with an audible tone. 

An example which efficiently em- 
ploys programmed data collection is an 
on-the-shelf inventory. Each shelf has a 
bar code label with the stock number of 
the item it houses. The quantity of items 
ranges from zero to 99. This translates 
to a 1- to 2<haracter numeric variable. 
The reader prompts the users first for 
stock number and then quantity. The 
system defines each input differently. 
An attempt to input two of the same 
variable types consecutively results in an 
error message to the operator and a 



reprompting for the correct input. 

TaBt-Only and Block-Transfer 
Batch Dirta Transmission 

The majority of portable bar code 
readers transmit batch data as talk-only 
devices, without the benefit of 
handshaking routines. This means that 
when you force the microcomputer to 
perform operations it can*t do in the 
time between transmitted characters, it 
k>sesdata. 

For example, the Copy command 
seems to be the logical choice to copy 
data from a device to a file. Unfortun- 
ately, the storage buffer hokis only 256 
characters before it writes a file. As the 



nucrocomputer performs one function 
at a time, it doesn't accept input while 
writing to the file. Meanwhile, the bar 
code reader continues to transmit data, 
resulting in data loss. 

Some portables transmit data in 
blocks. The operator designates the size 
of these blocks. The bar code reader 
transmits one data block at a time, talk- 
only, and waits for a control character 
from the host before it transmits the 
next block. This allows the microcom- 
puter to stop listening, perform any re- 
quired housekeeping operations, and 
signal the reader when it's ready to re- 
ceive another block of data. 

A control character delimits the 



Variable 


Purpose 


Rl 


Number of Records in E>OCDAT 


R2 


Number of Records in USRDAT 


AT 


Today's Date 


A 


General INKEYS Assignment 


N 


Document Record Number 


M 


User Record Number 


I 


For. . Next Counter 


AS 


Document Record Number to String Holding Variable 


AR 


Reconstructed Document ID Label 




Table 5. Variabie list for Program 1 . 



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Variable Purpose 

AS Input Data Array 

B$ File Variable 

C$ End of Fde Check Variable 

1 For. ..Next Counter 

J For . . . Next Counter 

Table 6. Variables lisi /or Program 2. 



blocks and signak the host when the 
transmission is complete with an end- 
of-file marker. You can also use inter- 
nal delimiters to separate data within 
the bk)cks. 

As with on-line applications, the mi- 
crocomputer must expect the incoming 
data from the RS-232C port. If the bar 
code reader requires control signals 
from the microcomputer, then you 
must also reroute output through the 
RS-232C port. 

Do this the same way you reroute in- 
put, except that two possible output re- 
routings exist — to the line printer and to 
the display. You determine to which 
unit you want the output rerouted. If 
your system requires display prompts 
and status messages, then you shoukl 
reroute the line printer data. If, how- 
ever, you don*t need the display, then 



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1 



VuteMe 


Purpose 


F$ 


File Variable 


B$ 


End of Block Check Variable 


T$ 


End of File Check Variable 


CS 


Carriage Relum Check Variable 


s$ 


Space (Replacement for carriage return in data siring) 


z$ 


ASCII DCI Conlrol Character 


A$ 


INKEYS Assignment Variable 


D$ 


Data Siring 




Table 7. Variables list for Program 3. 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME! .^346 
138 • do Micro, November 1983 



you should reroute its data. 

You don't need to reroute either de- 
vice until you require the control signal 
because I/O rerouting falls under pro- 
gram control as often as you need it, 
and the bar code reader waits as long as 
necessary for the control signal. We rec- 
ommend, however, that you reroute 
one device for the duration, rather than 
jockeying back and forth. The Force 
command parameters become @PR 
@RS for the line printer and @IX> 
@RS for the display. 

Program Listing 2 receives the entire 
data set from a portable bar code reader 
and holds it in a one-dimensional string 
array. Using the string "ENDENDEN" 
as the end of file marker sends the data 
in one bmch. The transmitted variables 
are all eight characters long and delimit- 
ed by a carriage return. Make the array 
large enou^ so it loads all of the data. 

Because the program is small and 
writes the array to a disk file, you 
shoukl reserve most of the memory for 
string space. Too much space is better 
than too little. This program requires 
input rerouting only, and utilizes the In- 
put command for whole variable input. 
A direct access data file (HOLDAT:l) 
with a logical record length of eight 
charaaers stores the data after a com- 
plete rejul to the computer. 

Table 6 presents the list of general 
variables this program uses. Note that it 
requires a batch of dau of fewer than 
1,000 entries. You can collect this free- 
form or progranuned. 

Program Listing 3 receives blocks of 
data from a portable bar code reader, 
and signals the bar code reader when the 
microcomputer is ready for subsequent 
blocks. An ASCII carriage return 
(CHR$(I3)) delimits data within the 
block although many of the available 
units aDow the programmer lo select a 
different delimiter if you de^re. 

The normal end-of-block delimiter is 
an ASCII ETX (CHR$(3)) and the end- 
of-file delimiter is usually an ASCII 
EOT (CHR$(4)). On some units these 
may change. 

The normal signal for next block 



transmisaon is an ASCII DCI 
(CHR$<17)). You select the number of 
dau records to transmit in each block. 
Determine this number so that no char- 
acter variable ends up in an overflowed 
condition. Also specify accordingly the 
k)gical record length of the data holding 
file. 

The program analyzes incoming data 
one character at a time for delimiters 
and simis it to a holding variable string. 
It writes this string to a direct access da- 
U file (HOLDAT:l). Then It sends the 
control signal to the bar code reader for 
the next data block. 

You can reformat the filed data for 
use in an application program, if neces- 
sary, by substring manipulation func- 
tions (such as LEFTS, MID$, INSTR). 
Table 7 represents the list of general 
variables the program uses. 

A Final Word 

You should note that this article on 
bar code implementarion is generic in 
nature and assumes the reader deter- 
mine present and future growth require- 
ments for the following: 
•data base size 
•code formats to be read 

• label length, characters encoded and 
quiet zones 

• batch vs. on-line processing or com- 
bination 

•direct connect vs. nuxlem or com- 
bination 

•data transmission modes available 
•bar code reader equipment feature, 
options, and capability for expansion 

• bar axle printing capatoihty 
•environmental considerarions 

• off-the-shelf application software 
compatibility 

These considerations emphasize that 
bar code systems are neither inexpensive 
nor for everyone. But if you want to im- 
prove the efticiency and integrity of 
TRS-80 data input, then bar codes may 
be for you. ■ 

Write Robert S. Crqft and Richard 
G. Beplat c/o Taurio Corporation, 36 
Laurehvood Road. Groton, CT 06340. 




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GRAPHICS 



LOAD 80 



Graftrax Art Palette 




140 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



If you have a Model I/III and an Ep- 
son MX-80 or MX- 100 printer with 
Graftrax, you can duplicate most of the 
expensive machines* color outputs. You 
can even top them with your own fine- 
art color printouts. And, you can do it 
without getting lost in an endless maze 
of data lists, without the neariy ceaseless 
Read/Print loops for data items, and 
without binary calculations to figure 
dot-graphic pattern ASCII values. 

I'll describe how to develop, pro- 
gram, and print Graftrax color art u^ng 
direct printing statements with abbrevi- 
ated codes for Graftrax patterns, mixed 
pattern strings, and printer control. 
Direct-print coding For... To loops 
and GOSUB routines repeat identical 
parts of color art to simplify program- 
ming and coding requirements. 

A reusable main program defines all 
printer control and Graftrax codes. It 
provides in-progress instructions and a 
fill-in area for your own color art print- 
ing routines. I include three fill-in pro- 
grams and their art printouts as exam- 
ples. A fill-in program works when 
merged with the main program. 

Graftrax Art Codes 

Figure 1 shows the program-defined 
codes for Graftrax color art. All codes 
consist of two alphanumeric characters; 
they appear directly below the column 
patterns they represent. The alphanu- 
meric codes specify individual column 
p^tems in LPRINT statements for col- 
or print runs. 

Except for zero (blank dot column) 
and 255 (full dot column), dot-graphics 
codes are assigned in double-hexadeci- 
mal fashion, using starting letters A-H. 
Starting letter codes are incremented 32 
times by sequentially adding numer- 
als zero through nine, then letters A-V. 
In one diversion from this scheme, FW 
replaces reserved word FN to code 
CHR$(183). 

Each column pattern's assigned 
ASCII decimal value spears directly 
below its alphanumeric code. The 
ASCII values economically specify five 
or more of the same column pattern by 
means of the STRING$(n,c) function. 
For example, you can specify five Al 
codes as STRING$(5,1). This example 



The Key Box 

Model I and m 

32K RAM (Cassette Basic) 

48K RAM (Disk Baac) 

Epson MX-80/-100 with Graftrax 



Program Listing I. Main program. 

' INITIALIZE THEN JUMP TO INTRODUCTION AND CODING ROUTir-JES 

1 CLS:CLEAR3000:DEFSTRA-S,W,Z:CY="REn":GOTO9000 

4 * SPECIFY TWO LINEFEEDS THEN DROP TO 10 AND DO THEfl 

5 1=2 

9 * DO T QUANTITY OF LINEFEEDS 

10 FORU=lTOT:LPRINT:NEXT:RETURN 

14 ' PRINT T QUANTITY OF PREDEFINED P-PATTERN STRINGS 

15 F0RU=1T0T:LPRINTP; :NEXT:RETURN 

19 ' PRINT T QUANTITY OF RANDOM PATTERNS WITH ENDING SEMICOLON 

20 F0RU-1T0T:LPRINTCHR5 (RND ( 24 3) +12) ; : NEXT: RETURN 

24 ' PRINT T+1 RANDOM PATTERNS WITHOUT ENDING SEMICOLON 

25 GOSUB20:LPRINTCHRS (RND (242)+12) :RETURN 

29 ' DISPLAY COLOR PRINT RUN INSTRUCTIONS 

30 CLS:PRINTia20/'I NSTRUCTION S" : PRINT: RETURN 

34 ' TEST FOR "DONE" FLAG. IF NOT DONE, DISPLAY INSTRUCTIONS 

35 IFCY="DONE"THEN8990ELSEGOSUB30:PRINT" 1. TURN PRINTER POWER 
OFF. 

40 PRINT3258, "2. BACKFEED PAPER AT LEAST 1/2-INCH PAST FIXED IND 

EX MARK. 

45 PRINT?386,"3. INSERT SLIPSHEET BETWEEN RIBBON GUIDE AND PAPER 

50 PRINTaB14, "4. PUT ";CY;" COLOR RIBBON IN PRINTER. REMOVE SLIP 

SHEET. 

55 PRINT(a642, "5. CAREFULLY ADVANCE PAPER TO EXACTLY ALIGN INDEX 

MARKS. 

60 PRINTia770, "e. TURN PRINTER POWER ON. 

65 PRINT3898,"7. PRESS <P> KEY TO START ";CY;" COLOR PRINT RUN. 

69 ' MONITOR <P> KEY FOR PRINT RUN START COMMAND 

70 S=INKEYS:IFS<>"P"THEN 70 

74 ' DISPLAY PRINT-RUN-IN-PROGRESS MESSAGE 

75 CLS:PRINT3650,"NOW LOCAL CODING AND PRINTING ";CY;" COLOR. 

79 ' define complementary 6-column pattern ■ strings pi and p2 

80 pi=cl+fa+cl+fa+€l+fa:P2=fa+cl+fa-k:l+fa-k:l 

84 • set line spacing to 8/72 inch 

85 LPRINTLY:RETURN 

89 ' MOVE PRINTHEAD SEVEN SPACES RIGHT FOR RIBBON CHANGE 

90 LPRINTS7 ; BY ; Al ; Q2 ;: RETURN 



94 ' 



95 



96 • 



99 ' 
100 

999 

1000 
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1999 
2000 
2990 
2999 
3000 
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4000 
4990 
4999 
5000 
5990 
5999 
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@ MAIN PROGRAM - GRAFTRAX COLOR ART ? 

@ FOR 48K LEVEL II TRS-80 MODEL I/III ^ 

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@ 3 § ;a 3 [3 (3 (3 (3 .5 3 la la '3 (3 (3 .^ (3 (3 '3 :a -a la 

FILL-IN ART PROGRAM GOSUB ROUTINES 
- 990 ARE RESERVED FOR GOSUB ROUTINES CALLED FROM USER'S 

COLOR ART FILL-IN PROGRAM. 
' RED COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA 
CY="RED":GOSUB70 
GOSUB90 

' BROWN COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA 
CY="BROWN" :GOSUB35 
GOSUB90 

' BLUE COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA 
CY-"BLUE" :GOSUB35 
GOSUB90 

' GREEN COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA 

CY="GREEN" :GOSUB35 

GOSUB90 

' BLACK COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA 
CY="BLACK" :GOSUB35 
GOSUB90 

' ADDITIONAL COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA OR 'DONE' FLAG 

CY="DONE" :GOSUB35 

GOSUB90 

' ADDITIONAL COLOR PRINT RUN FILL-IN AREA OR 'DONE' FLAG 
CY="DONE" :GOSUB35 



Listing I conlmutd 



80 Micro. November 1983 • 141 



uses 12 bytes compared to 15 bytes 
needed for five Al codes with trailing 
semicolons. 

Q- and Z-code series are assigned to 
blank- and full-column patterns and 



pattern strings. Codes Z1-Z9 define 
full-colimm patterns 1-9 in one-column 
increments. ZA-ZJ codes define 10 to 
100 full columns in 10-column incre- 
ments. Combine Z codes to print any 



quantity of full-column patterns on a 
print line. Codes ZJ;ZA;Z5, for exam- 
ple, specify a string of 115 full-column 
patterns. Similarly, you can combine Q 
(ASCII zero) codes to leave any number 



S S 



I I 



SEE 



A£ A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 AS A9 SEE '• FOR AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM 



2 3 



7 



9 MODEL i/III 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 





• • 


s $ s s 


s i 


1 s s $ 


s 1 

i 


I I I I 






Bl B2 83 B4 B5 



BC BD BE BF BG 8H BI BJ BK BL BM 



32 33 34 35 36 37 36 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 



S S 



S 



49 50 51 52 53 54 



V V V u u 

! i i M 



AN AO 
23 24 



BN BO 
55 56 



? I 

o i 

• o 

AP AQ 

25 26 



BP BQ 
57 58 



AR AS 

27 28 

o o 

$ s 

: : 

i § 

BR BS 

59 60 



AT 
29 



AU M 
30 31 



BU BV 
62 63 



s : 



§ I 
: : 

g s 



C0 Cl C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF CG CH CI CJ CK CL CM CN CO CP CQ OR CS CT CU CV 
64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 38 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 



: 



Dl D2 03 D4 05 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA 




: 



: 



96 97 



DC DD DE OF D6 OH DI DJ DK DL DM ON DO DP DQ OR DS DT DU OV 



99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 



S 



$ ? 5 ? 



S 



I I I 




m El £2 L3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED £E EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EH EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET £U EV 
128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 



S 



8 5 

o 5 
i i 



s s 



i • 

o o 

g s 




F0 Fl F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF FG FH F! FJ FK FL FM FU FO FP FO FR FS FT FU FV 
160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 



? f 



I X 



t : 

o o 



s 



: 



X X 

o o 

o t 

: 8 

t s 



G0 Gl G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 GA GB GC GO GE GF GG GH 




: : X 

o o o 

X X X 

• • • 

o o • 

o * o 



: 



GQ 6R GS GT GU GV 



192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 



t ::::::: t : : 

8 •••••••••• 
ooooooooSo 

Jt0 ;u ■\2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 HA HB HC HD HE HF HG HH Hi HJ HK HI HM HN HO HP HQ HR MS HT HU ZJ 
224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 




! i i i ! ! ! 
! 1 » ' » ' » 



PRINTER CONTROL CODES 

-m - SET 960-DOT GRAPHICS 

'BY = SET 480-DOT GRAPHICS 

CY = RIBBON/PRINTING COLOR 

DV = DOUBLE-STRIKE MODE ON 

DX ^ DOUBLE-STRIKE MODE OFF 

EY ^ EMPHASIZED MODE ON 

EX = EMPHASIZED MODE OFF 

lY = ITALIC CHARACTERS ON 

IX - ITALIC CHARACTERS OFF 

NY - NARROW CHARACTERS ON 

NX = NARROW CHARACTERS OFF 

WY = WIDE CHARACTERS ON 

WX = WIDE CHARACTERS OFF 

ZY = ZINGER ON (DS + EMPH) 

ZX ^ ZINGER MODE OFF 

'NOTE: CODES FOR nl AND n2 

MUST FOLLOW BW AND BY CODES. 





FULL-COLUMN 






:hrs(255) 


CODES 


Zl 


-1 


FULL COLUMN 


Z2 


-2 


Z8-8 


ZE 


50 


Z3 


-3 


Z9=9 


ZF 


60 


24 


=4 


ZA=10 


ZG 


70 


Z5 


=5 


Z6=20 


ZH 


80 


Z6 


=6 


ZC=30 


ZI 


90 


Z7 


-7 


ZD-40 


ZJ 


10 




6- 


COLUMN 


WIDE 






SPACING CODES 




SI 


= 1 


SPACE 






S2 


'2 


S7 = 7 


SC 


30 


S3 


=3 


S8-8 


SD 


40 


S4 


=4 


59=9 


SE 


50 


S5 


'5 


$A=10 


5F 


60 


S6 


=6 


SB=?0 


SG 


70 



"•ZERO 
CHR$[0) CODES 



CODES FOR MODEL I 



Ql^l 


ZERO 


QA=10 


Q2-2 


06-6 


QB-20 


Q3=3 


q/ = / 


QC=30 


Q4=4 


08-8 


QD-40 


(Jb=5 


09-9 


QE=50 


VARIABLES AVAILABLE 


FOR FILL-IN 


PROGRAM 



AB 
11 



AC 
12 



1-LETTER STRING 
A B C D E F G H I 
JKLMNOQRS 

NUMERIC 
V AND V0 THRU V10 
X AND X0 THRU X10 
y AND Y0 THRU Y10 



DO NOT USE THE ABOVE 
CODES FOR MODEL III. 

COMPLEMENTARY PATTERNS 




P1=CL+FA+CL+FA+CL+FA 
P2-FA+CL+FA+CL+FA+CL 



142 • 60 Micro, November 1983 



Figure L Code chart. 



of blank columns before, between, or 
after printed column segments. 

Six-column spacing (S) codes provide 
a faster means to jump wide gaps be- 
tween printed column segments. The S 
codes may also be economically substi- 
tuted for Tab commands at the start of 
an LPRINT statement. For example, S9 
and TAB(9) move the print head nine 
spaces; but, the alphanumeric code uses 
only 3 bytes compared to 6 needed for 
TAB(9). 

Bob Boothe's printer driver in the 
main program ("Trick Your ROM," 50 
Micro, November 1982, p. 190), lets 
Mode! I users send alphanumeric Q 
codes (ASCII zeros) plus codes AA, 
AB, and AC (ASCII 10, II, and 12) to 
the printer directly. No more POKEs 
and PEEKS needed for that task. Model 
III users shouldn't attempt to use the 
AA, AB, or AC codes because AA works 
only occasionally, AB works unreliably, 
and AC invariably form-feeds the paper 
to the next lop-of-form point. Use substi- 
tute codes in critKal situations. (See the 
section on programming differences.) 

Complementary pattern codes PI 
and P2 provide 50 percent color shad- 
ing. Use the patterns to combine two 
available colors into a third. For exam- 
ple, blue P2 patterns printed over red 
PI pattems interweave dots to produce 
lavender. 

Printer mode control codes perform 
the functions listed in Fig. 1. Escape 
codes are already included where need- 
ed in the two-character codes. 

String and integer variables used in 
color art fill-in programs also appear 
listed in Fig. 1. Use the single-letter 
string variables without string declara- 
tion ($) characters. P3-P9 and PA-PV 
define any length pattern string used 
more than once in a fill-in program. 

Main Program 

The main program for Graftrax color 
art. Program Listing 1, has three func- 
tional seaions. The top section displays 
print/run instmaions and in-progress 
messages, initializes the printer for each 
color print run, and provides useful 
GOSUB routines accessed from fill-in 
programs. 

The middle section accommodates 
user-programmed code sequences for 
separate color print runs. The first part 
of this section allots space for user- 
coded GOSUB routines accessed during 
color print runs. Change only the mid- 
dle section for different Graftrax color 
art printouts. 

The bottom sectk)n provides code con- 
versions for Graftrax dot-column pat- 



Liaing I continued 

7990 GOSL1B90 

7999 ' ART-DONE FLAG 

8000 CY="DONE":GOSUB35 

8989 ' DISPLAY ART-DONE MESSAGE 

8990 CLS:PRINT'3 530, "GRAFTRAX COLOR ART IS DONE ." :CLEAR50 : END 

8999 ' DISPLAY INTRODUCTION 

9000 PRINTTAB(7) ; "EPSON GRAFT .^ AX COLOR A 
R T" :PRINTTAB (7) ; STRINGS (50,61) : PRINT388T , "CODE END"; :PRINT(3962 

,"** DO NOT TURN PRINTER POWER ON/OFF DURING CODING CYCLE. **"; 
9005 PRINTai32,"THIS PROGRAM PRINTS MULTICOLOR ART ON AN EPSON M 
X-80 PRINTERWITH GRAFTRAX ROMS AND INTERCHANGEABLE COLOR RIBBON 
CARTRIDGES."; 

9010 PRINT" COLORS ARE PRINTED IN SEPARATE PRINT RUNS. THE P 

APER MUST BE REPOSITIONED (MANUALLY BACK-FED) TO THE SAME START 
POINT BEFORE" ; 

9015 PRINT"EACH COLOR PRINT RUN. USE START POINT INDEX MARKS ON 
RIGHT-HANDEDGE OF PAPER AND ON RIGHT-liAND TRACTOR FEED MECIiANIS 
M. 

9020 PRINT" FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS DISPLAYED BEFORE EACH PRINT R 

UN. INITIALINSTRUCTIONS APPEAR AFTER PATTERN CODES ARE DEFINED A 
ND STORED. "PRINT" "; STRINGS (62 , 45) 

9024 ' DISPLAY CODING PROGRESS STATEMENT NUMBERS 

9025 PRINTSTRINGS (7,92) ;" CODING NOW IN PRO 
G R C S S "; STRINGS (7,92) ; 

9030 TRON 

9049 ' DEFINE CODES FOR DOT -COLUMN PATTERNS THROUGH 255 

9050 01=CHRS (0) :A1=CHRS (1) :A2=CHRS (2) :A3=CHRS (3) :A4=CHR$ (4) :A5=C 
HRS (5) :A6=CHRS 16) :A7=CHR$ (7) :A8=CHRS (8) :A9=CHRS (9) :AA=CHR$ (10) :A 
B=CHRS (11) :AC=CHRS (12) :AD=CHRS (13) :AEK:HR$ (14) :AF=CHRS (15) 

9055 AG^CHRS (16) :AHK:HRS (17) :AI=CHRS (18) :AJ-CHRS (19) :AK=CHR$ (20) 
:AL=CHRS (21) ;AM=CHRS (22) :AN=CHRS (23) :AO=CHRS (24) :AP=CHRS (25) :A2= 
CHRS (26) :AR=CHRS (27) :AS=C}1RS (28) :AT=CHRS (29) :AU<;HR$ (30) :AV=CHRS 
(31) 

9060 B0=CHRS (32) : B1=CHRS (33) :B2=CHRS (34) :B3=CHR$ (35) :B4=CHRS (3&) 
:B5=CHRS (37) : B6=CHRS (38) :B7=CHRS (39) : B8=CHRS (40) : B9-CHR$ (41) : BA= 
CHRS (42) :BB=CHR5 (43) :BC=CHR$ [44) :BD^HRS (45) :BE^CHRS (46) : BF=^CHRS 
(47) 

9065 BG=CHRS (48) :BH=CHR$ (49) :BI=CHRS (50) :BJ=CHRS (51) :BK=CHRS (52) 
:BLK:HRS (53) : BM=CHR$ (54) :BN=CHRS (55) :B0K:HR$ (56) :BP=CHRS (57) : BQ= 
CURS (58) :BR=CHRS (59) :BS=CHRS (60) :BT=CHR$ (61) :BU=CHRS (62) : BV<:HRS 
(63) 

9070 C0=CHRS (64) :Cl=CHR$ (65) :C2=CHR$ (66) :C3=CHR5 (67) :C4=CHR$ (68) 
:C5=CHRS (69) ;C6=CHRS (70) :C7=CHRS (71) :C8=CHRS (72) :C9=CHRS (73) :CA= 
CHRS (74) :CB=<:HRS (76) :CC^CHRS (76 ) :CD<:HRS (77 ) :CE=CHRS (78) :CF=CHR$ 
(79) 

9075 CG=CHRS (80) :CH=CHRS (81) :CI=CHRS (82) :CJ=CHRS (83) :CK=CHRS (84) 
:CL=CHR$ (85) :CM=CHRS (86) :CN=CHRS (87) :CO=CHR$ (88) :CP=CHRS (89) :CQ= 
CHRS (90) :CR=CHRS (91) :CS=CHRS (92) :CT=CHRS (93) :CU=CHRS (94) :CV=<:HR$ 
(95) 

9080 D0=CHRS (96) :D1K:hRS (97) :D2=CHRS (98) :D3=CHRS (99) :D4k:HRS (100 
) :D5=CHRS (101) :D6=CHRS (102) :D7=CHRS (103) :D8=CHRS (104) :D9=CHR$ (10 
5) :DA=CHRS (106) :DB=CHRS (107) :DC=CHRS (108) :DD=CHRS (109) :DE=CHR$ (1 
10) :DF=CHRS (111) 

9085 DG=CHR5 (112) :DH=CHRS (113) :DI=CHRS (114) :DJ=CHRS (115) :DK=<:HR$ 
(116) iDL=CHRS (117) :DM=CHR$ (118) :DN=CHRS (119) :DO=CHRS (120) :DP=CHR 
S(121) :DO=CHR$ (122) :DR=CHR3 (123) :DS=CHR$ (124) :DT=CHR$ (125) :DU=CH 
RS (126) :DV=CHRS (127) 

9090 E0=CHRS (128) :E1=CHRS (129) ;E2=CHR$(130) :E3=CHRS (131) :E4=CHRS 
(132) :E5=CHRS (133) :E6=CHR5 (134) :E7=CHRS (135) :E8=CHR$ (136) :E9=CHR 
S (137) :EA=CHR$ (138) : EB=CHRS (139) :EC=CHRS (140) :ED=CHR$ (141) :EE=CH 
RS (142) :EF=CHRS (143) 

9095 EG=CHRS (144) tEH=CHRS (145) :EI=CHRS (146) :EJ=CHRS (147) :EK=<:HR$ 
(148) :EL=CHRS (14 9) :EM=CHRS (150) : EN=CHRS (151) : EO=CHR$ (152) :EP=CHR 
$ (153) :EQ=CHR$ (154) :ER=CHR$ (155) :ES=CHRS (156) :ET=CHRS (157) :EU=CH 
RS (158) :EV=CHRS (159) 

9100 F0=CHRS (160) :Fl=CHRS (161) :F2=CHRS (162) :F3=CHR$ (163) :F4=CHRS 
(164) :F5-CHRS (165) :F6=CHRS (166) :F7=CHRS (167) :F8=CHR$ (168) :F9=CHR 
S (169) :FA=CHR5 (170) :FB=CHRS (171) :FC=CHRS (172) :FD=CHRS (173) :FE=CH 
RS (174) :FF=CHRS (175) 
9105 FG=CHRS (176) :FH=CHRS (177) :FI=CHRS (178) :FJ=CHR$ (179) :FK=CHRS 

Lisntg I caniimitd 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 143 



tems. frequently used pattern groups, 
and printer mode control conunands. 
This section also displays a program in- 
troduction, initial print run in^ruc- 
tions, and equipment-used questions. 
Your responses to these questions initi- 
ate applk:able code ^justment and/or 
printer driver loading routines. 

The main program uses 7,967 bytes 
with remarks, 6,135 bytes without 



"ybw can duplicate 

most of the expensive 

machines' output, " 

them. You can remove all remark state- 
ments without affecting program oper- 
ation. Delete remarks between lines 
9030-9145 to ensure correct sequencing 



(180) :FL-CHR5 (181) jFM-CHRS (182) !FW-CHR$ (183) :FO-CHRS (184) :FP=CHR 

S(18S):FQ=CHR$(186):FR»CHR$(187):FS^HRS(188)!FT=CHRS(ia9):FU=CH 

RS(190)tFV=CHRS(191) 

9110 G0=CHR5 (192) :G1=CHRS (193) :G2=CHRS (194) :G3=CHRS (195) :G4-CHRS 

(196) :G5»CHRS(197):G6=CHRS(198):G7=CHRS(199):G8=CHRS(200):G9=CHR 

S (201) :GA=CHR$ (202) :GB-CHR$ (203) :GC-CHRS (204) :GD=«CHRS (205) :GE-CH 

RS(206):GF=CHRS(207) 

9115 GG=CHR$ (203) :GH=<:hR$ (209) !GI«CHRS (210) :GJ-CHRS (211) :GK=CHRS 

(212) :GL«CHR$ (213) :GH=CHRS (214) :GN=CHRS (215) :GO««CHRS (216) :GP=CHR 

S (217) :GO=CHR$ (218) :GR-CHRS (219) :GS=CHRS (220) :GT=CHRS (221) :GU=<H 

RS(222):GV=CHRS(223) 

9120 H0=CHRS(224):Hl«CHRS(225):H2=CHRS(226):H3=CHRS(227):H4=CHRS 

{228):H5=CHR$(229)!H6=-CHR$(230) :H7-CHR$ (231) :H8=CHRS (232) :H9=CHR 

S(233):HA=CHRS(234) :HB<:hRS (235) :HC»CHR$ (236) :HD=CHRS (237) :HE=CH 

RS(238):HF=CHR$(239) 

9125 HG=CHRS(240):HH=CHR5(241):HI=CHR$(242)!HJ<:HRS(243) :HK-CHR$ 

(244) : HL=CHR$ (245) :HM=CHRS (246) : HN=CHRS (247) :HO-CHRS (248) :HP=CHR 

$(249):HQ=CHRS(2S0):HR=CHRS(251) :HS=CHR$ (252) :HT=CHRS (253) :HU«CH 

RS(254):21=CHR$(255) 

9129 • DEFINE SPACE, ZERO, AND 8-DOT COLUMN CODE STRINGS 

9130 Sl«CHR$(32):S2=Sl+Sl!S3=S2+Sl:S4=S3+SX:S5=S4+Sl:S6=S5+Sl:S7 
=S6+Sl:S8=S7+Sl:S9=S3+Sl:SA=S9+Sl:SB=SA+SA:SC»SB+SA:SD=SC+SA:SE= 
SD+SA : SF=SE+SA : SG=SF+SA : 02-Ql *Ql : Q3-Q2+01 : Q4=Q3+gl : 05=04 +Ql : 06=0 
S+Ql : 07«Q6+01 :08=0''+0l : Q9=0S+gl 

9135 OA=09+Ql:OB=OA+QA:QC=0B+OA:QD=QC+0A:0E=QD+C)A:22=Zl+Zl:23=Z2 
+2l:24=Z3+Zl!Z5*Z4+2l:Z6=Z5+Zl:27=Z6+Zl:Z8=Z7+2l:29=Z8+2l:ZA=Z9+ 
21 : ZB-ZA+ZA : ZC-ZB+ZA : zb=ZC+ZA : 2E=ZD+ZA : ZF^ZE+ZA: ZG=ZF+ZA : ZH=2G+2 
A:Z1»ZH+ZA:2J=2I+ZA:ZK=ZJ*ZJ 

9139 ' DEFINE PRINTER MODE CONTROL COOES 

9140 BV=AR+CB:EY=AR+C5:DV-AR-K:7:NY-AR+CG:Vnf=AR+CJ:IY»AR+BKiLY=AR 
+C1+A0:ZY=EY+DY:IX=AR+EL:WX-AR-k:K:NX=AR+CH:DX=AR-K:8:EX=AR+C6:ZX= 
EX+DX:BW«AR+CC 

9144 ' DISPLAY GRAFTRAX VERSION USED QUESTION 

9145 TR0FF:PRINT^962,"D0ES YOUR PRINTER HAVE: 1. GRAFTRAX-80 OR 
2. GRAFTRAX-PLUS?"; 

9149 ' ADJUST PRINTER MODE CODES IF GRAFTRAX-PLUS IS USED 

9150 S=INKEYS:IFS-"l'*THEN9l55ELSEIFS="2'*THENCLS:NY=AF:NX=Al!WY=A 
E:WX=AKELSE9150 

9154 ' DISPLAY TRS-B0 MODEL USED QUESTION 

9155 CLS!PR1NT:3969,"ARE YOU USING A: 1. MODEL I OR 3. MODEL III 
?" ! 

9159 ' LOOP THROUGH PRINTER DRIVER ROUTINE IF MODEL I IS USED 

9160 S-INKEYS:IFS=*'3"THEN9165ELSEIFS='*l"THENCLS!PRINT0973,"NOW L 
OADING MODEL I PRINTER DRIVER"; :GOSUB9180ELSE9160 

9164 • DISPLAY FIRST PRINT RUN INSTRUCTIONS; GO TO FIRST RUN 

9165 GOSUB30:PRINT" 1. VERIFY THAT PRINTER POWER IS OFF.":PRINT 
@258,"2. INSERT PAPER; ALIGN IT WITH FIXED INDEX MARK ON PRINTER 

9170 PRINT@386,"3. INSTALL ";Cy;" RIBBON IN PRINTER." :PRINT@514, 
"4. TURN PRINTER POWER ON. 

9175 PRINT@642,"5. PRESS THE <P> KEY TO START ";CY;" COLOR PRINT 
RUN.": GOTO 1000 

9179 • LOAD MODEL I PRINTER DRIVER (SEE CREDIT BOX: REMS 94-96) 

9180 B="21E837CB7E20FC211100397E32E837C9"!V=16571 

9185 FORX-lTOLEN (B) STEP2 : y=ASC (MIDS (B, X , 1') ) -48 : IFY >9THENY=Y-7 

9190 T=ASC {M IDS (B ,X+1 , 1 ) ) -48 : IFT >9THENT-T-7 

9195 P0KEV,Y*16+T;V=V+1:NEXTX!P0KE164 22, 197 :P0KE16423, 64: RETURN 



of the introductory display. The display 
shows in-progress whkh st^ement 
numbers may overrun a fixed end mark 
if you include remark line numbers. 

Initialization line I, clear string 
space, defines all letters used as string 
variables, and identifies the first print- 
ing cotor. It then jumps to title and cod- 
ing routines. 

Lines 9000-9025 introduce the pro- 
gram and display general instructions 
for its use. A printer power on/off pre- 
caution appears at the bottom of the 
screen while line 903O's TRON com- 
mand pops statement numbers under a 
coding-in-progress message. 

Lines 9050-9125 defme two-charac- 
ter codes for Graftrax dot-column pat- 
terns CHR$(0)-CHR$(255), whUe lines 
9130 and 9135 defme codes for various 
length spacing, blank-column, and full- 
column pattern strings. Finally, line 
9140 defmes ^breviated printer mode 
control codes for Graftrax-80. 

When coding ends, line 9145 turns 
off the tracer function and asks for the 
Graftrax version you used. If it's Graf- 
trax-Plus, line 9150 redefmcs the com- 
pressed and expanded character on/off 
codes. 

Line 9155 asks whether you use a 
Model I or III. The Model I response 
displays a Loading Printer Driver mes- 
sage £U line 9160. then loops through 
statements 9180-9195. The four-state- 
ment routine loads a Model I printer 
driver into reserved but unused RAM. 
(See "Trick Your ROM." ioc. cit.) 

Lines 9165-9175 display initial color 
print run instructions. At that point, the 
fill-in area line 1000 assumes display 
control. See the how-to section for fill- 
in area use and operation. 

Frequently used GOSUB routines, 
lines 5-90. are located in the main pro- 
gram's top section where the program 
can access them faster during print 
runs. Remarks preceding the various 
routines describe their functions. 

Line 90 portions the print head for 
easier ribbon change on an MX-80. 
Code BY warns the printer of dot- 
graphics ahead, so it responds to first 
code S7 and moves the print head seven 
spaces plus one column. S7 or TAB(7) 
alone won't fool the printer into mov- 
ing the print head unless there's a com- 
mand to execute at the end. Line 90 
works only by making the print head 
leave a blank column after its move. 

For MX-80F/T use, add SC; between 
the LPRINT command and spacing 
code S7 in line 90. The SC;S7 combina- 
tion approximately centers the print 
head between the two plastic rollers on 



144 • 00 Micro, November 1983 



tnrsj- »>a 



IM r 



I 



-.U 




1 (HjK;iil SysU.-mb. Iiic 8970 N. 55th P.O. Box 23956 Milwaukee. W! 63223 (414) 355-5454 



iOG/CAL 

/systems 

IMC, 



the paper scale bar. Execute the main 
program without a fill-in program to 
verify displays and uncover key-in syn- 
tax errors. Save a master copy of the 
main program to later reload and fill in 
with your own color art print run rou- 
tines. 

A HoW'To Example 

Figure 2 and Program Listing 2, 
Monorail Train Art, show how Graf- 
trax color art evolves from an art sketch 
to coded fill-in program. An art subject 
is sketched and cok>red on a layout 
sheet having print lines eight dots high 
divided into blocks six columns wide. 
The layout arrangement simplifies col- 
unm (X}imts for initial coding and subse- 
quent print run debugging. 

I numbered print lines in increments 
of 10. This numbering rule allows up to 
10 consecutive statement munbers for 
coding each print line. I program num- 
bered a print line's six-column blocks 
consecutively from left to right. The 
blocks correspond with positions al- 
lotted for nomial alphanumeric charac- 
ters and spaces. 

I further subdivided the art sketch in 
Fig. 2 into horizontal areas A-B, B-C. 
and C-D above the monorail's lower 
edge and areas A-E, E-F, F-G, and G-D 
below the nonorail. These subdivisions 
alk>w For. . .To loops to repeat identi- 
cal print line segments of cars, support 
pillars, and background. 

Monorail Train Art codes and prints 
train-end areas A-B and C-D once for 
each cok>r. It also codes upper area seg- 
ment B-C and tower area segment E-F 
once but prints them four times for each 
cok}r. Identical print lines are similarly 
programmed once, then repeated with 
GOSUBs or For. . .To kwps as needed. 

Listing 2 includes routines for six-col- 
or print runs. The listing also includes 
several GOSUB routines (lines 100-500) 
called to print identical graphics seg- 
ments during color print runs. The pro- 
gram divides many of the print line 
coding sequences into three consecu- 
tively numbered statements for clarity. 
In most such cases you can combine the 
three statements into one numbered 
statement. 

The Monorail Train fill-in program 
phis the main program fill 8,861 RAM 
bytes and clear 3,000 bytes of string 
space. The (X>mbined program runs on 
a 16K tape or 32K disk system. 

Detailed remarks precede all func- 
tk)nal statements in Listing 2. Apostro- 
phes identify numbered and unnum- 
bered remarks. I indented the remarks 

Qmikmed on p. IX 



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an advanced personal computer 



a 1 




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Basic S599 kit (not shown) includes: 

• Software compatibility with TRS-80 Model III and Model 
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• 128k RAM card (64k normal plus 64k bank-selectable), 
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• 80 X 24 and 64 x 16 U/L case alphanumeric displays 
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• Z-80 CPU, with bootstrap ROM and hardware/software 
selectable 2 MHz and 5 MHz clock 

• High resolution 512 x 256 graphics circuitry, with 
alphagraphics (less I6k high resolution RAM) 

• Disk controller for any mix of up to four disk drives 
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• Parallel printer and light pen interfaces. 

• Built in audio 

• Provisions for readily available system ROM 

• Tan polyurethane enameled metal enclosure, with 
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• Standard typewriter keyboard, plus numeric keypad 

• CPU board, with six expansion slots 

• Parts kit, including ICs, sockets, fasteners and 
mounting hardware 

• Assembly manual 



vt 



Complete S1699 kit sl^own includes: 

• High-resolution 12" green screen monitor 

• Two SSDD slimline 5-V4" floppy drives and power 
supplies 

• Hand rubbed, solid walnut end panels - ■'' 

• RS232 Interface board 

• System ROM 

• 128K system and user RAM 

• 16k high resolution graphics RAM 



Additional Options 

• Single or dual built in slimline B'A" SSDD or DSDD 
floppy drives and power supply 

• Single or dual external slimline 8" SSDD or DSDD 
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• 128k bank selectable RAM board {for 256K total) 

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• Color Graphics (available 12/83) 

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IRS 80 IS a Tandy trademark CP'U is a Oigiial Reseatcn tradamarK Dealef Inqui'ies invited 



148 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



94 



95 



Program Listing 2. Monorail Train program. 

3 MONORAIL TRAIN - GRAFTRAX COLOR ART '? 

^ FOR 32K LEVEL II TRS-80 MODEL I/III 

a AND EPSON MX-80/100 PRINTER WITH GRAFTRAX 

(3 BY: FRANCIS S. KALINOWSKI 

? 16 N. ALDER DRIVE, ORLANDO, FL 32307 



97 * NOTE: ADD STATEMENTS 1-90 OF PROGRAM LISTING 1. 

99 ' SPACE 1-4, SET 480-MODE FOR 405 COLUMNS, PRINT WINDOW PANES 

IN 5-10 TO B. 

100 LPRINTS4;BY;EL;Al; AE; AS; BSfDS; STRINGS ( 14 , 2 52 ) QS ; STRING$ (5,25 
2)QB; 

' PRINT SEGMENT B TO C WINDOW PANES FOUR TIMES. 

101 FORU=lTO4:LPRINTQ5;H0;H3;HO;HS;HU;Z2;Q3;Z6;Q3; Z6 j Q3 ; Z6; Q3 ; Z6 
;Q3;26;Q3;Z6;Q3;Z2;HU;HS;HO;HG;H0;Q8; :NEXT 

' PRINT WINDOW PANES IN 67-74 PLUS THREE COLUMNS. 

102 LPRINT05; STRINGS (5 , 252 ) QS ; STRINGS (14 , 252 ) DS ; BS ; AS ; AE :RETURN 

299 ' SET 480-HODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, LOOP TO PRINT 75 SIX-COLUMN 

PATTERNS PLUS ONE COLUMN FROM A TO D . 

300 LPBINTBY;G3;Al; :G0SUBl5 :LPRINTCL: RETURN 

309 ' FROM B, SPACE 11-23, SET 480-MODE FOR SIX COLUMNS, PRINT 

THREE BLANK AND THREE FULL COLUMNS TO C . DO THIS FOUR 
TIMES. 

310 F0RU=1T04:LPRINTSA; S3 ; BY ; A6 ; Q4 ; Z3 ; : NEXT : RETURN 

319 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT SKY AND SUPPORT 

PILLAR (BIANK) FROM A TO E , ZERO VARIABLE X. 

320 LPRINTBY;G3;Al;P;CL;04;FA; :X=0 

' LOOP TO PRINT 17 SIX-COLUMN PATTERNS FROM E, THEN PRINT 
SUPPORT PILLAR (BLANK) IN 20 ENDING AT F. DO THIS FOUR 
TIMES ENDING AT G, THEN PRINT SKY FROM G TO D. 

321 GOSUB15:LPRINTCL;Q4,-FA; :X=X + 1 : IFX <4THEN321eLSELPRINTP;CL : RET 
URN 

399 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, LOOP TO PRINT SIX RANDOM 

COLUMN PATTERNS FROM A, PRINT 6 BLANK COLUMNS TO E, 
ZERO X, DEFINE T. 

400 T=6:LPRINTBY;G3;Al; :GOSUB20 :LPRINTQ6; :X=0:T=102 

' FROM E, LOOP TO PRINT 102 RANDOM COLUMN PATTERNS THEN six 
BLANK COLUMNS TO F. DO THIS FOUR TIMES, ENDING AT G, THEN 
LOOP TO PRINT SEVEN RANDOM COLUMN PATTERNS FROM G TO D . 

401 GOSUB20:LPRINTQ6; :X=X+1 : IFX <4THEN401ELSET=6 : GOT025 

499 ' SPACE 1, SET 4B0-MODE FOR SIX COLUMNS, PRINT P PATTERN 

IN 2. SPACE 3-19, PRINT P PATTERN IN 20 TO F. DO THIS 
FOUR TIMES TO POINT G. 

500 LPRINTS1;BY;A6;Q1;P; : F0RU=lT04 : LPRINTSA ; S7 ; BY ; A6; Ql ; P; :NEXT: 
LPRINT: RETURN 

999 ■ DEFINE CY, LOOP FOR START INSTRUCTION AND INITIALIZATION 

OF PRINTER, DEFINE T, LOOP TO DO THREE LINEFEEDS. 

1000 Cy="RED":GOSUB70:T=3:GOSUBl0 

1039 ' PRINT TRAIN'S WINDOW PANES RED. (SEE 100, 101, AND 102.} 

1040 GOSUB100 

1049 ' SPACE 1-3, SET 480-MCOE FOR 42 COLUMNS, PRINT 4-10 TO B. 

1050 LPRINTS3;BY;BA,-Q4;E0;G0; H0; HG ; HO;DO; DS ;DS;DO; DO;DO; STRINGS ( 
25,112)03; 

' SET 480-MODE FOR 84 COLUMNS, PRINT SEGMENT B TO C . DO 
THIS FOUR TIMES. 

1051 F0BU=lT04:LPRINTBY;CK;Ql;STRINGS (81,112)Q3; :NEXT 
' SET 480-MODE FOR 36 COLUMNS, PRINT 67-72. 

1052 LPRINTBYfB4)Ql; STRINGS (25 , 1 12)DO;DO; DO;DS ; DS ,-DO; HO; HG ; H0; G0 

;E0 

1939 ' LOOP TO MOVE PRINTHEAD FOR RIBBON CHANGE. 
1990 GOSUB90 

1999 ' DEFINE CY, LOOP FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND INITIALIZATION OF 

PRINTER, LOOP TO DO TWO LINEFEEDS. 

2000 CY="BROWN":GOSUB35:GOSUB5 

2029 ' SPACE 1-5, SET 480-MODE FOR 390 COLUMNS, PRINT 6-70, LOOP 

TO DO TWO LINEFEEDS. 

2030 LPRINTS5; BY; E6;Al; STRINGS (195 ,2) STRINGS (195,2) :G0SUB5 

2059 ' SPACE 1-6, SET 480-MODE FOR 24 COLUMNS, PRINT 7-10 TO B. 

2060 LPRINTS6; BY ; AO ; Q3 ; E0 ;G0;F0; EG ;C8;B4; STRINGS (16,18) ; 

/ isiing conlinurd 



TRS-80 MODEL III 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

A (omplelp (ouise in assembly Idnjiuaj^e 
wdtiPfi lo( (he beginner. Bjsk (ontepis, 
Ihp Z-BO insiFuclion set complete Model 
HI ROM and RAM in tor mat ton pfOR'jm 
minn pxjmples the disk controller the 
TRSDOS 1 ) diik operdimi; system 
RS-212-C mieifdce 

With the book you can also pur( hjse 
Monitor IS. i comprehensive maihir^r 
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( ompleie diagnostic tests (c every 
tomponeni ot your TRS-80 Model 1 or \ 
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or continuous testing modes Models 1 or 
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The rn(e//(gen( terminal program, with 
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The SCR/PSIT' Compatible Word Processor 
TYPITALL IS a new word processing pro- 
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TYPITALL includes features like ihese as 
sign any sequence ot keystrokes to a smglf 
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screen before p'iniing. Send the lormalied 
lexl lo a disk tile tor later printing Merge 
data Irom a file while printing Send any 
control or graphic character to the printer 
LJse the same version on the Model 1 or \ 
Reenter the program with all teni iniact it 
you acf idenially e»it without saving te»t 
TYPITALL (disk only) $129.95 

SMALL BUSINESS 
ACCOUNTING 

Based on Dome Bookkeeping Record 
|fal2. this program keeps track o( income, 
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•THS BO IS * Irddrmjik ^^l I^ndy < <Hp 



^ See list ot Adwltsw^ on Page 307 



ao Micro, November 1983 • 149 



Conlinued from p. 14? 

to distinguish them from functional 
statements. Each remark tells what the 
statement directly below it does. Delete 
all remarks when keying in the pro- 
gram. 

Letters A-G in the remarks identify 
start and end point letters on art sketch 
Fig. 2. Unless otherwise notod, one- and 
two-digit numbers identify the sbc-col- 
umn blocks on Fig. 2 print lines. Hy- 
phens between two such numbers de- 
note through. For example, 1-10 means 
blocks 1 through 10. 

Loop means branch through one or 



more GOSUB routines and return. 

Set mode for a quantity of columns 
requires three codes. The codes activate 
the printer's Graftrax mode for a speci- 
fied number of eight-dot columns. First 
code BY or BW sets a 480 or 960 mode. 
Second and third codes represent nl 
and n2 values; both must follow a BY 
or BW code. The second code (obtained 
from Fig. 1) specifies a number of col- 
umns up to 255. The third code specifies 
a number of columns in 256-column in- 
crements. This code may be Ql for zero 
columns, Al for 256, A2 for 512, and 
A3 for 768. A2 and A3 codes may be 



LJOing 2 conlinued 

' SET 480-MODE FOR 84 COLUMNS, PRINT B TO C . DO THIS FOUR 
TIMES. 

2061 F0RT=1T04:LPRINTBY;CK;Q1;STRING$ (12 , 18) STRINGS ( 56, 210) STRIN 
G$ (16,18) ; :NEXT 

' SET 480-MODE FOR 19 COLUMNS, PRINT 67-69 PLUS ONE COLUMN. 

2062 LPRINTBY;AJ;Ql; STRINGS (13 , 18 ) B4 ;C8; EG; F0; G0; E0 

2069 ' DEFINE- T, LOOP TO DO FIVE LINEFEEDS. 

2070 T=5:GOSUB10 

2119 ' LOOP FOUR TIMES TO PRINT LINES 120, 130, 140, AND 150 

FROM A TO D. (SEE 400 AND 401.) 

2120 FORY=lTO4:GOSUB400:NEXTY 

2989 ' LOOP TO MOVE PRINTHEAD FOR RIBBON CHANGE. 

2990 GOSUB90 

2999 ' DEFINE CY, LOOP FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND INITIALIZATION OF 

PRINTER, DEFINE P PATTERN. (SEE PATTERN Pi IN FIG. 1.) 

3000 CY="BLUE":GOSUB35:P=Pl 

3009 ' DEFINE T, LOOP TWICE TO PRINT SKY ON LINES 10 AND 20. 

(SEE 300.) 

3010 T=75:GOSUB300:GOSUB300 

3029 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT 

A TO B, ZERO X, DEFINE T. 

3030 P=C0+F0+C0+F0+C0+F0:LPRINTBY;G3;Al;Pl;Pl;Pl;Pl;Pl;CK;FA;CK; 
F3;CK;F8;CK;Fa;CG;F8;CG;F8;P;P;C0;F0,-C0;FV;DV:FV; :X=0:T=13 

' LOOP TO PRINT 13 P-PATTERNS PLUS SIX COLUMNS FROM 
B TO C. DO THIS FOUR TIMES. 

3031 GOSUB15:LPRINTC0;F0;C0;FV;DV;FV; :X=X+1 : IFX <4THEN3031 

' PRINT P AND Pi PATTERNS AND SINGLE COLUMNS FROM C TO D . 

303 2 LPRINTP ; P ; CG ; F0 ; CG ; F8 ; CG ; FB ; CG ; F8 ; CK ; F8 ; CK; F8 ; Pi ; Pi ; Pi ; Pl ; P 
1;CL 

3039 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 60 COLUMNS, PRINT FROM A TO B. 

3040 LPRINTBY ; BS ; Ql ; Pl ; PI ; PI ; CL ; FA ; CL ; FA ; CK ; F8 ; CG ; F0 ; C0; E0 ; QB ; Q9 
;Z3; 

' LOOP TO PRINT SEGMENT B TO C FOUR TIMES. (SEE 310.) 

3041 GOSUB310 

' SPACE 67-71, SET 480-MODE FOR 25 COLUMNS, PRINT 72-75 
PLUS ONE COLUMN. 

3042 LPRINTS5;BY;AP;Ql!C0;F0;CG;F8;CK;FA;Pl;Pl;Pl;CL 

3049 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 60 COLUMNS, PRINT FROM A TO B. 

3050 LPRINTBY ; BS ; Ql ; Pl ; Pl ; Pl ; CL ; FA ;CL;BA;AL;AQ;A5;A2;Al;A2;Al;A2 
;QB;Q7;Z3; 

' LOOP TO PRINT SEGMENT B TO C FOUR TIMES. (SEE 310.) 

3051 GOSUB310 

' SPACE 67-70, SET 480-MODE FOR 31 COLUMNS, PRINT 71-75 
PLUS ONE COLUMN. 

3052 LPRINTS4;BY;AV;Q5;Al;A2;A5;A2;A5;AQ;AL;BA;Pl;Pl;PljCL 

3059 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, SET 480-MODE FOR 60 COLUMNS, PRINT FROM 

A TO B. 

3060 P=Q1+E0+Q1+E0+Q1+E0 : LPRINTBY ; BS ; Ql ; P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; QB ; Ql ; Z3 ; 
' LOOP TO PRINT SEGMENT B TO C FOUR TIMES. 

3061 GOSUB310 

' SET 480-MODE FOR 54 COLUMNS, FROM C PRINT 21 BLANK 
THEN 3 3 COLORED COLUMNS TO D. 

Listing 2 continued 



used only in 960 mode. See p. 7 in the 
Graftrax-80 manual or appendix p. B-2 
in the Graftrax-Plus manual for mstruc- 
tions on determining nl (second code) 
and n2 (third code) values. 

The program redefines integer vari- 
able T and string variable P and uses 
them throughout the program. T's nu- 
meric value denotes the number of 
times a function should repeat in a 
GOSUB routine's For... To loop. T 
specifies a number of line feeds at the 
start of most color print runs. T is sub- 
sequently redefined to specify any 
quantity of P-pattem strings or ran- 
dom-pattern columns it prints on a line. 

String variable P normally represents 
a six-column pattern string like P 1 or P2 
(see Fig. 1). You may redefine P to rep- 
resent any length mixed-pattern string 
used more than once on a print line. 

The best way to see how the program 
codes color print runs is to compare art 
sketch lines with corresponding print 
line statements in Listing 2. Add a print 
run's first line number to Fig. 2's print 
line numbers to identify matching 
LPRINT statements. See Fig. 1 to iden- 
tify the various two-character codes 
used in the statements. 

Trace each print run's funaional 
statements in turn. Divert through every 
GOSUB to see what the routine does 
and how. Along the way, verify a few 
dot-graphics codes by checking their 
patterns (Fig. 1) against corresponding 
print run colored column patterns in the 
art sketch (Fig. 2). 

Print Run Descriptions 

Fill-in program execution starts at 
line 1000. String variable CY defines the 
ribbon color used for the run. CY ap- 
pears as the ribbon color in displayed 
instructions and in Now Printing Color 
messages. GOSUB70 loops through the 
main program's print-start routines in 
70, 80, and 85. T specifies a quantity of 
three, and GOSUBIO advances the pa- 
per three lines. 

Line 1040 loops through statements 
100, 101, and 102 to print the train's 
windows red for later overprint with 
green. Code S4 m statement 100 moves 
the print head four spaces. Codes 
BY;EL:A1 set the Am-doi graphics 
mode for 405 columns. The nl;n2 codes 
(EL;A1) are derived using 405-256 = 
149, wherein EL represents 149 and Al 
represents 256. The statement's remain- 
ing codes print the left-end train win- 
dows in line 40. Last, code Q8 moves 
the print head eight blank columns to 
point B (see Fig. 2). 

Line 101 prints four sets of car win- 
dows exactly like those shown between 



150 • 80 Micro, November 1983 




MODEL III 



MODEL 4 




Staleo(ttiearttectino1cigyint)oan)(JesiBn.oufdifecl replacemenl of Radio ShacK's' 
internal RS-232 board, mounts inside the Model III Or 4 on tlie eiisting brackets All 
cables, screws and complete mounting mslructions are included ^lon- tech meal 
peoole will find Itiat inslallalion is quick, straight forward and simple requiring less 
than 1 5 minutes to complete. 

Total compatability witn Radio Shack' and all enisting software is maintained. 
Software programmable baud rates from 50 to 19,300 tjaudare supported along with 
programmable word length, stop bits, and parity. May be utiliied in either halt of full 
duplax operation. 

Outstanding Valu* 

Guaranteed One Full Year 
Oeatef InQuiries 'nvited. 



4831 SOUTH HAMPTON PID LB41 
DALLAS, TEXAS 75232 



^86 



MOVING? 

Let u5 know 8 weeks in advance so that you won't miss a 

single issue of 80 Micro 

Attach old label where indicated and print new address in 

space provided. Also include your mailing label whenever 

you write concerning your subscription It helps us serve 

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C Extend my subscription one additional year for only 

$24 97. 
□ Payment enclosed QBill me 

Canada and Mexico $27.97/1 y«ar only US funds drawn on US bank. 
Foreign surface $44.97/1 year only US funds drawn on US bank. 
Please allow 6-6 weeks for delivery. 



80 MICRO 



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^ Name. 



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print NEW address here. 



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Address 
City 



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at 



COLOR COMPUTER 
' SOFTWARE 



DISK COLORCOM/E 

The Intelligent Communications Package 

COLORCOM/E, the most popular smart terminal program for the Color Com- 
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• Call yourfavorite bulletin board, download all messages addressed to 
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For 16, 32 or 64K disk systems. 

COLORCOM/E Disk $49.95 



COMPLETE YOUR WORD PROCESSOR 

SPELL- RITE 

THE Cassette Spelling Verifier 

You've got the best word processor. Now complete your system with the best 
spelling verifier. Spell-Rite is aconvenient, fast way to insure that all of your 
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Send check or money Ofdei tor total purchase price, plusS1.50S&H. Charge 

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f'O Rox 981 •F,irmin^daU' MY 117^7 



^ See List ot AOfertisars on Page 307 



80 Micro, Novemtmr 1983 • 151 



Figure 3. Monorail Train black/while art. 



Liamg 2 coalinued 

3062 LPRINTBY;BM;QB;Q2;E0;Ql;E0;P;P;P;P;P 

3069 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT 

FROM A TO E, ZERO X, DEFINE T. 

3070 P=AL+AQ+AL+AQ+AL+AQ:LPRINTBY;G3;Al;P;AL;Q4;AQ; :X=0:T=17 

' LOOP TO PRINT 17 P-PATTERNS AND SIX COLUMNS FROM B TO C. 
DO THIS FOUR TIMES. 

3071 GOSUB15:LPRINTAL;04;AQ; : X=X+1 : IFX <4THEN3071 
■ PRINT SEVEN COLORED COLUMNS FROM G TO D. 

3072 LPRINTP;AL 

3079 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, DEFINE T, LOOP FOUR TIMES TO PRINT 

LINES 80, 90, 100, AND 110. (SEE 320 AND 321.) 
3060 P=Pl : T=17 : F0RY=lT04 : GOSUB320 : NEXTY 
39R9 ' LOOP TO MOVE PRINTHEAD FOR RIBBON CHANGE. 
3990 GOSUB90 

3999 ' DEFINE CY, LOOP FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND INITIALIZATION OF 

PRINTER, DEFINE T, LOOP TO DO THREE LINEFEEDS. 

4000 CY="GREEN":GOSUB35:T=3:GOSUB10 

4039 ' LOOP TO OVERPRINT TRAIN'S RED WINDOW PANES WITH GREEN TO 

MAKE THEM A DEEP BROWN. (SEE 100, 101, AND 102.) 

4040 GOSUB100 

4049 ' DEFINE T, LOOP TO DO SEVEN LINEFEEDS. 

4050 T=7:GOSUB10 

4119 * LOOP FOUR TIMES TO OVERPRINT BROWN RANDOM- PATTERNED 

LINES 120, 130, 140, AND 150 WITH GREEN PATTERNS. 
(SEE 400, 401, 402). 

4120 FORY=lTO4:GOSUB400:NEXTY 

4159 ' SET 960-MODE FOR 902 COLUMNS, PRINT FROM A TO E . 

4160 LPRINTBW;E6;A3;ZA;Z2;STRINGS(12,15) ; 

' PRINT SEGMENT E TO F FOUR TIMES, ENDING AT POINT G 

4161 FORU=lT04:LPRINTZJ;ZJ;Z4; STRINGS (12,15) ; :NEXT 

' PRINT 14 DOUBLE-DENSITY GREEN COLUMNS FROM G TO D. 

4162 LPRINTZA;Z3;HF 

4989 ' LOOP TO MOVE PRINTHEAD FOR RIBBON CHANGE. 

4990 GOSUB90 

4999 ' DEFINE CY, LOOP FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND INITIALIZATION OF 

PRINTER, LOOP TO DO TWO LINEFEEDS. 

5000 CY="BLACK" :GOSUB35:GOSUB5 

5029 ' SPACE 1-4, SET 480-MODE FOR 401 COLUMNS, PRINT 5-10 

TO B, ZERO X. 

5030 LPRINTS4;BY;EH;Al;Q4;Al;Al;A3;A3;A3;A5;A5;AS;A5;STRING$ (5,9 
)AH;AG;AG;AG;AH;STRING5 (6, 3 3 ) STRINGS (7,32) ; :X=0 

' PRINT SEGMENT B TO C FOUR TIMES. 

5031 LPRINTSTRINGS (5,32) ; ;F0RU=lT08 :LPRINTSTR1NGS (8,33)B0; :NEXT: 
LPRINTSTRINGS (7,32) ; :X=X+1 : IFX <4THEN5031 

' FROM POINT C, PRINT 67-70 PLUS THREE COLUMNS. 

5032 LPRINTB0;B0;B0;B0; STRINGS ( 6, 3 3} AH; AG ; AG; AG; AH ; STRINGS (5, 9) A 
5 ; A5 ; A5 ; A5 ; A3 ; A3 ; A3 ; Al ; Al 

5039 ' SPACE 1-3, SET 480-MODE FOR 415 COLUMNS, PRINT 4-10, 

ZERO X. 

5040 LPRINTS3;BY;EV;A1;Q2;A1;A2;A4;AE;AI;B2;C2;E2;STRINGS{14,2)H 
U;Q3;HU;STRINGS (5,2)HU;Q7; :X=0 

' PRINT WINDOW SIDES IN SEGMENT B TO C . DO THIS FOUR TIMES. 

504 1 LPRINTQ4 ; H0 ; AG ; AS ; A4 ; A2 ; Al ; Q2 ; Zl ; Ql j : F0RU=lT06 : LPRINTZ 1 ; Q6 ; 
Zl;Ql; : NEXT : LPRINTZ 1 ; Q2 ; Al ;A2;A4;A8; AG ;H0;Q7; :X=X+1 ; 1FX<4THEN504 
1 

List^ 2 mnlimied 



print line 40 points B and C. Z6 and Q3 
codes repeat to print the solid red por- 
tions of the six square windows with 
three blank columns between them. 

Statement 102 prints the line 40 right- 
end windows to the third column of 
block 72. First code Q5 moves the print 
head five blank columns from point C 
to the first printing column for 
STRING$(5,242). 

Lines 1050, 1051, and 1052 print a 
line 50 red stripe on the train's left end, 
four cars, and right end, respectively. 
S3 in statement 1050 moves the print 
head three six-column spaces. BY;BA; 
Q4 set the 480-dot graphics mode and 
move the print head three blank columns. 

In this case, BA denotes 42 columns; 
the first zero of Q4 denotes add zero 
columns to 42; the last three zeros of Q4 
do three blank columns. The rest of the 
codes in line 1050 print the left -end part 
of the red stripe to the center of charac- 
ter block 10. Last code Q3 moves the 
print head to point B, leaving three 
blank columns to be printed later in sol- 
id blue. 

Line 1051 prints an 81 -column long 
red stripe plus three blank colunms four 
times. BY;CK;Q1 set the 48(klot 
graphics mode for 84 columns plus zero 
columns during each iteration of the 
statement's For. . .To loop. 

Line 1052 prints the red stripe's right 
end across line 50's character blocks 67 
through 72. BY;B4;Q1 codes set the 
480^iot graphics mode for 36 columns. 
The remaining codes print the columns. 

The loop in Une 1990 calls line 90 to 
move the print head to the right seven 
spaces for ribbon cartridge change. 

Brown print/run line 2000 loops 
through main program routines at lines 
35-85, then lines 5-10. The first state- 
ment group displays new instructions, 
redefines PI and P2 patterns, and reini- 
tializes the printer for Graftrax line 
spacing. The latter statement pair ad- 
vances the paper two print lines. Subse- 
quent statements print lines 30 and 60, 
then advance the p^>er five lines. 

Line 2120 loops through the full-line 



152 • 80 Micro. November 1983 



It ■ • — — — - — — - — — ■ ' — 


"nr— t^*"" 


iejjHHnHrf.MBHHefaiHHK j ■ "^ 


ji' " 


■ 

JfliMJIMlanHiHilliltf^i 







Figure 4. Monorail Train five-color art. 



printing routine at lines 400 and 401 to 
print four identical background lines. 
The code BY;G3;A1 in line 400 sets 
480Klot grj^Dhics for the 451 columns 
between points A and D. A loop 
through main program line 20 starts line 
120 by printing six random pattern col- 
umns. Code Q6 moves the print head 
six blank columns to point E. The semi- 
colon after Q6 holds the print head at 
point E while variable X is zeroed and T 
is assigned a value of t02. 

Line 401 prints four 102-column E to 
F segments, ending at point G, then 
prints seven more columns to point D. 
The statement first loops through line 
20 to print 102 random column pat- 
terns, moves the print head six blank 
columns with Q6, then increments X by 
1 . This cycle repeats until X equals 4. At 
that point, T is assigned a quantity of 
SK, and a jump to statement 25 prints 
the seven random column patterns be- 
tween points G and D. 

Figure 3 shows a black and white 
printout from the Monorail Train Art 
program, using a black ribbon for all 
color print runs. (Figure 4 shows a five- 
color result of the same program.) If 
you don't plan to get colored ribbons, 
try your hand at programming black 
and white art for a single black print 
run. You can even use PI or P2 patterns 
(see Fig. 1) to achieve gray shading in 
single-run art printouts. 

Printing Gn&ftrax Art 

Graftrax color art requires a separate 
print run for each color. The paper's 
start point, established for the first print 
run, must be exactly the same for the re- 
maining print runs. Use 20-pound white 
bond p^)er. 

Paper edge and fixed index marks 
provide a fairly accurate means to repo- 
sition the p^jer between print runs. Es- 
tablish index marks as follows: 

• Feed the paper into the printer, and 
engage its pinfeed holes with the pins of 
both tractor feed mechanisms. 

• Lock the right-hand feed mechanism. 
Leave the left-hand mechanism un- 



Lisriit 2 comhtual 

' PRINT 67-72 PLUS ONE COLUMN. 
5042 LPRINTQ4;HU; STRINGS ( 5 , 2 ) HU ; Q3 ; HU ; STRINGS ( 14 , 2) E2;C2 ; B2 ; AI ; A 
E;A4;A2;Al 

5049 • SPACE 1-3, SET 480-HODE FOR 18 COLUMNS, PRINT 4-6, SPACE 

7-10 TO B, ZERO X, 

5050 LPRINTS3 ; BY ; AI ; Q3 ; E0; C0; B0; AG; AS; A4;A4;A2;A2;A2; STRINGS (6,1 
)S4; :X=0 

' SET 480-MODE FOR 84 COLUMNS, PRINT SEGMENT B TO C . 
DO THIS FOUR TIMES. 

5051 LPRINTBY;CK;Q1;QA;E0;E0;E0;Q1; :F0RU = lT06 :LPRINTSTRINGS !8,12 
3)Q1; :NE>:T:LPRINTE0;E0;E0;QA;Q3; :X=X + 1 : IFX<4THEN5051 

' SPACE 67-69, SET 480-nODE FOR l9 COLUMNS, PRINT 70-72 
PLUS ONE COLUMN. 

5052 LPRINTS3; BY ;AJ;Q1; STRINGS {6 , I ) A2 ; A2 ; A2; A4 ; A4 ; AS ; AG; B0;C0; E0 

5059 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT LINE 60 FROM A TO D. 

5060 LPRINTBY;G3;Al;STRINGS ( 36, 80 ) GG; CG ; BG ; AG ; AG ; A4 ; A2 ; STRINGS ( 1 
7,1)STRINGS (160,1) STRINGS (168 , DSTRINGS (14 , 1 ) A2 ; A4 ; A8; AG ; BG;CG; G 
G;STRINGS (34,80) 

5069 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT FROM A TO E. 

5070 LPRINTBY ; G3 ; Al ; STRINGS (7 , 144 ) EV ; EG; EG ; EV ; 

' PRINT SEGMENT E TO F FOUR TIMES, ENDING AT POINT G. 

5071 F0RU=lT04;LPRINTSTRINGS (104 , 144) EV; EG; EG; EV ; :NEXT 
' PRINT FROM G TO D. 

5072 LPRINTSTRINGS (8,144) 

5079 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, LOOP FOUR TIMES TO PRINT IDENTICAL 

LINES 00, 90, 100, AND 110. {SEE 500.) 

5080 P=Q1+Zl+Q2+Zl+Q1:FORX-1TO4:GOSUB500:NEXTX 

5119 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, LOOP FOUR TIMES TO PRINT IDENTICAL 

LINES 120, 130, 140, AND 150. (SEE 500.) 

5120 P=Zl+^4+Zl:FORX=lTO4:GOSUB500:NEXTX 

5159 ' DEFINE P PATTERN, LOOP TO PRINT LINE 160. (SEE 500.} 

5160 P=HG+AG+AG+AG+AG+-HG:GOSUB500 

5989 ' LOOP TO MOVE PRINTHEAD FOR RIBBON CHANGE. 

5990 GOSUB90 

5999 ' DEFINE CY, LOOP FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND INITIALIZATION OF 

PRINTER. 

6000 CY="BORDER":GOSUB35 

6009 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT TOP-EDGE BORDER 

FROM A TO D. 

6010 LPRINTBY ;G3;Al;Zl; STRINGS (224 , 128 ) STRINGS (225,128)Z1 

6019 ' SET 480-MODE FOR SIX COLUMNS, PRINT ONE FULL AND THREE 

BLANK COLUMNS, SPACE 2-75, SET 480-MODE FOR ONE COLUMN, 
PRINT FIRST COLUMN OF 76. DO THIS 15 TIMES TO PRINT 
LEFT AND RIGHT EDGE BORDERS. 

6020 F0RU=1 T015 : LPRINTBY ; A6 ; Ql ; Zl ; Q5 ;SG;S4; BY ;Al;Ql;Zl: NEXT 

6169 ' SET 480-MODE FOR 451 COLUMNS, PRINT BOTTOM-EDGE BORDER 

FROM A TO D. 

6170 LPRINTBY ;G3;A1; STRINGS (225 , 128)STRINGS (226,128) 

6989 ' LOOP TO MOVE PRINTHEAD FOR RIBBON CHANGE. 

6990 GOSUB90 

7999 ' ASSIGN "DONE" TO CY, LOOP THROUGH DONE-FLAG DETECT 
STATEMENT 35 TO ART-DONE MESSAGE DISPLAY STATEMENT 
8990 OF MAIN PROGRAM. 

3000 CY="DONE":GOSUB35 

8009 ' NOTE: ADD STATEMENTS 8990-9195 OF PROGRAM LISTING 1. 



80 Micro. November 1983 • 153 



Program Listing 3. Bird of Prey program. 

94' @@(3@i3@@@?ia'?'a??iaa@(a@;a@^^ 

? BIRD OP PREY - GRAFTRAX COLOR ART <? 

@ FOR 48K LEVEL II TRS-80 MODEL I/III la 

@ AND EPSON MX-00/100 PRINTER WITH GRAFTRAX @ 

95 • @ BY: FRANCIS S. KALINOWSKI ^ 

@ 16 N. ALDER DRIVE, ORLANDO, FL 32807 @ 

99 ' NOTE: ADD STATEMENTS 1-90 OF PROGRAM LISTING 1. 

300 LPRINTS2;BY;GU;Q1; :GOSUB15 :RETURN 

400 G0SUB15:LPRINTHN:RETURN 

1000 CY="RED":GOSUB70:T=6:GOSUB10 

1070 LPRINTTAB ! 27 ) BY ; AP ; Q6 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; A7 ; A7 ; AF ; AF ; AF ; AV ; AV ; BV j BV ; B 

U f DS ! HS ; HO ; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 

1080 LPRINTTAB{26)By;AM;Q6;A8;AG;BG;DG;STRING$ (10, 240) H0; F0; E0 

1090 LPRINTTAB { 37 ) BY, • AT; Ql;Al;Al; A3 ;A7;A7;AF;AF;AV;BV;DV;DV;Z4;D 

V ; DV ; Z8 ; DV ; DV ; BV ; AV 

1100 LPRINTTAB ( 22 ) BY; AG; Q5;Al; A3 ;A7;A7;AF; STRINGS ( 5 , 3 1) BV; BU ; Bl) ; 

BS;BO;BG;BG;B0;C0;E0;S4;3Y;AI;Ql;Al;A3jA3;A3;STRING$ (7,7)AF;AF;A 

F ; AE ; AE ; A8 ; Ql ; 52 ; BY ; B9 ; Ql ; Al ; A3 ; A3 ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; AV ; BV ; DV ; DV ; ZB; Z6 

; HU ; HS ; HG ; H0 

1110 LPRINTSB;BY;AU;Q6;Al;A3;A3;A7;AF;AV;AV;BV;DV;Z3;HU;HS;HS;HO 

;HG;H0;G0;G0;E0;Q4;S3;BY;CE;Q4;Al;Al;Al;Al;A9;AV;BV;DV;Z7;HU;HS; 

HO ; HG ; H0 ! G0 ; E0 ; Q6 ; A 1 ; A 1 ; A 3 ; A 3 ; A 7 ; A 7 ; AF J AV ; BV ; D V ; ZC ; Z 2 ; HU ; HS ; HO ; H 

0;HG 

1120 LPRINTTAB { 19) BY ; AO ; Q2 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; A? ; AF ; AV ; BV j BV ; DV ; Z 3 ; HU ; HS ; H 
O ; HO ; HG ; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 ; B0 ; AG ; 54 ; BY ; CE ; Q2 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; BV ; DV ; Z8 ; HU 
J HS ; HO ; HG ; H0; G0 ; E0 ; Al ; Al ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; A7 ; AF ; AF ; AV ; AU ; BS ; DS ; DO ; DC ; HG ; 
HG ; H0 ! H0 J G0 ; E0 ; Ql ! E0 ; G0 ; HG ; HO ; HU ; ZB ; Z 3 J HU ; HS ; HO ; HG ; H0 ; G0 
1130 LPRINTTAB ( 17 ) BY ; AO ; Q3 ; Al ;Al; A3 ;A7;AF;AF;AV;BV;DV;DV;Z3;HU;H 
S ; HO ; HO J HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 ; E0 ; S5 ; BY ; B4 ; Ql ; Al ; A4 ; AE ; AU ; BU ; Z9 ; HU ; HT ; HR ; HJ 
; H3 ; G7 ; E7 ; AF ; AV ; AV ; AV ; BV ; DV ; DV ; Z 2 ; HN ; HH ; H0 ; G0 ; 00 ; E0 ; S 3 ; BY ; AN ; Ql ; 
A4 ; E0 J G0 ; HG ; HO ; HU ,- ZA J HU ; HS ; HO ; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 

1140 LPRINTTAB ( 24 ) BY ; BG ; Q4 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; A6 ; A4 ; A4 ; Q8;Al; A3 ;E7;EF;EF;E 
V!rV;ZB;DV;BV;AF;A3;S4;BY;A9;Ql;El;H2;HK;HO;HO;HG;H0;G0;E0 
1150 LPRINTTAB(25)BY;C2;Ql;AljAl;Al;A3;A3;A7;A7;AF;AV;CV;ZC;Z3;D 
V; AV ; AF ; A3 ; Q9 ; Al ; A2 ; A2 ; A4 ; A8 ; AG ; B0 ; C0 ; E0; E0 

1160 LPRINTTAB ( 12 ) BY ; AO ; Q3 ; Al ; A3 ;A7;A7;AF; STRINGS ( 9, 31) AU ; AS ; AS.- 
AO; AG ; AG ; B0 ; 00 ; S 5 ; BY ; CG ; Ql ; A4 ; A8 ; AH ; B3 ; C 7 ; EF ; AF j AV ; AV ; BV ; CV ; Z 1 ; Z 
F ; flU ; AS ; A8 ; AS ; AG ; B0 ; C0 ; E0 

1170 LPRINTSA;BY;AU;Q4;Al;A3;A3;A7;AF;AF;AV;BV)DV;Z6;HU;HS;HS;HO 
; HG ; H0 ; G0; E0 ; E0 ; Q3 ; S4 ; BY ; CJ ; Q4 ; A3 ; A? ; A7 ; Bl ; BG ; DU ; Z 5 ; ZF ; HU ; HU ; HS J 
HO;HG;H0;H0;G0;E0 

1 180 LPRINTS8 ; BY ; AU ; Q6 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AF ; AV ; BV ; DV ; DV ; Z7 ; HU ; HS ; HS ; HO 
; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; G0 ; E0 ; Ql ; S 5 ; BY ; CF ; Q6 ; A 1 ; A3 ; AV ; Z 2 ; ZF ; HU ; HU ; HS ; HO ; HG ; HG ; 
H0;G0;E0 

1 1 90 LPR INTS7 ; BY ; AU ; Ql ; Al ; A 1 ; A 3 ; A7 ; AF ; AF ; AV ; BV ; DV ; ZA ; HU ; HS ; HO ; HO 
; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 ; B0 ; E0 ; AG ; S 5 ; BY ! CB ; Q4 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; BV ; DV ; ZF ; HU ; H5 ; 
H0 ! GG ; E0 

1200 LPRINTS6;BY;AO;QlfA7;AF;AV;BU;DU;HS;HS; HO; HO; HO, -STRINGS (H, 
240)H0;G0;E0;S6;BY;CO;Ql;Al;A3;A7;AF;AV!BV;DV;ZA;Z2;HU;HS;HU;Z8; 
ZD!HE;HS;HO;G0;E0;Al;Al;Al;A3;A3;STRINGS (6,7)AE;A8 

1210 LPRINTTAB ( 14 ) BY ; Dl ; Q6 ; A2 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; BV ;DV;ZA;Z2;HU;HS; HO ;HG;H 
0;G0;E0;Q4;E0;H0;HG;HO;HS;HU;Z3;HU;HS;HS;HO;HO;HO;HS;HS;HS;HO;HO 
;HG!HH;H7;AF;AV;ZA;Z8;HS;HO;HG;G0;El;A7;AF;BV;DV;Z7;HU;HS;HG;H0; 
E0 

1220 LPRINTTAB ( 1 3) BY ; AU ) Ql ;Al;Al; A3 ;A7;AF;AV!BV;DV;BV;BV;DV;DV;D 
V ; DV ; Z7 ; HU ; HS ; HO ; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 ; Q2 ; S4 ; BY ; BC ; Ql ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; DV ; ZA ; Z 7 
; HS ; HO ; HG ; H0 ; E3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; DV ; Z8 ; HU ; HO ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 

1 2 30 LPR INTTAB ( 1 2 ) BY ; AU ; Ql ; Al ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; BV ; DV ; HU ; HU ; HS ; HS ; HO ; HO ; H 
O;HG;HG;HG;H0;H0;H0;H0; STRINGS ( 5, 192 )E0; Q4 ; S3 ; BY; BI ; Q6; Al ; A3; A7 ; 
AV ; BV ; DV ; ZA ; Z7 ; HS ; HO ; HG ; G0; E0 ; A8 ; Al ; A4 ; DV ; Z9 ; HS ; HO ; H0; G0 
1240 LPRINTS4;BY;A6;Ql;Al;Al;A2;A2;Al;Al;S7;BY;A6;Ql;G0;G0;E0;Q3 
; S6 ; BY ; BJ ; Q5 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; DV ; ZA ; Z7 ; HU ; HS ; HO ; HG ; G0; E0; Q9; G0 ; H0 j 
H0;H0;G0;G0;G0;G0;E0 

1250 LPRrNTS4;BY;A6;Ql;G0;G0jB0;B0;G0;G0;5A;S3;BY;Bl;;Q6;A6;AF;A 
V ; BV ; ZA ; za ; HU ; HS ; HO ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 

1260 LPRINTTAB ( 17 ) BY ! Bl ; Q4 ; Al ; A3 ;A7;AF;BV;AF;AF;AV!AV;AV;EV;FV;Z 
6 ; HU ; HU ! HU ; H5 ; HS ; H5 ; HS ; HO ; HG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 

using } conlmueel on p. ISS 



locked to minimize paper buckling dur- 
ing dense color print runs. 

• Using the printer's paper feed knob, 
advance the paper until the first fanfold 
crease moves up slightly past the print 
head. 

• Attach a short strip of white sticky- 
black label to the outer rear surface area 
on top of the right-hand feed mecha- 
nism. Position the label strip with its 
left-hand edge ri^t next to the printer 
paper's right-hand edge. 

• Using a fine-point pencil, draw a 
short straight index line across the pa- 
per's edge and the fixed label strip. The 
two resulting marks are papwr reposi- 
tioning indexes for subsequent color 
print runs. 

Load and start the Graftrax color art 
program. Displayed instructions tell 
you what to do in a specific order. The 
last instruction tells you to press the P 
key to start the first color print run. 

Instructions to turn printer power 
off, reposition paper, insert slipsheet, 
change ribbon, remove slipsheet, align 
index marks, turn printer power on, 
and start the next print run appear after 
each print run. Follow all instructions 
exactly and in the given order. 

The instruaions may display long be- 
fore a print run ends if you use a serial 
interface with a large character buffer. 
In this case, allow enough time for the 
print run before complying with in- 
structions. Play it safe by adding code 
A7 after LPRnsfT in line 90. Code A7 
gives you a 1/3-second beep tone when 
a print run ends. You must set the print- 
er's internal DIP (dual in-line package) 
switch SWl-6 to on for beeper opera- 
tion. 

When instructed, rewind the paper by 
carefully backfeeding it with the paper 
feed knob while gently pulling straight 
back on the paper's trailing end. Use 
just enough rearward pull to eliminate 
paper slack in the print head area. Con- 
tinue backfeeding in this manner until 
the paper's index mark moves at least 
1/2 inch past the fixed index mark. 

The slipsheet mentioned in the in- 
structions can be any thin piece of paper 
about 4 inches square. A slipsheet in- 
serted between the art paper and print 
head ribbon guide prevents accidental 
color smudging during ribbon cartridge 
change. 

When instructed, carefully advance 
the papti until its index mark is within 
1/4 inch of the fixed index mark. Stop at 
that point, grasp input part of paper at 
both edges just behind the p^>er separa- 
tor, and pull it straight back slightly. 
Now, carefully and slowly advance the 
paper to exactly align its index mark 



1$4 • dO Micro, November 1963 



Learn to Program Like a Professional! 

THE COMPLETE BOOK OF RANDOM ACCESS 
& DATA FILE PROGRAMMING 





Written for TRS-80^ I, II, & III - IBM VPC - APPLE" M/S - OSBORNE^ - HEATtT" - DEC^ - 
SUPERBRAIN^" - and all Computers using CP/M with Microsoft BASIC^ 

The last word on disK random access and file handling techniques, this series is intended for everyone — beginning programmers, t)usinessmen 
and professionals will learn how to create custom programs to handle inventories, mailing lists, work scheduling, record keeping, and many other 
tasks, while more experienced programmers will learn advanced, professional programming techniques for faster, more efficient data storage 

and retrieval. 

Although random access file handling is a matter of some complexity, the subject has been treated in a simple and down-to-earlh fashion, so that 
anyone with some smalt familiarity with programming in Microsoft BASIC will be able to cope with the material. Each stage of learning uses a 
sample program as a starting point. The programs grow in capability and complexity as the books progress into all of the various aspects of tile 
handling and record manipulation. An extensive effort has been made to keep the material coherent and every program line is explained in detail. 



Volume I 
BASIC FILE HANDLING 

• The writing ol a Menu to summarize program functions 
" Screen format for data entry 

• The creation of a basic record 

■ The FIELD and LSET routines for buffer preparation 

• Disk storage of random access records 

• Changing or editing stored records 

• The LPRINT capability from disk using three different formats 

• Sorting the random file 

• Searching by name or key field 

• Search in "next" or "prior" fashion 

• Purging deleted records 

• Using disk file data for calculations 

• Future expansion of data fields 

• Using flags to prevent program crashes 

• Date setting, printer on-line and many other routines to make a pro- 
gram run like a commercially written program 

VOLUME I $29.95 

Option Vol. I Program Disk 

TRS-80 MocM I/Ml S28.S0 

TRS-80 Mod«l II $32.50 



Volume II 
ADVANCED FILE HANDLING TECHNIQUES 

Relational database programming 

Comprehensive self-balancing accounting system with printouts 

Hashcoded data tile manipulation - (probably the fastest nwthod of 

data retrieval). Hashing the input key and recovery method explained 

Span-blocking techniques allow creation of records longer than 256 

bytes without wasted space 

Blocking & Deblocking 

Shell-Metzner sort 

In- pi ace screen editing 

Recovery of deleted record space 

Alpha-index record retheval 

Fast machine language/BASiC sort 

Linked list record structure and sort-merge, deleted record removal 

and file reorganization 

Multi-kev file reoraanization and record searching 



VOLUME II $29.9B 

Optional Vol. II Program Dtak 

TRS-80 Mod*! l/ll/lll $49J5 



2] 



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GRAFTRAX-PLUS 
1 2 3 




spacing Test Fill-in Pcogcam 

1B10 LPRINTBYtAliQliZlf BT;ByjA2;Ql; Z2 

1020 LPBINTBY!A2;Ql)Z2jBT;BY;A2;QljZ2 

103 LPRINTBYjA3jQljZ3!BT;BY;A2;Ql;Z2 

1040 LPRINTBY;A4;Q1;Z4;BT;BY;A2;Q1; Z2 

IflSa LPRINTBy;A5;Ql;Z5;BT;BV;A2;Ql;Z2 

1060 LPRINTBY;A6;Ql;Z6;BT;BY;A2;QljZ2 

1070 LPRINTBy;A7;QljZ7;BTjBY!A2!Ql!Z2 

Note: Code BT is tised instead of SI (Space) 
to print the equals sign for clarity. 

Figure 5. Gra/lrax spacing characteristics. 




Figure6. Bird of Prey five-color art. 
1H • ao Micro, November 1983 



with the fixed index mark. If you pass 
the fixed mark even stigtitly, backfeed 
the paper about 1/2 inch (don't fcvget 
the gentle backward pull) and try align- 
ing the index marks again. 

Don't pull on or move any part of the 
paper during a color print mn. Let the 
tractor feed mechanism advance the pa- 
per normally. Any external tension on 
the paper may shift the slight clearance 
around feed pins and skew it out of 
alignment. Sudden misalignment causes 
horizontal or vertical streaking. 

Displayed messages identify the color 
iwintai. When the last print run ends, 
you'll get a message to that effect. 

Clean the print head before doing an- 
other printout that starts with a light- 
colored ribbon. Fold a piece of smooth 
firm paper towel into three layers and 
crease them into a U shape. With rib- 
bon removed, slip the towel's U-creased 
area between the print head and its rib- 
bon guide. Wait a few seconds and re- 
move the towel. Repeat this action with 
an unused part of the towel until it 
comes out clean. 

Flatten and smooth a cok)r art print- 
out with a wavy surface in two ways: 
Place it between two pieces of clean pa- 
per and press with a clothing iron set on 
low heat, or place it under a stack of 
magazines overnight. 

Running the Prog^wn 

To merge a cotor art program (List- 
ings 2-4) with the main program (Listing 
1), first save the cok)r art program in 
ASCn formal (SAVE "file/BAS",A). 
Run the program; when the message 
Coding in Progress appears on the screen, 
press and hold the ^3ace bar while the 
program steps through the printer codes. 
When the coding is complete, the pro- 
gram prompts you througji the cokir art 
printing process. 

Doing Your Own Art 

Graftrax cokir art requires suitable 
sketching material, colored pencils or 
pens, and cotor ribbon cartridges. 
You'D need a sheet of graph paper to 
lay out your art sketch. Green- or black- 
lined paper with six or eight squares per 
1/2 inch is ideal. Avoid blue-lined pa- 
per; it doesn't reproduce on most copi- 
ers. Get an 11- by 17-inch sheet for 
copying convenience. 

Using a black ball-point or nylon tip 
pen, line the graph paper so that it's six 
squares wkle by eight squares tall. See 
the layout sheet in Fig. 2 for examples. 

Number the six-column blocks con- 
secutively, starting with the topmost 
left-hand block. Number the lines in in- 
crements of 10. Allowing a 3/8-inch 



CQIYIPUTHQMICS 



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• CP/M IS a nademarti ol Digiid Research •5<EHOX rs a nademaik ot Xerox Coip " IBM a a (rademarlt al IBM Corp * OSBOflNE a a tiademarti o( Osborne Co^i 



BUSINESS PAC 100 




^ 30-Day mon«ry 



100 Ready-To-Rim 
Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE) Includes 128 Page Osers Manual 

Inventoiy Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations. 

Checkbook Maintenance.... Accounts Receivable... .Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM UST 



NAME DESCRIPTION 

1 IKJLE78 [merest Appoitionmer* by Ruk of the 78's 

2 ATiflCJ] Annurty computabon program 

3 DATE Time between d«es 

4 DAVYEAR Day of year a particular dote falls cxi 

5 LEASEJTfT tnlerESt rale on lease 

6 BREAKEVTi Breakeven ariarysis 

7 DEPRSL StraighUne depreciation 

8 DEPRSY Sum al the digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balatx^ depreciation 

10 DEPRDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vs. depreciation tabiea 

12 CHECK2 Prints MEBS checks alor^ with dal^ register 

1 3 CHECKBKl Checkbook rrviinter^arxre program 

14 MORTGAGE/A Morlgage amoitiiation lable 

15 WJLTMON Computes bnte needed for money to doubte. triple. 

16 SALVAGE DetenrsFtes salvage vaiue of an investment 

i 7 RRVARJN Rate of return on investment with vailsWe inflows 

1 8 RRCOfiST Rate of return on investment with constant inftews 

1 9 EFFECT Effective interest rate of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an divestment (compound interest) 

21 FVAL Present value of a future amount 

22 LOANPAY Amount of payment on a kxm 

23 REGWtTH Equal witfxfrawals from investment to leave over 

24 S1WDI5K Simple discount anafysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent & nonequtvalent dated values for oblig. 

26 AMhGDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 ^\ARKUP * l^^arkup anafysis for items 

28 SffSKFtIND Sinking fund amortiaitwn program 

29 BOriOVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depk^ion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes optwns analysis 

32 STOCVALl Expected retum on stoci< via ifiscounts dividerKb 

33 WARVAL Value of a wanvil 

34 BOMDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

37 SHARPEI PonfolK) setectwn modefi.e, what stocks to ho« 

38 OPTWRfTt Optxsn writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a right 

40 EXPVAL Expected value analysis 

4 1 BAYES Bayesian deciskjns 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADihF Value of additkjnal informaboo 

44 UTlLfTV Denves utflity function 

45 SIMPLEX Linear programming solution by simplex nwSJxid 
4b TRAMS Transportaion method for linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 OLIECJEI Sirigle server queueing (waiting line) n>odel 

49 CVP Cost-vdumeproflt analysis 

50 COhDPROF Conditional profit labtes 

51 OPTLOSS Opponunity k>ss tables 

52 FQUOQ Fixed quantity economk: order quantity model 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages permitted 

54 FQEOQPB As above but with qu«ility price breaks 

55 QUEUECB Cost-benefit wailing line analysis 

56 NCFANAL r*et cash-flow anafysis for simple Investment 

57 PROIND Profitabifity index of a profect 

58 CAPl Cap. Asset Pr. Wodel analysis o( project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with cortipensating bal required 

61 DISCBAL Tnw rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FffHRAT RnarKial rattos for a firm 

64 NPV Net present vahie of project 

65 PRI^^DL^S Laspeyres price index 

66 PRINDPA Paasche prkre index 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indkres for company 

68 TJMETR Time series analysis lirwar trend 

69 TWEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FOPRIMF Future price estimation with inflatran 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing syslem-hnks with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL 1 Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BUSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 TIMECLCK Computes weeks total hours from timecloch info. 

78 ACCTPAY In nTemory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 IIWOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAM Time use analysis 

83 ASSKjM Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of toans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling pnce for given after tax anxjunt 

88 ARBCOMP Art)Hrage computations 

89 DEPRSf^ Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZOME Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE ^ypes envelope including retum address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense arvilysis 

93 IMSFILE Insurance pobcy file 

94 PAYROLL2 bi memory payroH system 

95 DILATHAL Dilutk>n analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amcHjnt a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 
96 SALELEAS Sale-leaseback analy^ 

99 RRCONVBD Investors rate of retum on convertable bond 

1 00 PORTVAL9 Stock n^rket portfolio storage-valuation program 



D TRS-80 Cassette Version $99.95 

a TRS-80 (H^od-I or III), Pet, Apple 

or Atari Versions $99.95 

D TRS-80 Mod-ll, IBM, Osborne 

and CP/M Versions $149.95 

ADO S3 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

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80 Micro. November 1983 • 157 




NEW 

First in 

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TRS-80 1, 2. 3, 4, 12, 16 
CPM XENIX 



Multiple Regression 
Stepwise 

Ridge 

All Sobseis 

BacKwafd Eiimmaiion 
Time Series Analysis 
' Descriptive Statistics 
' Transformations 



■ Survey Research 

■ Nonparametrics 

• X-Y Plots 

■ AN OVA 

• Random Samples 

• Data Base 

■ Search & Sort 

' Hypothesis tests 



Please call TOLL FREE 
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Lctmf J contrmed from p. /W 
1270 LPRINTS4;BY;A6;Ql;A3;A3;A4!A4)A3;A3;S4!BY;A6;Ql!A4;AE!AH;AH 
;AE;A4;S6;BY;AM;Q6;AE;AU;BU;DS;HS;HO;HO;HG;HG;H0;H0!H0;G0;G0!E0; 

E0;E0 

1280 LPRINTS4;BY:A6:Q1;E0;E0;C0;C0;E0;E0 

1290 LPRINTTAB(31)EY;C2;D9;DI;D4;S1;DF;D6;S1;CG;DI;D5;DP;EX 

1300 LPRINTS9;BY!A6!QljA8;AS;B2;B2;AS;A8 

1990 GOSUB90 

2000 CY="BROWN":GOSUB35:T=9:GOSUBl0:P=A2+Al-t-A2+Al+A2+Al 

2100 LPRINTTAB(41)BY;A4;Ql;A2;A4;AB;B0 

2110 T«114-LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al;:GOSl.'B20:LPRINTCK;HK;E8!B8;BG;FGjB0 
;E0!Q3;Al;A3;A3;A7;AR;AI;BL;BP;:T-30:GOSUB20:LPRINTFG;B0;G0;E0;e 

7-Al;A2!A5;A7;AI;BL; :T=9:GOSUB20 

2111 LPRINTD1;E2;D4;CK;FG;BG;C0;E0;E0;Q3;A1;A2;A1;P:P;A2;A1;A2;A 
5-A2-A5-A2;A5;AQ;AL;AQ;AL;BA;CK;B3;CK;EK;B3;:T=30:GOSUB25 

2120 T-104:LPRINTS2;BY;FQ;Ql;:rx:)SUB20:LPRINTF2;GC;AS;DB;F0;C0;GO 
.E0-g3;Al;A2;A5;A3rAT;A2;BO;A8;:T=29:GOSUB20:LPRlNTF2;GC;AS;D8;F 
0-E0-QA;Ql:A9;AJ;BL;FC;FQ;GH;DF;Dl;C8;CK;FG;CG;CG;B0;C0;E0!E0;S2 
;BY;C3;Q1;E0;C0;E0;C0:E0;C0;E0;C0;E0;C0;F0;C0;F0;C0;F0;C0;F0;CG; 

2121 LPRINTF0;CG;F0;CG;F0;C0;F0;C0;F0:C0;E0;:T='37:GOSUB25 
2130 T=94:LPRINTS2;BY;F8;Ql;:GOSUB20:LPRINTH2;CK;BO;G8;EGjC0;GO; 
E0-Q3-A1;A2!A5;A4;AF;AK;CJ;:T-24:GOSUB20:LPRINTD8!CG;C0; STRINGS ( 
5,i28)H0;BK;G8;CG;C0;E0;Q9;A2;A8;A4;BK;B8;H0;EG;F0;H0;S8,BY;BH;Q 

1;A7;AQ;BI;CL; :T=44 :GOSUB25 

2140 T-86:LPRINTS2;BY;EG;Ql;:GO3rB20:LPRIOTHG:B0;E0;C0;E0;Q7:Al; 
AE;AL;CL;:T=*27:GOSL'B20:LPRINTCD;CO;FC;A3;E4;C0;CL;F8;Ba;AG;BO;BD 
;g3;5A:BY;Br:Ql;Al;A2:A2;A3;AE;A9;BE;B5;DV;:T=51:GOSi;B2S 
2150 T=76:LPRINTS2;BY;EG;Q1; :GOSUB20 :LPR:NTF0; GC ; C0; E0; Q7 ; Al ; A2 ; 
A3;A4;A9;AU;BA;CL; :T=32 :GOSUB20:LPRINTFC ; Al ; Al ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A6; AE j AO 
;BV;BV;BV;2l;JU;HS:AG;B0:AG;S8;BY:C9;Ql;E0:AG;Al;Al:Ai;A2;A5;A9; 

AN;DO; :T=62 :GCSUB2:j 

2160 T»63:LPRINTS2:BY;DO:Ql;:GOSrB20:LPRi:;TBK;Fe;H':;CG;F0;C0rSTR 

1NGS(6,128)A1;A1;A2;A1;A5;A6:A9;BA;CL;:T=33:GO5UB20:LPRINTF8;C8; 

F0;S2;BY;A6;Q&;A1;A5!S8;BY;CF:Q1;A1;A2;A7;A3;A9;AK!B8;:T=71:GOSU 

gT 5 

2170 T=52:LPRINTS2;BY;DC;yi; :GOSUB20:LPRINTFA;CK!E8; HG;CG;D0;E0 
E0;Q6;Al;A2;Al;A2;A4;A3:AQ;:T=3 3:oOSUB20:LPRINTFC;FO;S3;BY;AI;Q 
;Al;A2;A5;BA;CL;FA;CL;F8;CG;Q7;S5;BY;CR;gi;Al;Al;Al;A2;A4;A9;AQ 

AL;BI;CL; :T=O0:GOSUB25 

2180 T-42:LPRINTS2;BY;DC;Q1;:GOSUB20:LPR1NTCK;HK;E8;B8;BG;FG;B0 

E0-Q9-A5;AQ;AL;CJ;DA;:T-38:GOSUB20:LPRIt:TB0;E0;Q4:S2;BY;AI;Ql;Al 

;A2;A5;BA;CL;FA;Pl;CK;Fl;J4;S5:BY;Dl;Ql;A3rA4;A9;AQ;B5;DJ;:T=90- 

GOSUB25 

2190 T=32:LPRINTS2;BY:D6;Q1; : GOS-JB20 : LPRINTHK; EB; B8 ; BG; EG ;C0; E0 

Q9;Al;Al;A2;Aa;AD;AL;BN;:T=39:GOSUB20:LPRINTGA;CK;BO;F0;C0;E0!Q2 

,S2;BY;AI;Ql;A5;A2;AL;FA;CL;FA;Pl;CL;FAjCL;FA;CK;Fl;S5;BY:D7;Ql- 

A4;B2; :T=100 :GCSUB25 

2200 T=-25■LPRI^JTS2;BY;CC:Qi; :GOSUB20:LPRINTHG;B0;GO;El; A2; Al;A5 

A4;A2;A9;AR;A8;AO;A2;AlrAerA9;AE;A2;A4;AH;BP::T=3S:GOSUB20tLPRIN 

TEA;HK;CO;BO;G0;S4;BY;AI;Ql;E0;B0jC4;AG;C4;Fl;CK;F8,CK;FA;CK;FA 

CK;FA;CG;E4;B0;Al;S6;BY;Dl;Ql;F0;AG;HG;:T=93:GOSUB25 

2210 T-78:LPRINTS2;BY;CK;Q1; :GOSUB20:LPRINTDK;CK;D0;C0! E0; E0i S2 

By;B4;Ql!A2;A5;A3;AP;DJ;:T=6:GOSUB20:LPRINTBP;A9;A8;A2:^.RINGS( 

0,1)A2;A2;A7;A4;A1;AE;AG;AG;B0;C0;E0;S2;BY;DP;Q5;A2:A5;AQ;CL;FA 

A8;B0;QA;Q6; :T=93 :GOSUB25 

2220 T=68:LPRINTS2;BY;C8jQl::GOSUB20:LPRINTFC;G4;B8;EG;S3;BY!B4 

Ql-A9-AI-BO;:T=28:GOSUB20:LPRINTBK!EO;B0;E0;E0;53;BY;DP;Ql!A9;AL 

;B4;EO;CG;B0:E0;Q8;A1;A4;A2;A3;A2;AG;A4;A3;A8;AS;BP;:T=94:GOSUB2 

2230 T-61-LPRINTS2;BY;DO;Ql;:GOSUB20:LPRINTEC;CG;B0;CG;E0;Al;A2; 
A4!A2;A5;A6;A5;AQ;A1;A8;A7;AQ;BL;BO;:T=34:GOSUB20:LPRINTE6;C8;BG 
:G0;C0;E0;S3;BY;DV;Q1;A8;AG;CG;F8;A8;B0;E0;Q9;A2;A5;BP;:T=107:GO 

SUB25 

2240 T'12:LPRINTS2;BY;DI;2l; :GOSCB20:LPRINTF0:B0;C0;CG; EG;HG; :T= 
90:GOSUB20:LPRINTC8;G0:B0;E0;AG;B0;S5;BY;DP;Ql;A8;Al;AS;BJ;B2;CM 

;D4;DA; :T=112 :GOSUB25 

2250 T-12:LPRINTS2;BY;DC;Q1; :GOSUB20:LPRINTQ6; :T=12:GOSUB20:LPRI 

NTBO;:T-70:GOSUB20:LPRINTCa;EG;D0:C0;E0;A8:AG;S2;BY;EH;O4jAl;A2; 

A7:PB;AL;AN;AJ;A6;Al:Q9;Al;A2;Al;AG;Al;AE;:T=118:GOSUB25 

2260 T=8:LPBINTS2:BY;A9;Al;:GOSUE20:LPRINTC2;E0;Al;E0:g6;AljE0;E 

l;E0;El;G2;A3;Cl;E2;F5;C4;:T=62:GOSUB20:LPRINTBC;CK;CG;G0;B0;E0; 

Ustmg 3 continued 



158 • ^ Micro. November 1963 



blank margin, an 11- by 17-inch sheet 
with eight squares per 1/2 inch accom- 
modates 20 lines of 42 blocks each. A 
sheet with six squares per 1/2 inch ac- 
commodates 15 lines of 32 blocks each. 

Take your newly completed layout 
sheet to the nearest quKk-print shop and 
make several copies. Save the original for 
moK copies when needed. Work with the 
copies. You can tape two or more cop- 
ies together for larger art sketches. 

Using a pencil, lightly sketch your in- 
tended art's foreground, background, 
and art shapes. Since graph paper has a 
1-1 ratio, vertically elongate all art 
shj^jes by about 20 percent. The extra 
height compensates for the print head's 
foreshortening effect, which prints at a 
1-1.2 ratio of 60 dots per inch horizon- 
taDy and 72 dots per inch vertically. 

To print a nearly perfect circle, for 
example, you must sketch a 50-degree 
ellipse on a graph paper layout sheet. 
That's an oval six squares tall for every 
five squares in width. The layout sheet 
in Fig. 2 has dot circles spaced at a 1-1.2 
ratio for true reproduction of the art 
sketch upon printout. 

When your sketch looks good, put a 
color dot in the squares that make up 
the art shapes. There's no need to dot 
every square of a full-column pattern. 
A vertical line through the column will 
do. No need to fully color a solid or 
background area either. Outline soUd 
areas with their respective colors. Mark 
blocks of shaded areas with pattern 
string designators (like PI, Fig. 1), then 
simulate the pattern with alternately 
spaced color dots adjacent to art 
shapes. See Program Listing 2 state- 
ment 3050 and Fig. 2 print line 50 for an 
example. The statement prints three 
blue PI patterns, then 12 simulated col- 
umn patterns to shade blocks 1-5 in line 
50. The simulated pattern codes shade 
the sky portions in blocks 4 and 5. 

The same technique applies to ran- 
dom column pattern backgrounds. Just 
fake some random patterns in partial 
background areas around an art shape. 
Your art sketch is ready for color-run 
programming when all its color areas 
are marked, outlined, or filled in. 

A numbered guide strip or scale with 
sbc-column spacing marks simplifies the 
programming task. Cut the bottom line 
of blocks off a layout sheet copy, then 
paste or tape it along the edge of a card- 
board strip. Number the guide strip's 
blocks consecutively, starting with 1 at 
its left-hand end. Place the finished 
guide strip below the art sketch line to 
be coded. Use it to get quick counts of 
consecutive spaces, columns, and pat- 
tern strings. 

^ See List of AOifOtllsors on Page 307 



^k^d'UM^-M* 



MX-80 and RX-80 OWNERS 



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requires I i S VAC (74VDC + 5VDC - 5VDC1 

lUOOO (news 

1 1 00 00 lused) limiictl useage 

sfiipping wl I 6 lbs 

^11 prices f o b our warehouse 





CONRAC MONITOR 

9 inch. I'i phos 

80x 24 characters 

composite vi(l*o in (RCA phono) 

controls in from pinel 

shipping wi JO lbs 

J45 00 l.o b our warehouse 



s£Ucr^OA//c^ 



I 229 S, Napa St. Philadelphia PA 1 9 I 46 
Phone: (2 1 5) 468-4645»(2 I 5) 468-789 1 




DUAL MSK DRIVE CAHNET 

■ FITS ALL Shugarl 800 ierles 

IIS VAC motor supply &. all cables 
' shipping wt. 30 lbs. 
' 150.00 l.o.b. ouf warehouse 

CONIAC IbB MOMTOR 

iq inch 

a0K24 ch^rrt(.ers--500 Imp res 

no cabincE 

shipping wt 75 lbs 

RGB vicleo in 1475 00 

composite video in JS75 00 

all prices t o b our warehouse 



Ha lesidenis add 6°ii sales ia> All prices 
( o b our warehouse All products cany a 
replacemeni wjrran;y AN me re ha rid 'sc c*c 
curate as lo detnpiion to the besi ot oui 
knowledge 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 159 



Uaoig } continued 
B0;C0;B0;B0;B0rQ6;Al;A2rAl;A2;A2;Al;Al;A6;AR;BP;CJ;:T=142:GOSUB2 
5 

2270 T=12:LPRINTS2;BY;A9;A1; :GOSUB20:LPRINTQ6 J :T=12 :GOSUB20:LPRI 
NTBE; :T=11:GOSUB20:LPRINTQ6; :T=42 :GOSUB20 :LPRINTBl; Gl; E2; Al; A8 ; A 
2;Ag;A4;AL;B3fCH;CD; ;T=l62 :GOSUB25 : P=EC+AK+FS+AK+H4-K:K 
2280 T=12:LPRINTS2iBYjA9;Al; :GOSUB20: LPRINTA7 ; A3 ; A6; AE ; A3 ; AF; :T= 
21:GOSUB20:LPRINTGA;H6;H2;O6;H6;GA;H2;AMjBC; :T=6 :GOSUB20 : LPRINTH 
G.-HO; :T-107 : GOSUB20: T=14 :GOSUBl5 : T=12 :GOSUB25 

2290 T=39:LPRINTS2;BY;F0;01; :GOSUB20:LPRINTA9; AR j AE; Q6; AE; A9 ; AR; 
A8;AV;Bft;AN;BU;BL;C3;A7;A3!Al;E3; :T=106 :GOSUB20 :LPRINTSA ; S4 ; BY; A 
D;Q1; :T=12 :GOSUB25 : P=ffiJ+AT+BD+BL+BB+AM 

2300 T=42:LPRINTS2;aY;A9;Al; : GOSUB20 : LPRINTQ6! :T=120:GOSUB20: T=l 
4:G0SUB15:T=12:G0SUB25 

2310 T=43:LPRINTS2jBY!A9!Alj :GOSUB20:LPRINTBP ;CJ ; :T=219 :GOSUB25 
2320 P=C0+G0-»G0:T=BB:LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al; :G0SUB15 :LPRINTG0 
2990 GOSUB90 

3000 CY="BLUE" :GOSUB35:GOSUB5:P=Pl 
3030 T=44:LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al! :G0SUB15 : LPRINTCL 

3040 T=3 6:LPRINTS2;BYjA9;Al; :G0SUBl5 : LPRINTCL; FA ;CL i FA; CK; F8 j CG ; 
F0;CG;F0;C0;E0;C0;E0;C0;E0;C0;E0;C0jE0;C0;E0;C0;E0rCG)FajCG;F8jC 
K;FA;P!P;P;CL 

3050 T=36:LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al! : GOSUBl 5 : LPRINTCL; FB j QB ; Q9; E0;C0; F0; 
CG;FA;P;P;CL 

3060 T=36:LPRINTS2;BY;GO;QI; :G0SUB15 :LPRINTS6! BY; AD ; Q2; £0; CG ; FA ; 
CL ; FA ; P ; CL 

3070 T=26:GOSUB300:LPRINTCM;rc;CKjFC;CO;F8;CO;FG;CG;F0;D0;F0;Dl; 
G2 ; F3 ; EA ; EL ; FA ; P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; A5 ; A2 ; Q4 ; 55 ; BY ; AD ; Q4 J FA ! CL ; FA ! P ! CL 
3080 T=24:GOSUB300:LPRINTCL;FA!CL;FA;CL;F4;CG;FG;F0;EG:EG;AGjAG; 
AX ; AH ; B2 ; C 5 ; EA ; A5 ; BA ; CL; FA J CL ; FA ; P ; P J P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; P ; CL ; FA; CL; FA ; A5 ; 
AQ;S5;BY;AD;Q3;A5;FA;CL;FA;P;CL 

3090 T=23:GOSUB300:LPRINTCKjF8;CG;FQ;CGjF9;A2;A4;A4;A8;A2;AljA2; 
EA;AL;BA;CL;FA; :T=9 :G0SUBl5 : LPRINTCL; FA; CM; FC ; CK; F8; CG; FG j D0; G0; 
C0;E0;S4;BY;AJ;Ql;Al;A2;Al;A2;A5;BA;P;P;CL 

3100 T=21:LPRINTS2;BY;GI;gl; :G0SUBl5 : LPRINTCL ; FD ;CR; FH;Dl j Fl;Cl; 
El ; Al ; A2 ; Al ; A2 ; A5 ; AQ ; AL ; BA ; CL ; FA ; P; P ; P ; P ; CL ; FB ; CN ; FB ; CM ; FC ; CK J FC 
; CK ; FC r CK ; FB ; CO; F8 s CP ; FB ;CL ; FA ; P ; P ; CL ; FB ; CM ; FA ; CK ; F8 ; CG ; FG ; D0 ; G0 
; C0 ; E0 ; 54 ; BY ; AV ; Ql ; Al ; A2 ; Al ; AQ ; CL ; FA ; P ; P ; P ; P ; CL 

3110 LPRINTTAB(20)BY;AI;56rAl;A2;A2;A4;Aa;AG;AG;B0;C0;E0rE0;Q2;S 
5;BY;BQ;Q4;Al;A2;A4iA8;A8;AG;B0;C0;G0;C0;C0;C0iC0;STRINGS (9,128) 
Q6;Al;Al;A2;A2;A4;A6;EA;AI;B2;C2;E2;E2: STRINGS (5,4)STRING$ (5,8) S 
TRINGS (5,16) 

3120 LPRINTTAB{19)BY!AI;QljAl;Al|A2;A4;A4;A8;AG;B0;B0;C0jC0;STRI 
NGS (7,64)S5;BY;C8;Ql!Al;AljA2;A4jA8;AG;B0;C0!G0;STRINGS (13,64 )E0 
;AljAl;Al;A2;A4;A4;A8;A9jAH;AI;B4;C4;C8;EG;AG;B0jB0;C0jE0;E0; 

3121 LPRINTQ3;Al;A2;A2;A2;A4,A8;AOjAG;B0;B0iC0;El)Al;A2!A4;A4;A8 
; AG i B0 I C0 ; E0 ; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; AB ; AG 

3130 LPRINTTAB(17)BY;AO;Q3;Al;Al;A2;A4;AOjAn;AGj80;D0;F0;STRINGS 

(9,32)Q3;S5; BY;C9;gl;Al;A4;A8;AC;B0;Ca;E8; STRINGS tS , 8) A9 j A2 ; A2; A 

2;A4;A4;A8; AG;AH;AH;B2;B2;C4;EO;E8;AG;AG;B0;C0;C0;E0;Q3;Al;Al; 

:131 LPRi:;TA2;A4;E0;B0;Al;AG;B0;B0;C0;E0;E0;A2;Aa;A4 jA8;AO[AG;B0 

;B0;C0;E0;El;Al;A2;A4;A4;A3;AG;B0;B0jC0;E0 

3140 LPRINTTAB(15)BY;AO;Q5;Al;A2;A4;A4;AG;AG;B0;B0;C0;E9;STRINGS 

{6,9)Q4;S4;BY;CG;Q4;Al;A3rSTRINGS (5 , 1 ) A2 ; G4 ; GS; E0; QA; Q2 ; Al ; Al ; A2 

; A2 ; A4 ; E4 ; E8 ; A8 ; AG ; AG ; B0 ; B0; C0 ; E0; E0 ; Q2 ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A2 ; A4 ; A4 ; A8 ; A8 ; 

AG;B0;C0;C0;E0;El;gA;Q3;A2;A4;A4;A8;AG;AG;B0;C0;C0,-E0 

3150 LPRINTTAB(14)BY;AI;Ql;Al;A2;A4!A8;AG)AI;B2)C2;E2jA3;A2;A6;A 

6;A5;O4iS6;BY;A6;Ql!Al;Z4;E0;S2;BY;Bn;Ql;Aa;AG!B0;B0fC0;C0;E0;E0 

;Q4;Al;Al;A2;A4;A4;Aa;AG;AG;B0;B0jC0!E0;E0;Al;Al;A2;A2!A4;A8;A8; 

AG ; B0 ; B0 ; C0 ; E0 ; E0 ; Al ; Al ! A 2 ; A4 ; A4 ; AB ; AG ! 80 ; B0 ! 00 

3160 LPRINTTAB(12)BY;AO!e3;Al;A2;A4;A4;A8;AG;B0;C0jE0;Al;E0;E0;E 
0;A8;Ai3;B0;C0;C0;E0;B0;B0;C0;S5;BY;C4;Ql;A2;A4; A8;AG;A1;A2;A4;A8 
; AO ; 88 J Ce ; EO ; STRINGS (1 2 , 8 ) Q5 ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; A4 ; AS ; AG ; AG ; AG j B0 ; C0; C0 
; E0 ; E0 ; Al ; Al ; A2 ! A4 ; AS ; A3 ; AG ; AG ; B0 ; C0 ; C0 ; E0 ; 

3161 LPRINTQ1;A1;A2;A2;A4;A4;A8,-AG;AG;B0;C0;C0;E0 

3170 LPRINTSA ; BY ; AO ; 4J4 ; Al ; A2 ; A2 ; A4;A8; A3; AG ;B0iC0; STRINGS (12,128 

)S6;BY;BU;Ql;A4;A2!Al;A3;A5;A9;AH;Bl;ClfEl;STRINGS (9, 1 ) A2 ; A4; Al ; 

Al;A2;A2;A4;A8;A8;AG;AG;B0;B0;C0;E0;E0;AljAl;Al;A2;A2;A4;A8;A8;A 

G;B0;B0;C0;E0;E0;Al;Al;Al;A2;A4;A4;A8;AG;AG;B0;C0;C0;E0 

3180 LPRINTS8;BYjAO;Q6;Al;A2jA4;Aa!A8;AG;B0;CG;CG;EG;STRINGS (9,3 

21S7-,BY;fiO;Ql;A2;R2;A4;R8;RG;Ba;C0;E0;QA;Q5:C0:C0;E0rE0:AljAl;Al 

;A2;A2;A4;A4;A8!AO;AG;B0;B0;C0;E0iE0;EliAl;Al;AljA2;A4;A4;A8jAG; 

AG;B0iC0;C0;E0 ,. . , . __^ 



160 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



Starting with line 1000, program the 
lightest color for the first print run. 
Hold the darkest color for the last print 
run. The light-to-dark printing order 
minimizes color contamination of light 
ribbons by dark ones. 

In line 1000, make CY equal the color 
for your art's first print run. If needed, 
add line feeds to advance the paper to 
the line preceding the art's first light- 
color line. Use LPRINT for one line 
feed, GOSUB5 for two, or define T for 
the needed quantity and add GOSUBIO. 

Start your print line coding state- 
ments with an LPRINT command. Fol- 
low that with TAB(n) or a spacing code 
for the number of six-column blocks 
that precede the fu-st block with colored 
column patterns. Add a BY or BW code 
for setting the dot-graphics mode you 
want used. 

Count the columns that make up the 
entire dot gr^hics segment. Include all 
blank and colored columns of every 
character block in the segment. Deter- 
mine nl and n2 values for the total col- 
imin count, find both valu«' alphanu- 
meric code equivalents (Fig. 1), and put 
them in the statement. 

Caution: Do not count or code trail- 
ing blank columns in the last character 
block of the last dot-graphics segment 
on a print line. Graftrax ignores the 
trailing blank-column codes and kills an 
equivalent number of codes to meet its 
nl;n2 quota at the start of the next 
LPRINT statement. Spacing and BY 
codes would be killed, leaving the print 
head directionless. 

Now add pattern codes for all the col- 
umns in the dot-graphics segment. Use 
a semicolon after every two-charac- 
ter code except the last code of a print 
line. A semicolon at the end of a print 
line suppresses the line feed and causes 
an overprint by the next LPRINT state- 
ment. 

Code all print line statements for the 
first and subsequent print runs the same 
way. Make sure that the statement fol- 
lowing the last color print run contains 
the end fiag CY = "DONE". 

Key in or load the main program. 
Program Listing 1, first. If different, 
change CY-"RED" at the end of 
statement 1 to CY = '*(your first run 
color)". 

Next, key in aU color print run fiU-in 
statements for your Graftrax art. When 
done, list and visually check all your 
keyed-in statements. Look for and de- 
lete ending semicolons in last statements 
for print lin«. Look for accidentally in- 
serted commas between alphanumeric 
codes. The comma after a spacing code 
adds 16 spaces, leaves a gap, and may 

CoMwmmdonp IM 



'.-i* ■,j--l».^S,>r",TV i;<Ji 



■ DISK DRIVE 
ANALYSIS PROGRAM 

... A UNIQUE APPROACH TO DISK RELIABILITY! 




». any one df Sdven tests To perrerm 
preventive maintenance or to isolate problems. 
Simple, single-letter commands make DDA easy 
to use' Use DDA to align the head, adjust the 
index hole detector, or adjust the speed. 



UtfflRiiSDA Radial Alignment Test to check the 
fwad alignment of your drives. No need tor an 
oscilloscope or other expensive test equipment! 



^ [>-S*<*cf A-twa S-S<Bn«ioD Orrwa .i-Raium ic main 
Enaaf ■■licnoff - 



Check the moM^^^HOf your drives. Or. you 
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PROTECT YOUR DATA. 

Now you can make sure your data is 
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The Disk Drive Autihjsis Program from 
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This Is the most comprehensive disk diag- 
nostic program available for your TRS-80 



OgnH DIU DltgnoiBc vl.a 




QUICK TEST 




O-imtmaai'r* S-SUrtaUM) «><■ u -llalum 1u nwin pnanu 

Enf MUcBoil 



Use the Quick Test to quickly and auloinaiiieifff^ 
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microcomputer. You can even adjust drive 
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Spot problems BEFORE they endanger 
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J 8 M SYSTEMS, LTD. to. 



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Se« Lisl ot Arfverliaets on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 161 




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T« Ml tw MOST from yotr NM CPU - TTm « •>• 
•EST SOUnCEl TiM ONLY MmhmM Iw •>• MM 
Cempuiw MenM Ihma tt tmbtmv 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

Seoo Cassandra Smith Rd. 
Hixson, TN 37343 

USA 

«*--«*» IV. -|4I» JTf-IMSO 

'Fooign Su'lac* Add til Yi loUSAPiica 

Foraign An Marl Ma tU Vi lo USA Piice 

*CanMat MciicoAOdUM'r' taUSAPf<ce *'213 



3190 LPRINTS7jBY;AIiQl;AliAljA2;A4)A8jA8;AG;BGjCG;EG;EG;STRINGS( 
7,32)S7;BY;BN;0^,tAl;A2;A4;AC;AG!BG;CG;EG;STRING$(14,16)A4iA2!AX; 
A2;A2}A4iA4}AO;AG;AG;B0;B0;C0;C0;E0;Q2;Al;Al;A2;A4;A4;A8;Ae;AG;A 
G;B0;C0;E0:E0 

3200 LPRINTS6;BY;AIiQl;A6;A9;AO;BG;D0;F0;G0!C0;C0jSTRINGS (9,128) 
S7;BY;AI;Ql)Al;A2;A6fEA;AI;B2iC2;E2;E2;STRINGS(9,2)S3;BY;BK;Ql;A 
2;A4;A8;Aa;AG;AG;^]B0iC0;C0;E0;E0;Al;Al;A2;AG;A8;G0;G0;B0;B0;C0 
; Al ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A 2 ; A2 ; A4 ; A4 ; A4 ; 

3201 U>RINTSTRINGS(7,8);Q3»A2;A2;A6;A0;BC;AK;BC;A4;A4;A4;A8;A8 
3210 LPRINTTAB (15) BY ;AI;Qli AS; A9;AGiBl;Cl;E2; STRING? (12,2)35; BY; 
AV;Ql;Al;A6;A8;AG;BG;CG;EG;B0iB0;B0iC0;C0;C0lE0;E0;£0;STRING$ (5, 
l)A2;A4;A8;AG;B0;Al;A6;A8;fiG;C0 

3220 LPRlNTTAB(13)BY;AIiQliAl;AliA2;A4jA8jAG;B0!C0;STRlNGS (6,128 

)Q4;S6>BYi&0;QliA3iA5tAP;AI;D2;E2;£4;A4;A4;A8;A8;AGiAG;AG>B0;B0; 

B0;C0;C0iC0;E0;E0;E0;A4;AG;B0;A2;A4;Ae;AG;D0;E0 

3230 LPRINTTAB(12)BY;AO}Ql;Al;A7;EAFAK;B4iCe;E8;AGiAG;B0;B0;B0;S 

TRING$(6,64)STRING$(6,128)S5;BYfB0;Ql;A2;A4;AO;B0;C0;E0;C2;Al;Al 

;A2;A2;A2fA4;A4fA4;STRING$(9,8)Al;A2;A8;A2;A4;B0;E0 

3240 LPRINTTAB(19)BYjBEiQ5;AlrA2;A4;A8;AGiCGjEGjB0;B0;B0;C0iC0jC 

0lE0iE0)E0;QA)O5;A4)AOiHOiHG;DG;AG;AG;B0;C0;C0;C0 

3250 LPRINTS4iBYiA6;Q3jE0;E0;Q2;SA;S4jBY;B2;Ql;EC;AK;B8;G8jA8fAG 

;AGi AG; B0;B0fB0)B0i STRINGS (5, 64) STRING? (11, 128} AG;B0;BG;DO;DSfE0 

3260 LPRINTTAB{17)BY»AS;Q4;AliA2;A4;A8)D0;B0!Al!Ai)AI;A2iA2;A2;S 

TRINGS (7,4) STRINGS (6,8) 

3270 LPRINTS4iBy;A6jQ3iAljAl)Q2;S4;BY;A6jQ3;A4;A4;Q2jS6;BY;AF;Q6 

;EC;AO;BG;CG;F0iB0iC0iC0tE0;E0 

3300 GOSUB5:LPRINTS9;BY;A4}Q3;A8;A8 

3990 GOSUB90 

4000 CY="GREEN":GOSUB35:P-CL+FA-K:L+EA+CL+BA:T-10:GOSUB10 

4110 T=19:LPRINTS2}BY;G6iQli :GOSUBl5:LPRINTC4;BA;CK(E8;CG; B0;C0; 

Q4iAliA2)AliA5;AQjAL;BA!PiP)P;P;P;BA;F0;C0;E0;Q8jAl;A2;A5;AQiALj 

BA)PiC5;BAiCL;EA;CK;B8;C4rCGiE0;C0:Q2fS5;BYrB5ie2iAl|A2fA5;AQ;CL 

;P;P;P;P;P;FA 

4120 P=Pl:T=17:LPRINTS2iBY;FQ;Ql;:GOSUB15:LPRINTCL;FA;CK;F8;CK;F 

0;CG;E0;C0!E0;Q3;Al;A2;A5;AO;AL;AL;BA;CL;FA)CL;FA;P;P;P;PjCL;FA; 

CK;F8;CGiF0;C0;E0;O9;A2;A5;AE!ALjFAjCL;FA;CLrFA;CK;F8,CK;F8;CG;F 

0;C0;G0;E0;E0;S6;BYira7Ql;Al;A2;A5;A2;BA;FA;P;P;P;P;P;P;HN 

4130 P<;L+FE-K:L+FA+CL+FA:T-15:LPRINTS2;BY;FE;01; :G0SUB15:LPRINTC 
L;FE;CL;rA;CK;F8;CGiF0jCGiE0;C0;E0;Q3;AljA2;A5;A2;A5;AQiAL;BA;P; 
P;P;P;F0iG0;D0;E0;E0;E0;CG;G0;F8;CG;F0;G0;E0;Q8iA1;A2;A4;AS;AKjB 
3;CKiHG;F0;CGiF0;G0;G0;E0;A8;E0; 

4131 LPRINTS6;BY;aNiQ5;Al;A3;A5;AQ;BL;FA;CL;FA;P)P;PiP;P;P;P;HN 
4140 P<:L+FE+CL+FA+DL+FA:T=14:LPRINTS2;BYiEAi01; !G0SUB15:LPRINTC 
L;FE;DG;FO;D0iE0jE0;Q6;A7;A3jAL;BE;FA;P;P;P;P;CLiFE;CLjFA;DK;FA; 
CK;F3!CL;F8;BO;B8;SAiSliBY;Err;Ql;AliAljA3jA6;A3;AQ;BEjDA»CL;FA;D 
LiFAi :T-e;GOSUB400 

4150 P-CL+HE+CL+FB+DL+FA!T-12:LPRINTS2;BYiE4j01; iGOSUBlStLPRINTC 
K)HC)CG;F8;DGiF0iG0;E0)Q6jAljAliA2;A7;ADjAQ|AL)DB)DL;FAjCL;HE;CK 
;FA;DL)FA|CL;HC;CLiHCiDKjFD;CKjHE;CK;FB;DLjFA;P;P;G0fQ5iSA;BY)C9 
;Q4iAl;AliA2;A7;ARiALiDLiDLjFA;;T=10:GOSUB400 

4160 P<:T+HF+CL+FB+GL+FA:T-10iLPRINTS2iBY;DO;Q1; :G0SUB15:LPRINTC 
T;HE;CLiFC;DK;F3jGG;F0;C0iE0jQ6;Al;A3;AlfA7;AE)AD;BL;CT;P;CS;HG; 
CJ;G6;C0;ER;CLiHAjCT;GR)CPiF8jCT;HE;BV;D7jA3;D6fHI;ER;BP;CV;DF;F 
L;CT;HEiCL;FC;C8;HG;SAiSliBYjCF)QiiAi;A3;A5;AE;AR;CL; 

4161 T>12:GOSUB400 

4170 P<:T+HF+CL+FF+GL+FQ:LPRINTS2jBY;DC;Q1;P;P;P)P;P;P;P;PiCT;HE 
;CLiFFiDK;FS;CC)FGjH0;D0;G0;E0;Q6;AliA3;A2jA5;AE;ARiP)PfCT;HE;GL 
;FF;CO)A7;AS;Dl;E7;BK|H3;FEjAP)H3iEF;ET;CJ;BE;BDjCB;DUiFF;DL;Fp| 
SA;Sl;BY;CR;QliAljAl;Al;Al;A3;A5iARjAN;AE;BF;DL;FQ; 

4171 T-13iGOSUB400 

4180 P=CT+HD+<;N+FF+<;i-+FQ:LPRIKTS2;BYfDC;2llP;P;P;P;PjP;P;CS;HCjG 

OjFO;D0;G0)E0;E0;Q8iA3jA7jAF;ANiCL;DF;DL;FQiPiP;P;CT;HEiGLiE0;GV 

;G3jBV;HS;BG;A7jEFiDGiGDiDN)HG;G2;AV;B0;D0jE0iQ4;S9jBY;D7;Q5iAl) 

A1;A2;A5!AR;AE;AR;DQi:T=15:GOSUB400 

4190 P-CT+HF+HL+FF+GL+FQ:LPRINTS2;BY;D6;Ql;P;P;P;P;P;CT;HE;HK;F8 

;DO;FO;H0iC0;E0;Q9;Al;Al;A2;A5;AE;AR;Err;DF;HV;FF;DL;Fp;FF;P;P;P; 

P;CT;HE;DV)AF;HG;AV;HS;BVjC0iG7iHS)A8;DG;C0;B0;E0;Q2;SA;BY;D7;Ql 

J A4 ; BE ; DV ; FF ; DL; FQ; :T-16 iGOSUB400 

4200 LPRINTS2;BYiCQ;QliP;PiP»P;CS:H3:Dl;El;EliA3;A2;A5jA7jA7;AD; 

AFiAS;AE;AJ;A7;AF;AE;AR!AE;AF;ANjBV;FQ;PrP;P;P;P;p!CT;HC;HK;F8;B 

0jE0jS2;BY;A6;Ql;Al;A2;A3;AliAliBOfS9;BY;D7;Ql;STRlNGS(5,128)G0; 



162 • «0 Micro, Novwnbw 1983 



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1© 





Perpetual Motion 



ConOnuatfrom p. 160 

Stop the printer with a line overflow 
beep. A comma between column pat- 
terns codes prints a row of dots and 
shifts subsequent patterns to the right. 

Save the combined program on tape, 
disk, or wafer. Then try running the 
program with the printer power off. Cy- 
cling through all the color print runs un- 
covers syntax errors that occur during 
program key-in. Do several dry runs to 
become farniliar with displays that ap- 
pear before, during, and after various 
color print runs. If your TRS-80 locks 
up, turn the printer power on and press 
the break key. 

After the program checks out, try 
separate printouts of the color se- 
quences. Use a black ribbon without 
backfeeding the paper between print 
runs. Compare these printouts with cor- 
responding color areas of your art 
sketch. Fix wrong patterns or spacing 
intervals by changing codes in the bad 
print line's statement . 

With syntax errors and pattern codes 
fixed, try a multicolor printout. Follow 
and comply with all displayed instruc- 
tions. 

Prograraming Differences 

My programs don't use pattern codes 
AA, AB, or AC for CHRS 10, 11, or 
12, so you can use the programs on a 
Model I or III. Model I users may incor- 
porate codes AA, AB, and AC in strict- 
ly Model I Graftrax art programs. Con- 
versely, Model III users must avoid the 
three codes. 

In many cases, you can substitute 
other codes with similar patterns (but 
164 • 80 Micro, November 1963 



Figure 7. Perpetual Motion ftve<ohr an. 



with an extra dot). Pick a pattern where 
you can hide an extra dot in a darker 
color. For example, coluirui 1 of block 7 
on line 50 (Fig. 2) needed an AC code to 
print third and fourth dots red. I substi- 
tuted an AE code which also printed the 
second dot. The later black print run 
hides the extra dot while printing black 
window frames. 

If there's a 12-column dot graphics 
segment to code, you obviously caimot 
use code AC to specify an nl value of 
12. However, you can add six blank col- 
umns to either end of the segment for a 
total of 18 columns, then use code Al 
for the nl value. 

Graftrax-80 and Graftrax-Plus have 
different character printing and spacing 
characteristics on mixed graphics print 
lines. Figure 5 shows the printing/spac- 
ing differences. The two examples 
shown are enlarged replicas of printouts 
using the same spacing test program. 

With Graftrax-80, a dot-graphics 
segment ends anywhere within a six-col- 
umn block. The print head then jumps 
to the next block's first column to print 
a character or do a space. With Graf- 
trax-PIus, the print head moves to the 
very next column, no matter where a 
dot-graphics segment ends. 

You may use skip- or all-column 
spacing to tailor programs for your ver- 
sion of Graftrax. But, using Q codes to 
account for all blank columns of an art 
sketch makes its program compatible 
with both Graftrax versions. A friend 
may have the other version. Or, some- 
day you may want to upgrade or down- 
grade to the other version. Both have 



certain advantages. 

More Art Examples 

Program Listing 3 prints a bird of 
prey (Fig. 6) in six-color print runs. 
With the main program, the Bird of 
Prey program requires about 30K bytes; 
26,013 for program storage and the rest 
for strings and overhead. The combined 
program runs on a 32K tape or 48K disk 
system. 

A red run has coding with only one 
loop for initial line feals (line 1000). 
Tabs space to print points beyond 10 
charaaer blocks. Line 1290 prints the 
art title in emphasized upper- and low- 
ercase characters. The statement's code 
EY turns the emphasized mode on for 
printing by the next 12 codes. These 
codes represent title character ASCII 
decimal values. 

A brown run mainly covers the lower 
background with random colunm pat- 
terns for later overprint with green. Fre- 
quently redefmed T values and loops 
through main program statements 20 
and 25 print most of the column pat- 
terns. Simulated random patterns fill in 
the partial background areas around 
airplane outlines. Simulated PI column 
patterns provide light shadow shading 
under horizontal tail surfaces (state- 
ments 2110 and 2120) and center wing 
(statements 2170-2200). Statements 2280, 
2290, and 2300 leave a clear title window 
in the random patterned background. 

A blue print run does the light blue 
sky, using 50 percent PI patterns (see 
Fig. 1). Simulated PI column patterns 
fill in partial sky areas around tail sur- 
faces and right wingtips. This mn also 
prints wing leading edge and rib lines, 
the windshield, and structural detail 
lines along the fuselage. Lines 3070, 
3080, and 3090 define T values, then 
loop through routine 300, which sets the 
480 mode for 222-dot columns to the 
rudder, then prints a T quantity of PI 
patterns between the sky's left edge and 
the upper wing. The calling statement's 
codes complete the remaining sky seg- 
ments to the right edge. 

A green run overprints the random 
patterned brown background. Prede- 
fined patterns range from 50-percent 
green at the horizon (line 4110) to solid 
green in the last four print lines. Lines 
4140-4270 access routine 400 to print 
green patterns behind the triplane on 14 
lines above the title window. Defined 
printing patterns are altered within 
statements 4160-4230 to leave streaky 
propwash arcs around the Iriplane's 
nose. 

A black run adds the pilot, guns, in- 
signias, and all black detail lines. State- 



Lating 3 t:onlmueiJ 

H0 ; GG ; HG ; FF ; DL ; FQ ; : T=l 5 : GOSU B4 00 

4210 P=CT+HT+HL+FF+GL+HQ:T=13:LPRINTS2;BY;CK;Q1; :G0SUB15 :LPRINTG 
O;HG;D0;G0;E0,-E0;S2;BY;B4;Ql;A3;A4;A7;A9;BM;CP;DE;FJ;GT;DC;DN;AR 
; AD ; A6 ; A3, ■Al;Al;A2; STRINGS (7 , 1) A3 ; A2; A5 ; A3 ; A9; AE; AO; AG; B0;C0; E0; 
S2 ; BY ; DP ; Q5 ; A3 ; A 5 ; AF ; AV ; AR ; AO ; QA ; p7 ; E 3 ; DL ; HQ ; 

4211 T=15:GOSUB400 

4220 P=CT+HF+HT+FF+GL+Zl : T=i 1 : LPRINTS2 ; BY ; DU ; Ql ; :GOSUBl 5 : LPRINTC 
T;HE;HS;FC;GO;H0;G0;E0;H0;H0;G0;G0;G0;E0;Q7;Al;A3;A7;AD;AN;BV;BU 
; GV ; H7 ; DJ ; GO ; DE ; F J ; CT ; GM ; D J ; BL ; GQ ; DD ; BN ; ER ; HD ; DM ; DL ; FJ ; GT ; GD ; 

4221 LPRINTET;DC;CS;CS;GO;FP;HO;DO;HG;F0;E0;E0;S3;BY,-DP;Ql;AF;AT 
;CU!HO;FG;H0;E0;Q3;Al;A7;A4;A2;A3;A3;A5;A6;AF;AN;BV;FF;DL;FF;Zl; 
:T=15:GOSUB400:P=DT+HF+Zl+FV+FW+Zl 

4230 T=10:LPRINTS2!BY;DO;Ql; :G0SUB15 : LPRINTDT; HC ; HG;D0; G0; E0; Al; 
Al ; A2 ; A3 ; A7 ; A5 ; A7 ; AF ; AE ; AD ; AV ; AT ; AV ; AN ; DV ; DU ; DV ! BV ; P ; P ; DT ; HE ; DV ; 
AV;GD;HN;CR;HL;GQ;DE;GN;DD;FL;GK;DU;FD;FL,-FH;GS;EO;E0;E0;E0;E0;S 
3 ; BY ; DV ; Ql ; EO ; DG ; HO ; HG ;C0; A8 ; E0; Q9 ; A3 ; A7 ; AT ; HE ; Zl ; FV ; DN ; Zl ; 

4231 T=17:GOSUB400 

4240 LPRINTS2;BY;DI;Q1;P;P!H0;H0;F0;HG;FG;HG;P;P;P;P;P;P;P;DT;DE 

;Zl;FV;DN;Zl;P;P;P;P;P;P;DT;HE;Zl;FV;DU;FS;ESjGG;C0;E0;O2;S5;BY; 

DP;Ql;AG;Al;AS;AV;BR;BV-;BLi;BV;Zl;FV;DN;Zl; :T=18 :GOSUB400 

4250 P=FV+HN+Zl+FV+DN+Zl:T=10:LPRINTS2,-BY;A9;Al;P;P;Q6;P;DT;HF;Z 

1 ; FV ; DN ; HU ; DS ; HC ; Zl ; FV ; DN ; Zl ; : G0SUB15 : LPRINTDT ; HF ; Zl ; FV ; DN ; HO ; HG 

;D0;G0;QA;Q8;Al;A3;A7;AT,-BV!AV;AE;R7;Al;QA,-Q3;Al!AF;FV;DN;Zl; :T= 

19:GOSUB400 

4260 T=9:LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al;P;DT;AG;G3;El;El;El;Q6;STRING$ (5,129) 
G3;G2;C3;G3;H7;Q3;AO;Zl;FV;DN;Zl; :G0SUB15 :LPRINTDT ; HF; Zl; HU ; HS; H 
O;DG;G0;HG;HG;H0;H0;H0;D0;C0;Q6;Al;Al;Al;A3;A3;A3;A3;A7;AE;AV;BV 
;DV;FV;DN;Zl;P;Zl;DU;BV;BR;AV;AV;AV;AN;AV;BU;DV;DF; 

4261 T=20:GOSUB400 

4270 P=Z2+HF+Z3:T=27:LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al;P;P;Q6;P;Z5;DV;BU;BV;Z4;P 
;Q3;E0;E0;E0;P;P;P;P;P;P;DV;Z4;HJ;Hl;Gl;E3;A3;A7;A7;AF;AF!AU;AV; 
BV;BV; :GOSUB400 

42G0 LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al;ZA;Z2;A7;A7;A7;AF;AF;AF;ZB;HU;HS;HS;HS;Q6 

;STRING$ ( 5, 252 ) STRINGS (5 , 254 ) HO ; HG; H0; H0; ZE; Z6; ZE; STRING? (84,252 

)ZA;Z2;HN 

4290 LPRINTS2;BY;F8;Q1;ZC;Z3;AV;AF;AF;AF;Q6;STRING$(5,15)AV;AV;A 

V; AV ; BV ; A7 ; A3 ; Al ; Gl ; ZE ; Z6 ; ZE ; SA ; S4 ; BY ; AD ; Ql ; Z6 ; Z6; HN 

4300 LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al;ZD;Z2;Q6;ZF;ZF;STRINGS (84 , 63 ) Z6; Z6; HN 

4310 LPRINTS2;BY;A9;Al;ZD;Z2;BV;BV;BV;DV;DV;DV;ZF;HF;ZF;HF;ZF;HF 

;ZC;Z3;HN 

4320 LPRINTS2; BY ;A9;Al; STRINGS (99 , 192 ) STRINGS (166,192) 

4990 GOSUB90 

5000 CY="BLACK":GOSUB3 5:T=3:GOSUB10 

5040 LPRINTTAB(38)BY;AU;Q4;Al;A2;A4;A8;AG;AG;B0;B0;B0;STRING$ (9, 

64 ) B0 ; B0 ; B0 ; AG ; A8 ; AO ; A4 ; A4 ; A3 

5050 LPRINrTAB(38)BY;B4;Ql;A3;BU;H0;E0;Q3;A8;AS;AU;AU;AV;BV;DV;D 

V;Zl;AV;A3;Q9;Al;A3;Al;E0;C0;B0;AO;A4!A3 

5060 LPRINTTAB(3a)BY;B7;Ql;Zl;QA;E0;G0;HG;HS;HU;Z2;DV;AF;A3;A7;A 

F ; AV ; BV ; DV ; Z4 ; BV ; AV ; A7 ; Al ; Q2 ; G0 ; DO ; AF 

5070 LPRINTTAB ( 29 ) BY ; Al ; Ql ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; A9 ; Al ; CK ; CK ; C8 ; AG ; B0 ; B0; E 

0; E0; Q4 ; S6; BY ; B7 ; Ql ; HO ; AE ; A3 ; Q2 ; A8 ; AE ; AF ; AF ; AF ; AV ; AV ; AV ; BV ; BV; DV 

; HU ; HS ; HG ; Z4 ; H7 ; Hi ; G0; G0; G0 ; STRINGS ( 6 , 1 28 ) Q4 ; HF 

5000 LPRINTTAB(26)BY;AO;Ql;Al;Al;A3;A3;A3;A2;Q2;Al;Al;A2;A4;A5;A 

9;AI;B4;Ca;EG;AG;B0;C0;E0;Q2;S8;BY;B7;Q3;E0;H0;BG;AO;7VE;A3;E3;Hl 

; HS ; HP ; HH ; G2 ; E2 ; A3 ; Al ; Al ; Q2 ; H0; HO ; Z4 J DV ; AV ; AF ; A7 ; A3 ; Al ; Q5; AF ; HO 

5090 LPRINTTAB ( 24 } BY ; AO ; Q4 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; AE ; AS ; AO ; BO ; DO ; HO ; GO; GT ; ET ; A 

P;AI;B7;CF;EJ;AH;B0;C0;E0;SA;Sl;BY;AV;Q2;Al;E2;G4;EO;B0;C0;STRIN 

G$(7,128)C0;B0;AV;HO;HG;H0;G0;E0;E0;Al;Al;Al;A2!A4;AO;B0;G0 

5100 LPRINTTAB(24)BY;AU;Q2;E0;El;E2;E2;A4;A8;AG;AG;B0;C0;E0;E0;Q 

5;E0;G0;H0;HO;DS;AU;AF;A7;A3;Q3;S3;BY;A6;Q2;A1;A2;A4;A8;Q1;S5;BY 

; AU ; Ql ; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; A8 ; AG ; B0; G0 ; Q7 ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; A9 ; Al ; BC ;CG ; G0; STRING 

$(7,128) 

5110 LPRINTTAB ( 22 ) BY ; Al ; Q5 ; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; A4!A8; AG ;B0; 00 ;C0;E0;Q4; S3 ;B 

Y;CE;Ql;E0;G0;HG;HS;DV;BV;AV;AF;A3;Al;Q7;Al;A2;A4;A8;AG;B0;C0;E0 

;QA;Ql; STRINGS (9,1) STRINGS {8 , 2) A6; A4; A4 ; A4 ; A4 ; BK;C4 ; E4 ; A4; A4; A8; 

A8 ; AC ; AG ; AG ; AG ; B0 ; B0 ; B0 ; Cl ; E2 ; A8 ; AO ; B0 ; G0 

5120 LPRINTTAB(21)BY;AI;Ql;Al;A2;A4;A8;A8;AG;B0;DV;DV;H0;DO;AU;A 

7;A1;Q4;S5;BY;AU;Q4;A1;A3;A7;AF;AH;B0;C0;E0;QA;Q1;A1;A1;A3;A7;AF 

; Q3 ; S4 ; BY ; AP ; Q6; Al ; A2 ; A4 ; A8 ; AO; BO ;HS;BS; AS ;AE;A6;A6; STRINGS (8,3) 

5130 LPRINTTAB { 19) BY; DN ; Q3 ; Al ; A2;A4; AS ;A8; AG ;B0;C0;E0;E0;Q7;Z2;Q 

Letmg 3 conmued 



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Second Kisslmmee Open Rd 2 

White: Slinks 4.0 Black: Human 1830 



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4. f1-b5* c8-d7 

5. b5-d7* d8-d7 

6. f^d4 g8-t6 

7. bl-c3 

8. e1-g1 

9. c1-e3 

10. d1-d3 

11. c3-d5 

12. d5-b6 

13. b6-a8 
14- f2-f3 

15. f1-d1 

16. c2-c3 



Black 

c7-c5 
d7-d6 
C5-d4 



g7-g6 

f8-g7 

e8-g8 

a7-a6 

b7-b5? 

d7-b7 

b7-a8 

b8-d7 

t8-c8 

a8-b7 



Black 

d7-e5 
e5-c4 
b5-b4 
a6-a5 
b7-b5 
a5-b4 
c4-b6 



WMIt 

17. d4-«2 

18. d3-c2 
19- e3-f2 

20. c2-b3 

21. d1-d4! 

22. c3-b4 

23. al-cl! 

24. C1-C8+ b6-c8 

25. b3-c4 b5-d7 
26- c4-b4 c8-a7 

27. b4-b8* t6-e8 

28. d4-c4 a7-c6 

29. b8-a8 c6-e5 

30. c4^c8 g8-l8 

31. a2-a4 e5-d3 
32 c8-d8! resigns 



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SFINKS 4.0 CHESS, 48 K. disk 
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^ Swe List ot Attwrtisefs or Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 165 



ment 5310 prints the lower small plane's 
left wingtip. It also checks whether 
Graftrax-Plus or Graftrax-80 is used, 
then sends control to either 5320 or 
5321. Statement 5320's code NY turns 
on the compressed character mode, 
codes AR;CJ;A1 set the subscript 
mode, then the last seven codes print art 
credit BY: KAL within the border. Or, 
statement 5321*5 codes print the art 
credit in compressed characters below 
the border. Finally, a border run frames 
the art in any color you choose. 

Bird of Prey makes a black/white/ 
gray printout if you omit the green run. 
Just cycle through the green run with 
the printer power off. 

Program Listing 4 prints Perpetual 
Motion (Fig. 7) in nine print runs. Al- 
though Fig. 7 has only the five readily 
available colors, you can use up to nine 
if you have the color ribbons. You can 
also use one ribbon to get a black/ 
while/gray printout, but skip the hair 
and duck-parts print runs. 

Combined with the main program, 
Perpetual Motion needs about 26K 
bytes for storage, strings, and overhead. 
The program runs on a 32K tape or 48K 
disk system. 

A hair run prints the girl's hair a solid 
color with some highlights. Use a 
brown, yellow, or black ribbon car- 
tridge for this run. A duck-parts run 
prints the ducks' feet and beaks. It also 
prints the cover background of the 
lower book on the floor. Use a red, 
brown, or orange ribbon. 

A red run colors the hair bow and all 
facial, arm, and teg outlines. It also 
prints stripes on the rag doll's body. Use 
a red ribbon. Lines 2030, 2W0. and 
2050 print the hair bow in 960 dot- 
graphics mode to produce a deep red. 
Subsequent statements use the 480 
mode for lighter red outlines. 

A brown run outlines and shades the 



girl's hair, colors the TV cabinet, does 
the floorboards, and prints the cat on 
the upper book's cover. 

A blue run prints the background 
wall, using 50 percent pattern PI (Fig. 
1). This run also prints the TV screen's 
sky background and center part of the 
lower book's cover. 

A green run prints the TV screen's 
lower background and the upper book's 
cover background. 

A dress run colors the girl's dre^ and 
outlines her socks. Any color may be 
used for this print run. A border run 
frames the art in any color you want 
to use. 

Finally, a black run does all black de- 
tails, prints the art title, and adds the art 
credit. Title and art credit print as de- 
scribed in Bird of Prey. 

The various print runs access GO- 
SUB routines 100-760 and the main 
program's routines as needed. The rou- 
tines print identical dot-graphics seg- 
ments or T-defined quantities of six-col- 
umn patterns. For example, routines at 
lines 320 and 400 print a T number of 
patterns plus one column without an 
ending semicolon. The routines print 
the last segments of wall and floor pat- 
tern print lines. 

The routine at line 700 produces iden- 
tical segments of the TV's left side on 
three print lines. The routine at line 740 
prints four identical print line segments 
from the TV's left edge to the screen's 
left edge. 

Greeting Card Procedure 

Bird of Prey and Perpetual Motion 
are Graftrax art programs that easily fit 
into 32K RAM. Their 3 1/2- by 4 
3/4-inch dimensions are ideal for print- 
ing greeting cards with personalized 
messages. 

Draw a sketch for color art to fit on 
one quarter of an 8 1/2- by 11-inch print 



sheet. Invert the sketch, renumber its 
print lines, and code the upside down 
column patterns in the required number 
of color print runs. Use few or no line 
feeds and spacing codes to position the 
inverted art within the print sheet's up- 
per-left quarter. In the last print run, 
use enough line feeds and tabs to print 
your personalized greeting, poem, or 
message within the paper's lower-right 
quarter. Print your art and personalized 
message on a single sheet. Fold the sheet 
twice into a 4 1/4- by 5 1/2-inch card. 
The printed art appears right side up on 
the card's front cover. Your message is 
inside. 

Graftrax Art Limits 

Art printouts are limited by printer 
width and paper size. Vertical and hori- 
zontal printouts up to 8 by 10 inches can 
be made on an MX-80 with normal fan- 
fold paper. An MX-lOO extends the lim- 
its to 10 by 13 inches. The TRS-80*s 48K 
capacity only limits the size of one fill-in 
program. You can solve the RAM limi- 
tation by using more than one filLin 
program, each controlling one or more 
print runs. 

For example, a 48K TRS-80 Model I 
disk system and an MX-80F/T printed 
the sailing ship (see the title-page il- 
lustration). The actual printout measures 
7 5/8 by 9 1/8 inches. 1 used three 
separate fill-in programs, averaging 
about 25. 5K with main program rou- 
tines, i loaded and executed the pro- 
grams in turn. 

A two-run first program printed all 
black details, including the frame's 
edges, in one run. A second run tex- 
tured the frame brown. Save spacing 
codes by using separate runs for black 
details and frame outline. 

The second program's first run dot 
shaded the sails and colored the ship's 
structural parts and upr)er hull brown. 



BTA MODEL 953B EPROM PR0GRAMMER-$359 



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2764, 27C64, MCM68766, 27128. 

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Available CP/M software. 



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Price $269.00 



166 • ao Micro, November 1983 



The second run printed the hull's lower 
area and the masthead banner in 960 
mode to produce a deep red. 

The third program's first run did the 
sky in blue patterns progressively lighter 
from top to horizon. The first run also 
printed assorted wave patterns on the 
water's surface. A second run over- 
printed the blue wave-patterned water 
with assorted green patterns. I divided 
the water surface into four vertical areas 
to reduce coding requirements. The 
subdivisions allowed asymetrical distri- 
bution of several predefined blue wave 
patterns over the water's entire surface. 
Subsequently printing predefined green 
patterns over the blue ones gave the 
water a random wave texture. 



Graftrax color art programming is 
neither mysterious nor difficult. Start 
small, just to get the feel of it. Try single 
color an first, then do small color art 
for a little practice. You'll eventually 
become familiar with the codes and ex- 
pand into larger color art programs. 
Seeing the end result of a program 
makes all the effort very worthwhile. 

If you'd like reproducible 11- by 
17-inch art layout sheets in three scales, 
an enlarged pattern code chart (like Fig. 
1), and some programming/debugging 
aids, mail $2 to me.H 



Write to Francis S. Kalinowski at 16 N. 
Alder Drive, Oriando, Ft 32807 



Listing J conimued 

3 ; E0 ; H0 ; DO ; BS ; AF ; A 3 ; Q4 ; AF ; AV ; BV ; DU ; DT ; DR ; CN ; BE ; AD ; A 3 ; Al ; Al ; Al ; Q8 

;A1;A2;A4;AG;AG;B0;C0;E0;Q2;E0;H0;G0;G0;QA;Q1;C0;G0;H0;HG;HO;HI); 

Zl ; DV ; AF ; A3 ; Al ; A3 ; A7 ; AF ; AV ; Zl ; 

5131 LP'U^^TBV;AV;A3;Al;pA;Ql;Al;A2;A4;AO;AG;B0;C0;E0 

5140 LPRIIJTTAB(15)BY;AU;g5;Al;Al;A3;A7;AE;AE;A£:;BO;AO;AG;Q3;Al;A 
3;A7;AE;AJ;B3;C3;El;El;Al;Q3;S2;BY;BA;Q2f Z2;Q5;Al;A2;A4;G7;HI;DP 
;AU;A7;G0;B0;Bl;C2;G2;Zl;HU;DU;Z3;Ht:;HT;HQ;HK;D8;CG;CG;D0;C0;E0; 

5141 LPRINTQ5 ; S 3 ; BY ; Bl ; Ql ; AG ; AO ; AU ; AV ; BY ; BV ; BU ; DS ; DO ; HG ; HG ; HU ; Z2 
;GF;E3;El;Q7;Al;A2;A4;A8;Ay;AG;B0;C0;E0 

r;150 LPRINTTAB(14)BY;CE;Ql;Al;Al;A3;A7;AE;AS;AO,-BG; DG; HG ; HG ; HG;D 

G ; DG ; DQ; DI ; D4 ; G8 ; AG ; AG ; B0; C0 ; E0 ; E0 ; E0 : H0 ; DO ; AU ; A7 ; A3 ; E0 ; E0; E0 ; G0 

; G0 ; G0 ; D0 ; D0 ; D0 ; D0 ; BG ; BG ; BG ; AO ; AO ; AP ; AF ; AF ; AF ; Z2 ; AV ; BV ; Bil ; AS ; Zl J 

BU ; AD ; DV ; DT ; HP ; HH ; H7 ; H3 ; EJ ; EF ; Al ; A2 ; H2 ; 

5151 LPRINTHS;HS;HO;DO;EG;D0;E0;Q2;S5;BY;AO;n4;E0;il0;G0;Q6;E0;HS 

; HI' ; HQ ; HI ; H-l ; G8 ; EG ; B0 ; C0 ; K0; E0 

5160 LPR INTTAB ( 1 3 ) BY ; C8 ; Q6 ; El ; E2 ; E4 ; E4 ; A9; Al ; A4 ; A4 ; A8 ; AG ; AG ; B0 ; C 

0;E0;C}A;Q5;E0;G0;HG;DS;AV;A7;Al;Q3rAl;AF;AF;AV;BV;BU;Zl;HS;HO;HG 

;HG;H0;H0;E0;G0;Q5;E0;C0;C0;B0;Bl;AI;AS;A3;S7;BY;AE;Q6;Al;A2;A4; 

AB;AU;AG;B0;C0;E0 

5170 LPRINTTAB(12)BY;AI;Ql;Al;Al;A2;A4;A4;A9;Al;B4;C4;Ca;EG;B0;C 

0;E0;E0;g3;S4;BY;B':;Q3;AO;GR;flK;l!S;DU;GF;E3;E0;E0;E0;D0;E0;QA;Al 

; A2 ; A4 ; AH ; AG ; B0 ; C0 ; E0 ; Q4 : S 5 ; BY ; A}i ; ga ; Al ; A2 ; A2 ; A4 ; AB ; AG ; B0 ; B0 ; C0 ; 

E0 

5180 LPRlNTSA;BY;AI;Q5;Al;A2;A2;A4;A9;AJ;B7;CB;EG;B0;C0;C0;E0;Ql 

:.S6;BY;AO:Q2;AS;H0;E0;g3;E0;G0;G0;g6;Al;A2;A4;A8;AG;B0;C0;E0;S6: 

BY;AD;Q4;Al;A2;A2;A4;A3;AG;BG;B0;C0;E0 

5190 LPRINTS9;BY;AO;Q3;Al;A2;A4;A8;AH;B2;C4;E8;A8;AG;F0;G0;H0;HG 

;HO;HS;DU;AV;A7;A3;Al;gi;S6;BY;AI;g9;Al;A2;A4;A8;AG;BE;C3;E0;Q2; 

S4;BY;AL;g2;Al;Al;Al;Al;A2;A2;A2;A2;A4;A4;A4;A4;A8;A8;A9;AJ;AN;B 

R;CH;E1 

5200 LPRINTS6; BY; BG;gi; Al; Al; Al; A2; A2; A4; A4; AS; A8; A8; AG;AG; AG; AG 
; BG ; CG ; CG : CG ; CG ; EG ; AG ; B0 ; C ; E0 ; QA ; Q4 ; E0 ; G0 ; H0 ; HG ; DS ; AU ; AF ; A 3 ; Al ; 
gi;S5;BY;C6;gi;Al;A2;A4;AE;AH;B0;C0;E0;g7;H0;B(;;AO:A6;A3; Al;Al;A 
l;Al;A3;A2;A7;A2;Q2;Al;A2;A4;A8;A8;AG;AG;B0;B0;C0;C0;E0;Q9;Al; 

5201 LPRINTA7;A9;BP;CD;E7;E3;El;El;El;G0:G0;H0;DG;BO;AO;A9;A3;A4 
5210 LPRINTTAB(13)BY;C2;Q4;G0;H0;HG;BS;AV;AF;A7;A3;Al;gA;g6;Al;A 
2;A4;A3;AG;B0;C0;E0;Q4; E0;D0; AG; A8 ; A4 ; A2 ; Al ; A2 ; A3 ; A7 ; A? ; AF ; AF ; AE 
; A6 ; A4 ; E4 ; E8 ; E8 ; EG ; AG ; B0 ; H0; H0 ; 00; E0 ; S2 ; BY ; AS ; Q4 ; A3 ; A4 ; A8 ; AG ; D0 ; 
HG ; HO ;HG; STRINGS (8 , 120 ) Al ; A2 ; A4 ; AO; D0; El ; Z2; DS 

5220 LPRINTTAB(14)BY;AO;Q3;H0;H0;G0;G0;G0;G0;g6;Al;A2jA4;A3f AG;B 

0;C0;E0;Q2;S3;BY;A6;g2;E0;E0;E0;g2;S3;BY;Bl;g4;Al;R7:AF;AG;D0;E0 

; yA ; gl ; Al ; A6 ; A8 ; BO ;CS ; BS ; AS ; BO ; BO ; DG ; H0 ; G0 ; E0 

52 30 LPRINTTAB(12)BY;AU ; g4 ; Al ; Al ; Al ; A2 ; A2 ; A4 ; A4 ; A8 ; AS; A8 ; AG; AG ; A 

G ; B0 ; B0 ; B0 ; B0 ; D0 ; DG ; DO ; DS ; DU ; EV ; AF ; A 3 ; Al ; Ql ; S 7 : BY ; Ag ; Q4 ; A3 ; A4 ; AE 

; AU ; CE ; EF ; A7 ; Z 2 ; g9 ; A 3 ; A4 ; AO ; B0 ; G0 

52 40 LPRINTS4 ; BY ; A6; Ql ; AV ; AG ; AG ; AS ; AS ; AF ; S7 ; BY ; B4 ; Ql ; G0 ; C0 ; E0 ; QB 

;g3;E0;G0;ii0;DO;BS;AU ;A7;A3;Al;Ql;S5;BY;AR;Q3;Al;A3;A4;A8;BG;C0j 

E0;A3iAl;A3;Q3;E0;H0;HO;DV;BV;Bi;B0;C0;C0;C0;C0;E0 

Ijsing i conlmued 



PACKER Madine language piogr am mat edils all oi pan 
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maintaining logic inserts Spaces and lenuinDers imes 
SHORT -deletes unnecessa'y *oi(Js spaces and RtM 
Slatemenls PACK — pacKs lines into rnammum multiBie 
Slalentenl lines including all brancties MOVt moves 
line 01 blocks of Imeslodny new location on orogram On 
2 cassettes lor 16K 32K S 48K 

Fo( TRS-80 Mod I oi III Level II 0' Disk Basic S39 9^ 
SYSTEM TAPE DUPtlCATOR Copy youi SVSUM format 
tapes Includes ve'ity toutmes Ttie Mode! Ill versioi' 
allows use ot Dotn yxi and t^ baud casseties speeoi, 
For IRS-80 Model I 0( Hi Level II SIS 9S 

CASSETTt 1 ABEt MAKER A inim woidptOCessoMopfirt 
cassette labe.s on a ime ptmier Includes 60 peel ■ and 
stick labels an faiior teed paper 

For Tfi-BO Model I ot III level II & Printer %M 9'i 

PRINT iOLPRiNI 10 PRINT Edits your Basic program in 
seconds to change all Prii-ls 10 LPrinls leicepl PnnKa or 
Print"! or LPnnts lo Pimis Save edited version 
For TR-BO Model I or III Level II SVi % 

FAST SORI ROUTINES (or use witti Radio SttacKs 
Accounts Heceivat)te Inventory Control i and Oish 
Mailing List Systems tor Model I Level II Sorts i" 
SECONDS' Voul' fie an'a^ed at me time Ifiey can save 
Supplied on data diskette *i!ti (omplete instructions 
FAST SORT lot Accounls Receivable S19 % 

FAST SORT tor Inventory Control I S19 '^■■ 

FAST SORT (or Disk Mailing list specify data diskelle nt 
cassette fo^ i drive sysiemi Si4 9!) 

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Prices subject to change witfioul notice Call or wmetor a 
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80 Micro, Novemberl 983 • 167 



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166 • 80 Micro. November 1963 



Smallware 




Our software is making a name for itself. 



Smallware. Thafs what we've named our unique soft- 
ware designed for microcomputers. Smallware offers 
mucfi more than ordinary software: higfi quality, custom- 
er support and a complete product line. You can buy 
software anywhere. But for the special features of 
Smallware, The Small Computer Company is your one 
and only source. 

The Small Computer Company is known to many as the 
company who developed the filing system software 
Profile® It, Profile Plus and Profile III Plus for Radio 
Shack; and filePror our CP/M® version. 

Now, whether you're a microcomputer end-user, dealer 
or manufacturer, you can order our Smallware directly 
from us. 

Here are just some of the enhancements we offer to 
Model III users: 

PROSORT: If you need to select records for a report by more 
than two criteria (income, ztp code, purctiases, etc.) Presort lets 

Sou use up to sixteen. Once selected, the records can be sorted 
y up to five criteria (zip code, within state, by last name). 
Prosort also offers substantially greater sortirtg capacity. . . $150 



FORMS: If you prepare forms that require several lines of data, 
from Invoices to shipping instructions. Forms Is invaluable. It 
allows you to print Indh/ldual forms (up to 13 " x 11") with 
graphics, trademarks, logos, undertining, subscript and 
superscript furKtIons $125 

ARCHIVE: Lets you maintain up-to-the-minute, clean files by 
removing Inactive records and transferring them to a pre-deter- 
mtned list or file; split an existing data base Into any number of 
specialized files; free substantial disk storage space $150 

PROPACK^A tool that lets BASIC programmers more easily 
customize Profile systems. The resulting programs are shorter, 
easier to write and faster running. Propack also gives tlw BASIC 
program indexed access to Profile data $75 

For Model II, 12 and 16 users, there's Qulkback'"with Format, 
Display, Transfer, B Line Reports With Math, Math Upgrade for 
Profile Forms, INath 64, Propack and more. 

The Small Computer Company does more than create 

award-winning Smallware. Our commitment to the 

customer extends to custom design as well as system 

consultation. 

For further informatton, call (212) 398-9290. To order, ask 

for Mr Burton. 




The Small Computer Company, Inc. 

230 Wfest 41st Street, Sutte 1200, New York, New York 10036 

Smallware, Piopack Qui kback and filePro aie trademarks ot The Small Computer Company, Inc 
CP^M IS 9 legislefod trademark ot Digital Research, Inc Profile is a registered trademark of Radio ShacK 



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170 • a0 Mien, Nwmbf 1983 



Put 64K CP/M 22 in your 
TRS-80 Model III and tap into 

business 




\ \ \ 



Now you can run programs such 
as WordStar, dBASE II, 
SuperCalc, MailMerge and vir- 
tually thousands of other CP/M- 
based programs on your TRS-80 
Model III. 

CP/M 2.2 is the industry stan- 
dard operating system that gives 
you access right now to over 
2,000 off-the-shelf business pro- 
grams. 

Our plug-in Shuffleboard III 
comes with 16K of RAM, giving 
your Model III the power of full 
64K CP/M 2.2 without inter- 
ference of the ROM or video 
memory. In fact, the Shuffleboard 
will appear transparent in the 
TRS-80 mode and will not inter- 
fere with any DOS operation. 
READ and WRITE Osborne, 
Xerox and IBM personal 
computer software plus many 
more popular formats. 

Unfortunately, there is no stan- 
dardized CP/M format for 5 'A " 
diskettes- But we have developed 
a way to READ/WRITE and RUM 
standard programs under the 
following single-sided formats: 
Osborne 1 S/D, Xerox 820 S/D. 
IBM PC* D/D for CP/M 86 only, 
Superbrain D/D, Kapro II D/D, HP 
125 D/D and TeleVideo D/D. 

•Will Read and Wrile Only. 

Easy plug-in installation. 

It's so simple. The Shuffleboard 
111 plugs into two existing sockets 
inside your Model II!. There are no 
permanent modifications, no cut 
traces and no soldering. You'll be 
up and running 
in minutes. 




New Products. 

80 X 24 VIDEO BOARD; Features 
dual intensity screen, programmable 
cursor control for block, underline & 
blink rate, onboard bell with audible 
keyclick. battery-operated real time 
calendar/clock, full ASCII character 
set plus 256 special character 
graphics, dual RS-232 outputs and 
composite video output. 

R.OPPY DISK CONTROLLER: Mow 
you can access 5Va " and 8" floppy 
disk drives in any combination up to 
4 drives of S/D density, S/D sided. 
Tap into a wealth of QP/tA software 
which comes on 8" \B!A 3740 format 
or Pickles & Trout CP/M for the Model 
IL 

SOFTWARE: Additional CP/M soft- 
ware programs are available. Call or 
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OEM and DEALER inquiries 
invited. 




introductory price of 




The Shuffleboard III comes fully 
burned-in and tested complete 
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See the Shuffleboard Ml at 
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Once you see what the Shuffle- 
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you'll want one at once. If your 
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Shuffleboard have him give us a 
call. Or send check, money order, 
VISA or MASTERCARD number 
(sorry, no COD's) plus $5 shipping 
per board ($17 outside the (JSA & 
Canada)* directly to the address 
below. Cal. residents please add 
sales tax. Credit card purchases 
can be phoned in directly and 
we'll ship from stock. 
(415) 483-1008 

'Air mail shipments to Canada & all other 
countries. 



m 



memorv 
rriGrchant 



14666 Doollttle Driva San Leandro. CA 94577 

(415) 483-1008 



WordSUc & MailMerge are tfodernarks of MicroPro 
SuperCalc K ,i traJemjrk ol -sOkCIM. 



dBASE M i» a Irodemafk of Ashton TbIc. 
CP^M is a Itademarh ot Digital Resparcfi. 



TRS-80 I* a irademark of Tandy Corporation. 
IBM IS a nadpmark of IBM Corporalion 







A maintenance tool for "CHD" 
files. Allows you to append 2 
or more files, reorganize, and 
offset. Extract LIB aentiers. S40 



Z-80 assembler/editor supporting 
nested macros, conditionals, and 
Includes. PftO-CR£ATEs a powerful 
tool that Is easy to use. SlOO 









Transfer files directly to DOS 
6.0 from selected CP/M media. 
PRO-CURE supports Omikron, IBM, 
Kaypro, and Osborn formats. S50 



Disassemble directly from 
files or memory. The disk 
source output generates 
labels and handles data. 



loot 

(40 



!o 



I A 4-funct1on utility package 
't that Is loaded with power: 
DOCONFIG; MEMOIR; PARMDIR; and 
J SWAP. A must for JCL users. $40 



An on-line quick reference card 

{at your fingertips. Screens for 

I DOS and BASIC. Create your own 

custom HELP files, too. (25 






This is the LC C-language 
compiler now compatible with DOS 
6.0. LC includes the PRO-CREATE 
macro-assembler package. (ISO 



lA utility to build and maintain 

your own partitioned data sets. 

I Collect many small files Into 

one and save disk space. (40 



^O 



A block -graphics screen editor 
which Is used to create graphic 
images for BASIC, assembler 
programs, or printing. ^^q 



U.S. Shipping: PRO-LC. (5; PRO-CREATE, (4; All 
others $2. COD add (1.50. VISA/MC/CHOICE. 

MISOSYS 
P.O. Box A84e - Dept H 
Alexandria^ Virginia 22303-0848 
703-960-2998 

LDOS is a trademark of Logical Systems, Inc. 
TRSOOS is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 






FRICTION FEED for your EPSON 

MX-80 or RX-80 

• Converts your printer to friction feed 
of SINGLE SHEETS or ROLL PAPER. 

• Fits otfier printers based on Epson models 
(IBM PC. Commodore. H-P Dot Matrix, etc.). 

• Simple installation; all you need is a 
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?W ULTIIiimi EHJPim^. ?t8 




# 



NOM: 

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5aaN= 

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SYSTEMS START AT $1999 

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DU le FCR TtC BEST PRICES FMOLflBLE 
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EXCELLONIX 

(714) 973-1939 » C213) 650-5754 -^^ 



172 • 00 micro, Hwmbt 19$3 



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174 • 80 Micro, November 1983 




CHILD'S PLAY 



AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN AGES 2 TO 7 YEARS 



This machine language program conlams tasi animation, sound eltects. tunes, and 

speech. The speech has Iwo ciolions il can be generaled Dy compuler or by a VSiOO 
speech synthesize' i speech options describee idter) The program is easily const Diled Dy a 
tnenoiy menu- mar: *no points lo ihe options that may De chosen The mam menc contains 
tour sections • Learn tin Alplubel ■ Learn lo Count • Learn Stiapes • Learn Words 

Each section contains inree suDsections whicb can easily be manipulated givng twelve 
games m all The menu seieclion is accompdnieO Dy a dillerent nursery rhynif tune tor 
each menu 

LETTERS 

This option allows the child to select letters at 'andom match ihe cufrent letter cisplayed, 
or type in the next letter When a correC response is given, an animation assoc aleO with 
■he letter moves across the screen eg Z (or Zebra The computer says ttie letters also 

NUMBERS 
This option allows the child io select the numbers zero to nine al random, match ttie current 
number displayed or type in the next number Men walk out on the screen egjai to ihe 
numbei chosen This section also contains speech 

SHAPES 

Tfiis section allows the child to control the menu-man. moving shapes !rom the lett hand ot 
the screen to the right hand ot the screen The (irst level allows the child lo pick up shapes 
using the spacebar The second level m addition allows the child to control the menu man 
wdh Ihe arrow keys Ihe third level puts a small Bee on the screen which the (hild must 
avoid while manipulating the menu-man and shapes 

WORDS 

This tinal section allows the child to type in letters to torm wofds The first level asks lor a 
word 10 be typed m, then to be repealed belore another word can be Hied The second level 




prompts the child with a word which must be matched Detofe an animation wiH appear on 
the screen The last level shows the animation on Ihe screen Then the chud must type m 
the correct v^ord before tbe next dnimaiion is shown This section contains speech also 

SPEECH 
The proqrdm can be bought as a "-tdnd alone program with computer generated speech 
which uses your speaker amplilier Hov^ever we have also made the program compatible 
with an Alpha P'oducis VSlOC speech synthesizer tor improved Speech qudniy (This can 
be purchased from Alpha Products' sub|ect to avaiiabihtyi The speech is not available tor 
d 16K machine 

Sotlwdte available lor Ihe TRS80" Models 1, III, and IV. Also soon available tor the limex, 
16K tape (no speech) 32K tape 33K disk 4BK disk All programs lor 



/Indiana res'Oena d<ia b\ iak'i la- CUD ajn $200' 



$29.95 



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total Enclosed $ 



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Indiana Software Group, inc. 



P BOX 627 • COl UMBUS. INDIANA 4/202 

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Sirigle back issue 
July 1980 to May 1983 3.50 

Single bacl< issue 

June1983on 4.50 

Add ST. 00 per magazine for shipping 

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DOS 80" case and power supply Slot for secO'>0 
di'»p 

5 Megabyte . . tl449 

<0 Megabyte . S1849 

15 Megabyte St8M 

20 Megabyte S2149 




(Prices SubjKt to 
Change Without Notice) 



Winchesler/Nelworli Unit 

LUmS Western Micro Systems 

• 2760 South Havana. Suite S • 

Aurora. Coloraijo 80014 

•TRSDOS IS a trademarh o' Tandy Corp and NEWDOS-80 is a trademark of Apparat mc 
Prices are casn — Visa MaslerCa'a Amencan Express COD avaiiaDie on requesl 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^" Dealers enquiries welcome ^^^"^^^^^^^^^^^ 



THOR NETWORK CONTROLLER 

Connect up to ?b4 computers ol most any maKe over 
as much as WOO feet of cabie^ Snare "> to 60 mega 
bytes or more ol disk storage Cai- for aOdil'onai inio' 
mation and prices 

THOR DIGITAL PORT 

14 INano I5 0UT— Eacnport a toiiBbils 

Connector lo aitacri to Model l'tll'4 OuS — 

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For Model t Only . $39 95 

For MoOel lll'4 Only I4« 9fi 



THOR POINT-OF-SALE SYSTEM 

Includes 16 Imes Ot 32 cnanges of green screen moniic 
ladjusiaoie liitl tceyboard. 40 character per ime arphanu 
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tor> control, and daily totals Can plug mto a Model ilii4 or 
tr>e THOn NETWORK ,., %^Ti9 



^230 



^ See UsI ot AiMniaefs on Pagt 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 175 



REVIEW 



Data-base Duo 



by Wynne Keller 



I 



f you need the speed of an in-memory data 
base, read this comparison between Reader's 
Digest's ListMaker and SofTrends' Promise! 



• • 

ListMaker 

Reader's Digest 

Microcompuler Software Division 

PleasantviOe, NY 10570 

Models I and m 

$99 

* • • • Vi 

Promise! (formerily Aidsplus) 

SofTrends Inc. 

26111 Brush Ave. 

Euctid, OH 44132 

Models 1 and HI 

$129 

ListMaker and Promise! are two new 
in-memory data bases for the Models I 
and in. The programs are very similar 
in basic intent, but completely different 
in the way they accomplish in-memory 
data management. 

ListMaker isn't a bad program. It has 
some nice features, including the ability 
to split and merge files, change field lo- 
cations, and produce printouts that sup- 
port both text and data base records 
without a word processor. 

However, ListMaker can't compete 
with Promise!. Promise! loads more 
rapidly, has far better searches and data 
displays, is easier to add to and edit, 
prints files that don't fit in memory, 
and manipulates files and fields with 
great sophistication. 

176 • 80 Micro, Novembef19e3 



In-Memory Data Bases 

In-memory data bases like ListMaker 
and Promise! have a smaller data-han- 
dling capacity than their big brothers, 
random-access data bases. That's be- 
cause any in-memory data base main- 
tains all its data in the computer's ran- 
dom-access memory (RAM) as you 
work with it. When you finish working 
with the program, it saves the data on 
disk as a sequential file. 

In a typical application (140 
characters per record), about 200 items 
fit in memory. If you don't have 
enough room for an entire file, you 
divide your file in portions and work 
with one portion at a time. 

Obviously, these programs become 
awkward to use if you have to split your 
file into too many sections. In-memory 
data bases have this limitation built in. 
(Random-access programs hold as 
many items as the disk allows and can 
access each item one at a time directly 
from the disk.) 

But in-memory data bases have a 
clear advantage over random-access 
data bases in speed. They perform 
searches and sorts nearly instantaneous- 
ly. And when you add records, you 
move from one record to the next with- 
out the brief but annoying disk access a 
random-access data base requires. 

ListMaker 

Reader's Digest, manufacturers of 
ListMaker, target the package for the 



educational market, emphasizing school 
applications. But like all data bases, you 
can use ListMaker for any data-base ap- 
plKation — business, school, or home. 

ListMaker comes on a TRSDOS-for- 
matted disk. You have to specify wheth- 
er you want a Model 1 or Model III disk 
when you place your order. The manual 
states that you can back up the disk only 
once; however, 1 wasn't able to back it 
up at all because the manual doesn't 
supply the disk's password. The usual 
TRSDOS password, PASSWORD. 
didn't work. 

The program requires a separate data 
disk. You can run it on a single-drive 
machine, but this involves a lot of in- 
ojnvenient disk swaps. 

ListMaker's 80-page manual is attrac- 
tively printed on heavy p^>er in a three- 
ring binder. After several introductory 
chapters, the manual delves into chapters 
on business and educational applica- 
tions. Depending on your intended use, 
skip to the appropriate section. 

Each section presents essentially simi- 




Ammicro introduces 
the first letter quality printer for $680 
that can also be used as a typewriter. 



CORPORATION 




TheMICROXA/RITER" Daisy wheel printer. 



There was a need for a low cost letter quality machine that would 
be suitable fur use as an office typewriter, and as a computer printer. 
Ammicro met that need by combining the Microwriter parallel inter- 
face and the traditional Olivetti craftsmanship that was available in 
their Praxis machine. 

With the Microwriter you can have the best of both worlds a let- 
ter quality printer, and a high quality office typewriter all in one 
machine, that sells for less than the cost of a good dot matrix printer! 

It's not just printer or a typewriter that comes complete with a 
deluxe carrying case, but a feature- packed, lightweight machine that 
doubles as an office typewriter. This printer is a simple, low cost, 
reliable unit which can be utilized with word processing systems, 
microcomputers, personal computers, and small business systems. 
The Micrownter's low noise level and slim modern styling allow it to 
blend with any decor 

The Microwriter's print quality is identical to the finest office 
typewriters on the market. This machine is not only perfect for let- 
ters and manuscripts, but with it s 165 character. 12 inch print width, 
the machine is perfect for letter quality budget spread sheets, price 
lists, data sheets, and forms. 

The Microwriter can tab. rule single lines both vertical and 
horizontally, underline and print at 10. 12. or 15 characters per inch 
(switch selectable)! Its ten character memory for automatic error 
correction, lift off correction ribbon, and fixed or programmable page 
formats are a few of the many features that make it a perfect office 
typewriter. Microwriter not only handles letter and legal size sheet 
paper in widths up to 12 inches wide, but also handles fanfotd paper. 

There's a wide selection of 21 interchangeable daisy wheels 
available. And ribbon cassettes that just drop in. 

^See List ol Aiivwlisers on Page 323 



It s operation as a computer printer is simple. Just load it up with 
paper and you are ready to go. Centronics compatible parallel output 
cables are currently available from stock for the following com- 
puters: IBM PKRSONAL COMPL'TERTm, OSBORNE ITM. 
ZENITH Z lOOTM. BURROUGHS B-20TM, Convergent 
Technologies models IWS & AWS"!"", TRS-80 MODEL 1, 11. UITM, 
APPLE 11^'*^ . . .custom cables also available by special order. 

This machine creates a new standard by which all current low 
cost letter quality printers will follow. Ammicro's Microwriter is tru- 
ly designed for the lifestyles of the 80's and for decades to come. 

Why settle for just any printer when you can have a 
MICROWRITER. . . a fine letter quality typewriter for you and 
your computer. 

The Microwriter is the only daisy wheel printer on the market for 
$680. For more information, see your local computer dealer or con- 
tact Ammicro directly. 



corp 



^2sa 



122 East 42 StrMt, Suite 1700. Nm/ York, N.Y. 10168 
(2)2) 254-3030 



(MovlarCardJlOi 




M&r 



MKLRUWIUTUI o 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 177 



FOR TRS-80 MODELS 1 , 3 & 4 
IBM PC, XT, AND COMPAQ 



The MMSFORTH 

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FORTH 



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$129,95 for MMSFORTH, or 
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lor $399 95 

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MILLER MICROCOMPUTER SERVICES 

61 Lakt Shor* Road, Natich, MA 01760 

(617)653-6136 



178 * flO Micro. November 1983 



'ar material with either business or 
school examples. The fmal chapters 
provide more detailed information and 
include a flowchart of program opera- 
tions and explanations of ail menu com- 
mands. 

Many sections of the manual are on 
the disk as a separate help option. Help 
isn't available from within the program; 
you have to save your data and return to 
the main menu to use this option. A 
Help menu lets you identify the prob- 
lem and send the information provided 
to the printer. 

Promise! 

SofTrends supplies Promise! on a 
special disk that boots in a Model 1 or 
111, but doesn't include a complete op- 
erating system. You supply a disk with 
an operating system on it and follow 
simple instructions to transfer the pro- 
grams onto your disk. I used DOS- 
PLUS, but the program is compatible 
with all major operating systems. 

You still have room on a double-den- 
sity disk for some files after you transfer 
Promise!. Promise! is easier to use than 
LislMaker if you have only one drive. 
Two-drive owners will probably want to 
put all the Promise! companion pro- 
grams, such as CALCS and FORMAX, 
on the disk with Promise! and maintain 
a separate data disk. 

Promise! isn't protected. You can 
move the programs that make up the 
Promise! system about at will to make 
room for files. 

The Promise! manual 1 used was a 
preliminary version. The fmal version 
wUl be printed in a spiral-bound 5 Vi - by 
8 '/i -inch booklet. 

The program screens display refer- 
ences to pages in the manual. If you 
have trouble with any screen, you know 
where to go for help. Unlike ListMaker, 
the Promise! Help function is available 
from the main menu and you don't 
need to save the file in memory before 
using it. 

Another Help feature I like is the 
flash on the screen whenever you make 
a mistake. You can see the flash even if 
you're not looking directly at the 
screen. It's a warning that you're doing 
something wrong. 

Initiidizatkin 

As its name imphes, ListMaker isn't a 
full data-base management program. 
This is evident in its maximum field 
length (30 characters) and the lack of its 
calculation ability. The program is de- 
signed for mailing lists and similar 
groups of short data. 

ListMaker allows no more than 12 



fields and you must state at the outset 
how many you intend to use. Then you 
enter the field name and length; you have 
an opportunity to make corrections at 
the end of the initialization process. 

ListMaker permits only one field 
type: alphanumeric. Since the program 
doesn't perform calculations, you ha\e 
no need for numeric fields. 

When you finish initializing, name 
the file and write it to disk. This is called 
the List Format File and you must load 
it at the beginning of every session. You 
can establish as many 1^ formats as 
you want. 

Promise! allows eight more fields 

''Promise! allows 

eight more fields 

than ListMaker 

and. . . you can use 

subfields by combining 

several short fields 

into a single one. " 

than ListMaker and, if you need more 
than IQ fields, you can use subfields by 
combining several short fields into a sin- 
gle one. You can still access such data 
separately via the subfielding search 
techniques. The total length for all 
fields can't exceed 255 characters per 
record. 

As you initialize fields, the screen 
shows how many bytes you've used and 
how many records would fit in memory 
if you stopped initialization at that 
point. This information is highly useful. 
You want as many records as possible 
to fit in memory, and with this feature 
it's easy to fine tune the data base to its 
most efficient size. 

You can edit, delete, or insert fields at 
any point in the initialization process. 
The Promise! editor is more sophisticat- 
ed than ListMaker's. 

Promise! supports numeric fields be- 
cause even the core program provides 
totals and subtotals, and because the 
CALCS program offers more sophisti- 
cated math . During inil ializal ion , 
specify whether you want a decimal 
point and decimal-place accuracy. 

As in ListMaker. you must save the 
field information for Promise! in a de- 
scriptor file. When you name the file. 
Promise! encourages you to add the 
suffix /DSC, so it is easy for you to dis- 
tinguish descriptor files from data files. 

These files are important; they are the 
map by which both programs read your 



data. The Promise! descriptor files also 
contain search speciPications and report 
formats; therefore, it's useful to keep 
the descriptor File up to date. 

You can use both programs for many 
different projects, so devise a fUe- 
naming scheme that clearly connects the 
descriptor file with its own data. A 
Model III disk hokls a lot of data, and 
it's easy to forget which descriptor goes 
with which data Tile. 

Add, Search. Edit 

To add data to ListMaker. load the 
appropriate list format file, then select 
the Add option from the main menu. 
The field names appear on the left side 
of the screen, and an adjacent line in- 
dicates the fleld length. 

ListMaker permits very little edit- 
ing. If a typing error occurs, press the 
left-arrow key to go back and change 
the error. Unfortunately, the Model 
Ill's auto repeat is disabled so you must 
press the key once per character. A 
shift/left-anow key sequence erases the 
whole line. 

At the end of each fieU. press the 
enter key lo go to the next line. It isn't 
possible to return to a field once you 
press the enter key and you can't make 
corrections at the end of each record. 
This can be annoying, since you mi^t 
not notice mistakes until the cursor is 
past the field in which errors occur. 

Because in-memory data bases locate 
records very qukkly, they normally 
don't use record numbers. To find any 
item in the file, the program makes a 
search. The search requires that upper- 
and lowercase letters match. 

ListMaker offers three types of 
searches: in-string. exact match, or 
single<haracter. The in-string search 
starts at the left and finds all reconk 
matching the search characters. For ex- 
ample, Smi wouW find Smith. Smith- 
fiekl. Smithye. 

The exact match search, using the 
same letters, wouldn't find any name 
but Smi; longer names wouMn't 
qualify. 

The single-character search kx)ks for 
a character in a certain position, such as 
i as the third character. I tried the single- 
character search several times and it 
always locked up the computer. The 
other searches worked fine, and found a 
record at the end of the file in about 10 
seconds. 

All ListMaker searches must be for 
an "equals" condition. Greater than or 
less than searches aren't supported. 
You can make searches on oiily one 
field at a time. This might be insuffi- 
cient for some purposes. If you want to 



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eo Micro. November 7983 * 179 



sort by zip code, then by last name, this 
isn't possible. 

When ListMaker finds the record, it 
appears in its entirety with additional 
choices at the top of the screen. These 
include options to continue the search, 
move forward or back one record, edit, 
delete, or exit to the main menu. 

It's possible to have more than one 
record on screen at a time, but the pro- 
gram displays only one field of each 
record. You can specify which field you 
want to see. For most purposes, viewing 
only one field is virtually useless. At the 
very least, you need two fields and even 
better would be as many fields as fit on 
screen. 

You can customize how Promise! 
adds records to an amazing degree. You 
can decide to add only some fields of 
each record, and you can choose which 
ones you want and the order in which 
they appear. By customizing, you won't 
nc«l to press the enter key to go past 
fields for which you don't have data. 

Another nice feature is the automatic 
repeat of data in any fields you specify. 
If you're typing a lot of addresses in one 
state, you can preset the state field. If 
you do so for ME, for example, the pro- 
gram thereafter automatically prints 



ME in that field until you change it. 
Make the change to another state by po- 
sitioning the cursor over ME and typing 
in a new state abbreviation. 

You can automatically increment 
number fields by one, which is very use- 
ful in entering checks, invoices, and 
other sequential data. It's also possible 
to set the program to automatically in- 

"Very sophisticated 

searches are available 

with Promise!. 

No matter how 

complicated the search, 

the records appear 

in seconds. *' 

voke the enter key at the end of these 
repeal fields. 

You can make corrections at any time 
during the Add process, and the arrow 
keys move the cursor to any field on the 
screen. One of the big drawbacks to the 
original Basic version of Aids was the 
slow speed of cursor movement. The 
new Promise!, written in machine-lan- 



guage code, is greatly improved in typ- 
ing and cursor movement speed. 

When editing records, you can speci- 
fy which fields to edit. The chosen fieWs 
are the only ones that appear on screen, 
and the cursor is at the end of the field, 
ready for additional information or a 
shift/left-arrow key sequence to erase 
the fiekl. 

By pressing the clear /left -arrow keys, 
you can have full featured editing with- 
in the line. This new edit funaion per- 
mits insertion and deletion of characters. 

Very sophisticated searches are avail- 
able with Promise!. No matter how 
compik:ated the search, the records ap- 
pear in seconds. 

Promise! displays searched records 
with a single line for each, so it's easy to 
make comparisons with adjacent rec- 
ords. However, in most cases the entire 
record isn't displayed. You can choose 
which fields to display, or you can sec 
fields that don't fit on screen by press- 
ing the shift/right -arrow keys to move 
the fields horizontally. 

You can also scan records vertically 
as though the screen were a cylinder. 
The end of the file is marked with a 
dashed line and the begiiming reappears 
just below it. 



CONVERT YOUR TRS-80 MODEL I. Ill, OR 4 INTO A 

DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM 




Now you can develop Z-80 based 
stand-alone devices such as games, 
robots instruments and peripheral 
controllers, by using your TflS-80 as a 
development system The DEVELOP- 
MATE plugs into the expansion con- 
nector of your TRS-80 and adds 
PROM PROGRAMMING and IN- 
CIRCUIT-EMULATION capabilities to 
your system (with or without expan- 
sion interface) 



Complete instructions and sample 
schematics are included to help you 
design your own simple stand-alone 
microcomputer systems THESE 
SYSTEMS CAN BE AS SIMPLE AS 
FOUR ICs one TTL circuit for clock 
and reset a Z-80 an EPROM, and one 
peripheral interface chip 

When the In-Circuil-Emulation 
cable IS plugged into the Z-80 socket 
of your stand-alone system, the sys- 
tem becomes a part of your TRS-80 
You can lise the full power of your 
editor, assemble rs debug and trace 
program to check out both the hard- 
ware and the software Simple test 
loops can be used to check out the 
hardware then the system program 
can be run to debug the logic ol your 
stand-alone device 

Since the program is kept in TRS-80 
RAW changes can be made quickly 
and easily When your stand-alone 
device works as desired you use the 
Developmate's PROM PROGRAMMER 
to copy the program into a PROM 
With this PROM, and a Z-80 in place ol 
the emulation cable your stand-alone 
device will work by itself 



The DEVELOPMATE is extremely 
compact Both the PROM programmer 
and the In-Circuit-Emulalor are in one 
small plastic box only 3 2" x 5 4" A 
line-plug mounted power supply is 
included The PROM programmer has 
a ■ personality module' which defines 
the voltages and connections of the 
PROM so that future devices can be 
accommodated. However, the system 
comes with a universal" personality 
module which handles 2758, 2508 (8K) 
2716 2516 (16K). 2532 |32K). as well 
as the new electrically alterable 2816 
and 48016 i16K EEPROMsl 

The COMPLETE DEVELOPMATE 
81, for Model I with software power 
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cable and "urn versa r personality 
module $329 

DEVELOPMATE S3. Model III/4 verBlon, 

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PM2 PERSONALITY MODULE for 
2732A EPROM $15 

PM3 PERSONALITY MODULE for 
2764 EPROM $15 



Instruments 



■151 



172 Otis Avenue. Dept M Woodside. 

CA 94062 

(415) 851-1172 

Cali'om.a 'i-^, (Writs ^ >'«■.,- jJO f '^ salei '.a. 



1B0 • 80 Micro, Novwnbor 1983 



Unlike ListMaker, Promise! sup- 
ports all Boolean logic (greater than, 
less than, equal to, not equal to) and 
searches multiple fields with And or Or 
coimections between fields. It's possible 
to compare fields within the same 
record and to specify certain character 
positions as irrelevant to the search. 

I particularly like the fact that Prom- 
ise! retains search criteria for reuse. 
You can set up four search formulas, 
then start displaying records according 
to each formula in turn. Switching from 
one search to another involves pressing 
one key, and the results appear before 
you can blink. 

You can easily mark or unmark rec- 
ords. Use this sophisticated feature on 
one record at a time, or on all records 
that satisfy the search criteria. 

Once you mark records, they become 
a separate entity within the file and you 
can manipulate them as a group. Prom- 
ise! also handles new (recently added) 
and old (previously added) records as 
separate groups. There is no limit to the 
manipulation possible with the search 
function. 

The program retains the formula 
most recently specified for a search for 
subsequent opwrations, such as editing, 



printing, or disk saves. Be careful here. 
This is powerful and useful, but it's im- 
portant to pay attention to what you're 
doing or you might save only the rec- 
ords that meet some search criteria 
when you intend to save the whole file. 
The program provides warnings to 
help prevent mistakes, and after some 
fimctions such as delete, the current 
selection changes back automatically to 
all records. 

Printouts 

ListMaker combines limited word 
processing capabilities with its report 
function. It's possible to print explana- 
tions with each field, or even do simple 
form letters. 

The report section is a separate pro- 
gram that you load from the main 
menu. When you're moving between 
different parts of ListMaker, the 
Reader's Digest logo appears on screen 
and stays long enough to be irritatmg. 
Although the manual doesn't mention 
it, pressing the enter key removes the 
logo and moves to the next section. 

After the report program loads, a 
rather complicated menu appears. The 
first step is to create a print file, the list 
of words and field numbers you want 



printed. Print files are either current or 
standard. The current one is in memo- 
ry. The standard one is created when 
you originally establish the file. 

Unfortunately, I couldn't fmd a way 
to make any particular file become the 
standard if 1 bypassed thai option at 
initialization. If you want a standard 
print file, be sure to design it when you 
create the format file. 

You'll need a certain amount of trial 
and error to create a good print file, es- 
pecially if you use the word processor 
c^ability. Type any words, inserting 
field numbers between the < > signs 
where you want the field contents 
printed. 

In very simple reports, you might 
have no words, just field numbers. Fan- 
cier reports can include descriptive 
phrases for the fields. 

A letter is the most difficuh, because 
you must terminate each line with the 
enter key. A printout has 80-character 
lines, but the screen displays only 64. 
You must guess or count to ensure that 
you press the enter key al least every 80 
characters. 

ListMaker tabs over any number of 
spaces, and even fills the blanks created 
with a character of your choice, such as 



THE LOGICAL TOOL 

For Hardware and Software Development 

MODEL LA-1680 LOGIC ANALYZER 

For TRS-80 Model I or Ml Computers (48K RAM) 

FEATURING . . . 

• Collection Of 1000 Data Samples On Each Of 16 Channels 

• Optionally Expandable To 64 Channels 

• User-Selectable Sampling Rates As Fast As 20 MHz 

• Easy To Specify Triggering & Collection Conditions 




• Timing Displays For Hardware Include: 

Standard 16 channel timing diagram 
Edge mode for transition identification 

• State Displays For Software Include: 

Dump in hex, binary, octal, decimal 
Instruction disassembiy of microprocessors 
Map showing frequency of data samples 

• Plus . . . 

Histogram showing software performance 
Signature analysis of 14 points at once 
Correlate sample to reference memory 
Pattern search to aid data location 

Incredibly friendly 'help' displays 



The LA-1 680 Logic Aniayzer allows you to 

hooK up to a high-speed digital circuit, define 
and collect the data you wish to examine: and 
then, produce a visual representation of the 
actual digital signals tor closer inspection and 
analysis. This facilitates the design and ser- 
vice of computers, peripherals, and any 
equipment which contains digitial logic 
circuitry 

The LA-1680 Logic Analyzer contains the 
high-speed circuitry necessary to perform the 
time-critical functions of data recognition and 
collection. The TRS-80 microcomputer pro- 
vides for convenient keytx)ard entry of user 
commands, detailed display of data on 
screen or printer, and storage of test set-ups 
or displays on disk. 



This combination results in a powerful digi- 
tal tool, exhibiting features found only on 
todays most expensive, top-of-the-line logic 
analyzers Yet. the affordable LA-1680 is well 
within the reach of educators, hobbyists, and 
industry, 

LA-1680 Logic Analyzer $1250.00 

High Impedance Probes 

iTTLorCMOS SCharmeisI $275.00 

Model I Cable Adapter $95,00 

64 Channel Expansion Unit . . $1250.00 
Demonstration Disk $5.00 

OmnlLogic, Inc. 

P.O. Box 87 
RENTON, WA 98057 

206/271-2000 ^46. 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 181 



a dash or dot. Sophisticated formats let 
you separate a field broken by a comma 
into its two components. 

You can brejjc up a field in the last 
name, first name formal for the report. 
Place the first name in front of the last 
name, or print the last name or first 
name alone. 

The report function also supports 
limited logic. You can print the contents 
of a field if there is anything in it, and a 
different field if the first field is empty. 

When the print file is complete, you 
can edit for corrections. The editor is 
difficult to use, and I easily made a mess 
of my print file as I tried to edit it. 

The editor is better than none at all, 
but considering the sophistication of 
most program editors these days, it's 
hard to see why ListMaker couldn't 
have a nondestructive cursor. It should 
be possible to make corrections within 
the line as you work on it, instead of 
typing below the line and pressing the 
enter key to see the effect of changes. 

For the printout, you can select page 
size, left margin, and paper type. You 
have an opportunity to type a heading. I 
typed one in and as soon as I pressed the 
enter key it went directly to the paper 
with no warning for adjusting the paper 



position. 

The program is supposed to support 
wide type and centering for the heading. 
It didn't work with my printer, and I 
can't find any list in the manual of sup- 
ported printers. The manual implies 
that these features work on any printer 



''If you don't own 

a word processor, 

you might find 

ListMaker's print 

function useful indeed. " 



that provides these features, but this is 
untrue. 

The sophistication of the print pack- 
age in this program is unusual for a data 
base. Most data bases don't allow mix- 
ing text and fields except through a sep- 
arate word processor. However, the 
print file is difficult to set up and even 
more difficult to edit. 

Most people who already own a word 
processor would find it much easier to 
prepare text that way. However, List- 
Maker has no provision for using a 



word processor-created file. If you 
don't own a word processor, you might 
find ListMaker's print function useful 
indeed. 

Promise! supports two printer rou- 
tines. One is simple to use but unsophis- 
ticated; the other is sophisticated but 
complicated. Both routines send reports 
to screen, disk, or printer. The disk op- 
tion prepares a report to be printed 
later. 

The simple report is a single-line 

printout that supports page title, page 

kngth, left margin, and field selection. 
If you select more fields than fit on the 
page width, the programs wraparound 
the excess. 

It isn't possible to send printer codes. 
This type of printout is convenient for 
casual use, but because of the one-line 
limitation, for most purposes you'll 
want the more sophisticated reports. 

FORMAX, an integral part of the 
data base, creates reports in conjunc- 
tion with a word processor. You design 
and type the form layout with any word 
processor, then FORMAX prints the 
records from within Promise! placing 
fields where indicated. FORMAX also 
prints files too large to fit in Promise! 
(those created by merging two or more 



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182 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



Promise! files together). 

FORMAX reads printer codes. You 
can move from one print size to 
another, underline, enhance, or do any- 
thing else your printer supports. 

You can specify labs within a line, 
skip any number of lines, strip trailing 
blanks from character fields and 
leading blanks from numeric fields, 
print part of a field, and reverse year, 
month, day fields to print as day, 
month, year. 

Promise! supports logic, and you can 
print labels on any text on a conditional 
basis. For example, on an invoice form, 
logic can print "overdue" on any state- 
ment that shows the number of days 
since payment to be greater than 30. 
Conditional text can be any length. 

It's also possible to prompt for oper- 
ator entries. In this way, you can design 
a form that includes, for example, the 
current date, typed from the keyboard 
when you print the form. 

Another unusual feature is the ability 
to convert numeric fields to their 
EnglLsh equivalents. This is useful when 
you write checks, and Promi.se! does a 
creditable job of printing your checks 
on any check form you care to use. 

FORMAX was designed for forms, 



but you can also use it for routine 
reports. To format a two-line repori, 
create only two lines in the print file, 
consisting of fields, tabs, and printer 
settings. When you want to print the 
report, specify the page length as two 
lines. 

FORMAX goes through the file, 
considering each record as a page even 
though it's net printing on true separate 
pages. This works well with two limita- 
tions: You can't have a title or top and 
bottom margins. This is the only major 
drawback I could fmd in this print 
program. 

As with ListMaker, you design a 
printout file through trial and error. 
With Promis*.-!, this process is compli- 
cated by the use of a separate word pro- 
cessor. 

If you have any problems with the 
file, you must exit from Promise!, load 
the word processor, edit the file, reload 
Promise!, reload the records, and lr> 
out the report. On the plus side, 
however, the word processor simplifies 
the creation of complex reports such as 
form letters. 

File Functions 

When you use a random-access data 



base, your data Ls always safe because 
it's on the disk, not in computer memo- 
ry. A power failure wouldn't cause the 
loss of much, if any, data. 

With an in-memory data base, it's 
necessary to pay more attention to the 
file's condition. Data isn't recorded au- 
tomatically; you must remember to save 
it at the end of each session or more fre- 
quently to prevent accidental data loss. 

Promise! does have a fine utility pro- 
gram for data safel\'. After an acciden- 
tal reboot or careless exit from the pro- 
gram, typing RECOVER/AID in DOS 
brings you back to Promise!, usually 
with the data safely in memory. 

ListMaker tries to assist the operator 
with reminders. If you try to do any- 
thing that might destroy the items in 
memory, it warns you to sa\e the rec- 
ords to disk. If you forget to bring an 
old file into memon. before adding new 
records, you can still merge the old file 
with the new items. 

This selection is confusing, though, 
because the warnings on screen imply 
that you'll destroy your file. If you pro- 
ceed despite the warning, the program 
eventually asks if you want to erase the 
data in memory or merge the data with 
the file being read. 



TRS-80 "CAN YOU BUY DIRECT?" 




M 



80 Micro. Novemberl 983 • 183 



ListMaker also splits files that 
become too large. This is done alpha- 
betically. Specify the search field and 
the range to be included in each new 
file, and ListMaker takes care of the 
rest. 

A directory is available from the 
main menu. However, in many sections 
you must enter file names without easy 
access to the directory, so it's helpful to 
keep a printout of the directory handy. 

ListMaker salvages the data in a file if 
you must alter the file to a new format. 
This is an important and useful feature. 
It means you can add or delete fields 
without retyping the previous data. 

The feature is a little tricky to use, but 
if you follow the directions carefully, it 
works quite smoothly. You must first 
create the new format, then specify the 
new field number for each field from 
the old format. You don't have to 
transfer all fields. 

The speed with which ListMaker 
loads files is very poor. A file of 100 
records took one minute and 25 seconds 
to load. A file twice that size took an in- 
credible four minutes and 52 seconds. 
The 200-record file was almost at full 
disk capacity (222 records). 

String shuffling within the computer 



causes these long delays as records come 
from the disk. This load time is so unac- 
ceptable that most users will want to 
keep their file size at no more than half 
memory capacity. 

Promise! doesn't have this problem. 
Initialized with a file similar to the List- 
Maker test file, Promise! loaded the 



". . .speed differences 

are very important, 

as they directly affect 

the ease and convenience 

of program use. " 



lOO-record file in 16 seconds, and the 
200-record file in a mere 31 seconds. 
These speed differences are very impor- 
tant, as they directly affect the ease and 
convenience of program use. 

Promise! provides a complete sorted 
directory from the main menu. This so- 
phisticated option allows selection by 
extension (all /DAT files, for example) 
or by file name (all files begirming with 
A), and by drive number. 



You can use Promise! to provide an 
index of all your disk directories. The 
necessary descriptor file already exists 
on the disk. This disk index even reads 
more than one DOS. If Promise! is on 
DOSPLUS, for example, you can ob- 
tain a directory of a NEWDOS disk in 
drive 1. 

Some of the file-splitting and manip- 
ulation features that are separate func- 
tions in ListMaker are an integral part 
of Promise!. Because file manipulation 
is so easy. Promise! overcomes the 
usual limitations of an in-memory data 
base to a great degree. 

For example, you have a file on cus- 
tomers consisting of name, address, ac- 
count numbers, balance, and account 
status. You wish to mail an advertiang 
fiyer to all customers. Your file is di- 
vided into part I (A-M) and part II 
(N-Z). 

With Promise! you can load only the 
fiekls you need: name and address. By 
loading selected fields, it might be possi- 
ble to fit parts I and II in memory, 
which would simplify creating a zip 
code order sort. 

An overiap option permits loading 
selected fields to overwrite fields in 
memory. For example, with fields A, B, 



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184 • ao Micro, November 1983 



C, and D in memory, you can overwrite 

field B with the contents of a field from 
another file on the disk, leaving fields 
A, C, and D unchanged. 

You can save or load records accord- 
ing to any selection criteria. Since Prom- 
ise! selection is very sophisticated, you 
can create any number of special pur- 
pose files from a master file, and simply 
discard them when they're no longer 
needed. 

You can change the descriptor file, 
which sets up field size and type, at any 
time. However, any modifications can 
cause the data that already exists to dis- 
play in the wrong fields. 

To avoid this problem save the data 
in the special Basic format by placing 
commas between the field letters, then 
change the descriptor file as desired. 
Reload the data, rearranged lo match 
the new file format. For example, you 
can move Field D in the old file to field 
A in the new file, and the data will still 
be exactly correct. 

One of the frustrations of working 
with an in-memory data base is the dif- 
ficulty of soriing multiple files. Suppose 
your customer file were in two pans as 
previously described. A new ad brings 
in 150 responses, and you need to add 
all these new names to the data base. 

The hard way would be to load part I, 
type in all the new names in the range 
A-M, save that file, then load part II 
and type in the N-Z names. Probably 
both files would grow too large in the 
process, and you'd have to create a 
third file taken from both 1 and II 
(A-G, H-O, P-Z). 

Prorruse! has simpler methods. One 
is to t>pe in all ihe new names as a sepa- 
rate file and sort them. Then use the 
Merge program to create a master file, 
in sort&d order, of the smaller files. Af- 
ter the three files are together, you can 
load them in selected pieces as needed. 
Unfortunately, you can't select a fX)r- 
lion of a master file, make changes. 
then save it back into the original file. 
Once you change data from a master 
file, you must save it into a new file 
name. 

Eventually, after enough parts come 
off the master and go into new files, it 
becomes useful to create a new master 
file. These master files are also conve- 
nient for printouts. 

Just how many records are practical 
with Promise!? In thcor>', you could 
handle something like 2,000 records of 
an average 150-byie size. 

The mechanics of keeping track of 10 
files, however, can be overwhelming. I 
would suggest a practical limit of 
800-1,000 records. For ListMaker, the 



limit woukl be much smaller, perhaps 
400 records, due primarily to slow load 
time. 

Calculatioiis 

Promise! calculations are primitive 

by random-access data-base standards, 
but quite good for a sequential data 
base. The calculations are available only 
on printouts, through CALCS3, a 
separate program included on the disk. 

This program gives totals and subto- 
tals on numeric fields. In addition, it 
produces a balance forward column 
and two calculated columns. 

The calculated columns use a formu- 
la of your choice, adding, subtracting, 
multiplying, or dividing field contents 
or constants. The second calculated col- 
umn can use the results of the first cal- 
culation in it^ formula. 

Two calculated fields are sufficient 
for many business purposes, such as fig- 
uring sales tax. This is probably inade- 
quate, however, for a complex in\entory 
system that needs percentage discounts, 
markups, or formula pricing. 

Remember too that these calculations 
occur only for the printout and the 
results aren't saved in the data file for 
later on-screen manipulation or 
viewing. 

CALCS3 produces an at t ract ive 
printout, with the left column indexed 
(indented) if desired when there are two 
or more identical entries in the first 
field. The program isn't difficult to use, 
but it doesn't retain report formats, and 
it's necessary to start over, defining 
fields and formulas, each time you use 
the program. 

CALCS3 doesn't warn if the line 
length exceeds 80 characters so it's easy 
to define a report that's too long and 
then have to begin again. 

The CALCS3 program is the weakest 
link in the new Promise!. It's un- 
changed from the old Aids, and it's 
slow and awkward to use compared to 
the rest of the program. According to 
SofTrends, it will be rewritten soon. 

Conclusion 

ListMaker and Promise! are two 
data-base management programs that 
provide the same basic capabilities. But 
Promi.se!'s more sophisticated features 
and ease of use make it the exceptional 
value, especially when you consider that 
both packages are similarly priced. ■ 



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80 Micro. November 1983 • 185 



UTILITY 



Space Maker 



by Jim Barbarello 



I 



f you have trouble reading compressed Model U 
Bask program listings, Doculist can help 
by automatically inserting eye-saving spaces. 



Some Basic program listings are 
almost impossible to read because they 
lack spaces between words, include sev- 
eral command statements on a single 
line, produce left -justified line num- 
bers, and have other annoying space- 
saving techniques. 80 Micro published 
an article ("Superlisl," November 
1981, p. 333) thai inserted spaces inio 
Model l/lll Basic listings to solve this 
problem. But ihat left us Model 11/16 
owners without a solution — until now. 

1 call my version of Superlisl Docu- 
list. Doculist is different from Superlisl 
in many ways, including what it does 
and how it works. 

The Basic Interpreter 

Basic is a machine-language program 
that loads into the Model Il's memory 
starting at 2800 hexadecimal (hex). The 
computer stores Basic instructions you 
key in or load from a disk in a specific 
area of memory in a specific format. 
When you issue the Run command, the 
computer interprets the stored code and 
performs the requested functions. 

The fu"st problem you encounter 
when working on the Model II is that 
the start of the storage area for the Basic 
code isn't alwa>^ the same, as it is on the 
Model l/lll. When you call Basic, you 
usually specify the maximum number 
of buffer areas you need for disk input 
and output. Each buffer takes up a cer- 
tain amount of memory. The start of 
166 • 80 Mjcro, November 1983 



the Basic storage area is adjusted de- 
pending on the number of buffers you 
request. 

Since the Basic starting point is 
floating, how does the Basic interpreter 
know where to start reading the code? 
The computer stores the Basic starting 
address at 2B4I- and 2B50 hex. The first 
2 bytes in the start address indicate the 
memory location where the subsequent 
program line begins (the first 2 bytes 
equal zero if this is the last program 
line). The next 2 bytes store the program 
line number in hex. The actual Basic 
code follows that and, fmally. a zero 
byte indicates the end of the line. 

This procedure continues through the 
remainder of the Basic code. The com- 
puter doesn't store code in full ASCII 
format in memory. In fact, the comput- 
er stores most Basic commands (like = , 
For, and REM) as 1-byte tokens. Thus, 
if your program contains a remark 
statement, that notation is stored as the 
1-byte token 90 hex. 

The remark statement notation is the 
16th entry in a table that contains all the 
Basic commands, spelled out back to 
back. This table is part of Basic and 
starts at memory location 2853 hex. If 
you inspect the table, you can recognize 
the command lines except for the first 
letter of each. In the table, 80 hex (128 
decimal) is added to the ASCII code of 
the first letter of each command. This 
flags the beginning of each command. 



To locate the ASCII key word identi- 
fied by the specific token, subtract 128 
from the token (by zeroing bit 7) and 
use the remainder to count through the 
table. This is how Doculist reaches the 
beginning of the key word. The pro- 
gram then stores the first letter of the 
key word (after reconverting it to an 
ASCII character), and continues lo read 
and store ASCII characters until it 
reaches the beginning of the next key 
word. 

Two Basic tokens— 90 hex and 92 
hex — require special treatment. When 
you specify Else in your program, Basic 
stores a colon (3A hex) and then the 
Else token (92 hex). Basic lets you 
precede Else with a colon manually, 
also. In this instance, Basic stores 3A 
3A 92, which causes Doculist to print a 
blank line (colon only) and start the 
following line with lElse. To avoid this, 
Doculist checks for two colons before a 
92 hex and, if found, deletes one. 

The other token that requires spwcial 
treatment is a remark statement 90 hex. 
For all who thought using an apostro- 
phe (') in lieu of a remark statement 
saved space, here's the real story. When 
you cite a remark statement, Basic 
stores a 90 hex. When you cite an apos- 
trophe, Basic stores 3A 90 FF, using 
three times the storage space. So, Docu- 
list checks the next b>te after a 90 hex to 
see if it is FF. If it is, the program checks 

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188 • 80 Micro. Novemtjer 1983 



CoHiauied from p. m 

the byte before 90 hex for a colon. If 
found, it deletes the 3A but saves the 
apostrophe. 

Doculist places a space befcHe and 
after each key word if they're not there 
already. It begins a new line any time it 
encounters a colon in the Basic code, 
unfess the colon is within quotes or is 
part of a remark statement. The pro- 
gram right-justifies the program line 
numbers, making them easier to read. 
The printout also includes the printout 
date in a heading. When invoked, the 
program alerts you to its existence by 
printing DOCULIST— Press "Fl" to 
Halt Listing on the screen. If you press 
the Fl key, the listing stops and the mes- 
sage CONTlNUE?(Y/>f)... appears. 
Pressing Y lets the listing continue, and 
pressing N returns you to the Basic 
command mode (Ready). If the printer 
isn't available, the message reads Printer 
Not Available. CONTINUE?(Y/N). . -. 
To abort the program, press the N key, 
or prepare the printer and press the Y 



key. The program benefits arc evident 
when you compare a normal listing 
(Fig. 1) with a Doculist listing (Fig. 2). 

TlwDociilsl Prog^wn 

The Docubsl Assembly listing (see 
Program Listing) contains several key 
[loints to discuss. Lines 3(X)-380 print 
the titk: residing at F42E-F45E hex. The 
large blank area in the title serves as a 
storage area for the Date information. 
Lines 260-290 get this date information 
from TRSDOS supervisor caU (SVQ 45 
and store it in the blank title area. Space 
is aDocated to store the 26-byte ASCII 
string of dale information. However, 
Doculist only uses the first 12 bytes of 
that string. Because of this, the program 
prints only 5 1 characters where 75 char- 
acters are aUotted. 

The actual decoding and listing pro- 
cess begins at START2 (line 390). A 
complete line is decoded and stored in 
the buffer. When the program encoun- 
ters a line end (zero byte), execution 
jumps to LINEND (line 1130), which in 
turn calls PRINT 1. After the program 



B I tl A R r 



COSVERSIO N*:PfiI 



H CLS;CLEAfl 2«B: PBINTTABl 161 ; '8 B I T 

KTSTRINGS(79,1S») 

29 PBIHTCHRSd) jTAB[2l)-Enter Nu»t>«l ( •-2SS1 . . ." jC«I<S(Z3) ; :PFIirr»(RClKlil ,43) , I 

]| INPUT K:ir Ali OR A) 2SS THEN 2BELSE HU-A 

41 paiIiTCHRS(2J ( "Turns off cutiot 

SB FOB 1-7 TO BSTEP-1 

61 D"AI«X)2I;A(I]"l»(At-Dl :A=S: "Det^tBine it Binary Bit 1 is 1 or • 

71 MEXTjIF B0W|fl)>18 THEN PBINTP12,B), CSBS ( 24) ,- : PHI»T?( 4 ,«) , ; ELSEPRIDTiBEIll Whe 

n at end oC screen, erase and start at top. 

88 PHINT#[BOW(l)-2,B) ,CHRS(23) f'DEClMAL NUMBER :" ;NU ;TAB( 12) ; ■BINARY BIT I* 
9B PBI(mAB{2fl) ; :FOH 1-7 TO 8 STEP-1 1 PRINTUSINC"! I»l " ( I ; : NEXT: PFINT 

1B8 PRINTTAB1J8) ,-STBlr4GS(35,451 

lia PRINTTAHI 2B1 I !FOH 1-7 TO 8STEP-I i PHINTUSIHG" 11 II " ; A ( I 1 ; i HEXT 

12B PHIHT;PHI(JTSTRINGS(79,461 :GOT0 2B 

Figure I. A compressed Basic listing, written without using spaces for ckrity. 



IB CLS 

iCLEAK 2Be 

: PRINT TAB! 16); "8 BIT BINARY CONVERSION" 

:PRINT STRINGS n9,lBBl 
2e PRINT CHRS (111 TAB! JBl'Enter Niitnber IB-25S1,.."; CHRS (23)t 

;PRINT »{ BOW (B| ,43) .t 
3B INPUT A 

!IF A<fl OR AV2B5 THEN 29 

:ELSE NU ^ A 
40 PRINT CHRS (2); ' Turns off curaor 
SB KOfi I ■= 7 TO e STEP - 1 
(B D - A nOD 21 1 

;A{ U ■ 1 • (A < ' D) 

lA - D 

:* Determne if Binary Bit I ie 1 or ■ 
78 NEXT 

:IF RCM IB) -> 18 THEN PRINT 9(2,0), CHRS |34)t 

:PRINT »(4,B) .1 

jELSE PaiNT 

:REM : When at end at screen, erase and start at top. 
SB PRINT a( Rc« 101 - 2,0), CHRS ( 231 ; 'DECIMAL NUMBER:";mj; TAB ( 32) 

[•BINARY BIT »" 
90 PRINT TAE{ 20) ; 

iFOR I • 7 TO fl STEP - 1 

iPRIKT USING "•»II";I: 

:NEXT 

: PRINT 
IBfl PRINT TAB! 2B) ; STRINGS 13&,4SJ 
Ue PRINT TAa( 2B) ; 

:FQH I * 7 TO B STEP - 1 

:PRINT USING *ltil*;AtI)t 

: NEXT 
120 PRINT 

iPHlNT STRINGS (79,46) 

iGOTO 2B 

Flptre 2. The same listing as in Ftg. I after the Doculist program his inserted spaces. 




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BO Micro, November 1983 • 189 



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TRS-80 Model II DEBUG Piogtan 

8200 21 2D P4 «6 33 flE BD 3E 09 CF ED 73 00 F7 31 00 !-. .3. . >. . .s. .1. 

8210 P7 DD 21 2A F4 AF DD 77 00 DO 77 01 FD 2A 4P 2B .. I*. . .w. .w. .'O* 

8220 PD 22 28 F4 21 86 P4 06 00 3E 2D CF 21 60 P4 06 .'< . I . . . .>-. I ' . . 

8230 32 0E 0D 3E 13 CF C4 16 P4 41 3E 12 CP FD 2A 28 2..> A>...*< 

8240 F4 DD 21 C7 F4 FD 4E 00 PD 23 PD 46 00 PD 23 78 . . I . . .N. . t .P. .*i 

825B el CA 21 P4 ED 43 20 F4 FD 5E 00 PD 23 FD 56 00 . . I . .C{ . .*. .I.V. 

6260 FD 23 DD ES El 06 00 3E IS CP 06 05 DD 23 10 FC .• > *.. 

8270 3E 20 DD 77 00 DD 23 PD 7E 00 PD 23 CB TP 20 08 > .W..I....I.. . 

PC SP SZHPHC AP BC DE HL IX lY AP' BC' DE' HL* 

2800 2IPE 000000 0000 0A00 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 
? P 

DEBUG is now ON 
TRSDOS READY 
DEBIiG 

Figure 3. This is iheftrsi section of code to enter (m DEBUG ON) ffyou don 't have an editor/ 
assembler. 



TRS-e0 Model 11 DEBUG Pcoi^ran 

8280 B7 28 S4 CD E0 F2 18 EF PE 92 20 11 PD 7E PD PE .<T 

8290 3A 20 02 DD 2B PD 7E PP CD F6 F2 18 DA PD 7E FF : ..♦ 

S2A0 FE 90 20 Fl FD 7E 00 FE PF 28 08 PD 7E FP CD F6 ( 

62B0 F2 18 II PD 23 PD 7E PD FE 3A 20 02 DD 2B PD 7E : ..*.. 

e2C0 PP CD P6 F2 DD 36 00 FP DD 23 FD 7E 00 PD 23 B7 6...t....l. 

6200 28 05 CD E0 P2 18 F3 DD 77 00 CD 3C F3 C3 30 P2 ( «*..<„=. 

82C0 FE 09 28 06 00 77 00 DD 23 C9 06 07 3E 20 DD 77 . . ( . .w. . I. . . > .w 

e2F0 00 DD 23 10 P9 C9 PS DD 7E FF PE 20 26 0B FE 3A ..I (..: 

PC SP SIHPNC AF BC DE HL IX IV AF' BC* DE' HL' 

2800 21PE 000000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 OOOO 
7 P 

DEBUG is now ON 
TRSDOS READY 
DEBUG 

Figure 4. The second section of code to enter if you don 'I have an editor/assembler. 



TRS-80 


Model 11 DEBUG Progcan 




8300 


28 07 3E 20 DD 77 00 DD 


23 PI 


8310 


28 7E CB 7P 23 26 PA 10 


P8 2B 


8320 


23 23 7E CB 7P 20 07 DO 


77 00 


8330 


00 FE 20 Ce 3E 20 DD 77. 


00 DD 


8340 


CD Dfi P3 DD 4E: 90 DD 23 


79 PE 


6350 


B0 P3 18 EF DD 4E 00 DO 


23 79 


6360 


P4 2P 32 2A P4 3A 2A F4 


D7 79 


8370 


32 2B F4 DD 4E 00 DD 23 


3A 2B 


PC 


SP SZHPNC AP BC DE 


HL 


2800 
7 P 
DEBUG 


21PE 000000 0000 0"0O 0000 0000 


is now ON 




TRSDOS 


READY 




DEBUG 







E6 7F 47 04 21 53 (.> .W..I...G.IS 

E6 7F DD 77 00 DD I .. .K ...... .w. . 

DD 23 18 P3 PD 7E •• w..» 

23 C9 DO 21 C7 F4 .. .> .w. .•..!.. 

30 20 00 0E 20 CD ....N..IV.B .. . 

FE 22 20 07 3A 2A N..ly." .:' 

20 19 FE FF 20 08 ./2'.:*..y ... . 

F4 FE 00 20 05 79 2*. .N. . I s ♦. . . .y 

IX lY AP' BC* DE' HL* 

0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 



Figure 5. The third section of code to enter if you don 't have an editor/assembler. 



finishes printing, execution returns to 
START2. This procedure continues un- 
til the next line address is 00 00, in- 
dicating the end of the program. Execu- 
tion then jumps to QUIT, which simply 
restores the Basic stack pointer and 
jumps to the BASIC READY prompt. 

During the decoding process, if the 
program finds a remark token (90 hex), 
it stores a OFF hex in the buffer prior to 
the remark. The PRINTI routine uses 
this to indkate that the subsequent code 
is part of a remark, and the program 
should disregard the cok>ns. 

PRINTI requires further explana- 
tion. When called, the first 5 bytes in the 
buffer represent the line number in 
ASCII format. Lines 1690-1760 begin 
testing these bytes for ASCII 0, re- 
placing these leading zeros with spaces. 
When the program locates the first non- 
zero number, it exits this routine. 

Now lines 1770-2200 take over. This 



routine requires two tests. First, if the 
program encounters quotes, it sets a 
flag. Untfl the flag is reset with a second 
set of quotes, the program prints all 
subsequent characters without further 
testing. Second, if the program finds a 
remark flag (OFF hex) in the buffer, it 
stores it in the remark statement. The 
program then disregards colons as line 
delimiters. 

PRINTI calk PRINT2. It keeps 
track of the number of characters 
printed prior to the last carriage return. 
Line 2290 sets the limit at 72 characters, 
including the line number but excluding 
the left margin indentation. Print com- 
mands at lines 2600-2650 produce the 
printout. If the program cannot execute 
a Print command, it calls the Fault sub- 
routine which prints the Printer Not 
Ready message through the STOPPR 
(Stop Print) routine. 

This subroutine also reads a one- 



190 • SO Micro. November 1983 



TBS-ee Model II DEBUG Prr.gtjia 

8380 FE 3A 28 16 79 B7 20 flD 

B39a SD CD B0 F3 C9 CD B0 F3 

H3A0 3t 07 32 2C F4 JE 011 CD 

83BB 41 78 FE 0D 28 ID 3A 2C 

B3C0 16 06 0D CD F4 F3 3E 07 

B3D0 41 18 04 AF 32 2C F4 CD 

83E0 CV 16 FE 01 CC FD F3 3E 

)i3F0 3D 20 FA C9 F5 3E 12 CF 

l-C SP SZHPNC AF BC [ 



AF 32 2D F4 32 2A F4 

18 BA C5 0E 0D CD B0 

DD F3 CI CD B0 F3 18 

F4 3C 32 2C F4 FE 48 

32 2C r4 3E 0B CD DD 

F4 F3 C9 3E 05 F5 3E 

01 CF Fl 06 20 CD F4 

C4 16 F4 Fl C9 21 [15 
HL IX lY AF' 



2B00 21t'E 000000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 



0E .:'..■/. ..2*. 2'.. 

F3 

A4 ^,2, .' 

20 Ax. . [ . : , .<2, . .H 

F3 >.2,.> 

04 A, , .2, >..>, 

F3 .K > 

F4 = . . .> I . , 

BC DE' HL' 
0000 0000 



DEBUG 

thsdol; 

DFIUIC 



IS now ON 
HEADY 



Figure 6. The fourth section of code to enter if you don't have an editor/assembler. 



Tps-a0 


Model II DEBUG Proqtau 










340D 


06 12 0E 01 


22 Al F4 3i; 


0C CF 


lA CB AF FE 4C 


28 




8410 


10 FE 59 20 


se C9 CS 21 


A 2 F4 


36 25 CD 32 F4 


CI 


. . V ,,,!.,, 1 ... . 


8420 


C9 ED 7B 00 


t6 C3 00 28 


00 00 


00 00 00 16 44 


20 


. , ■ ( D 


8430 


4r 20 43 20 


55 20 4C 20 


49 20 


53 20 54 20 20 


2D 


OCULIST - 


b440 


2D 2D 20 20 


50 72 65 73 


73 20 


22 46 31 22 20 


74 


— Piess 'Fl' t 


Ii4'i0 


6F 20 4 8 41 


4C S4 2 6C 


69 73 


74 69 6£ 6"? 2E 


0D 


o HALT 1 1st ina , , 


8460 


09 09 23 20 


20 20 44 4F 


43 55 


4D 45 4E 54 41 


54 


DOCUKENTAT 


ri4~fl 


49 4F 4E 20 


50 52 4F 4:- 


= 2 41 


4D 20 4C 49 53 


54 


ION PROGRAM LIST 


PC 


SP SJHPNC 


AF BC DE 


HL 


IX lY AF' 


BC' 


DE' HL' 


260!) 
? F 
DEBUG 


21FE 000300 


3300 3000 030 


0000 


0000 eoec 0000 


SViCi 


C00^ 0000 


i:; now ON 












THSDOS 


READY 












DEBUG 














Figure 7. The fifth 


section of code 


to enter if you don 'l have 


an editor/assembler. 



TRS-B0 


Model II DEBUG Program 










84^0 


49 4E 47(20 


2D 20 20 


20 


20 20 


20 20 20 


20 20 


2 ING - 


3490 


20 20 20 20 


20 20 20 


20 


20 20 


20 20 20 


20 20 


20 


e4A0 


20 00 50 72 


69 6E 7 4 


65 


72 20 


4E 6F 74 


20 52 


65 .Printer Not Re 


U4B0 


61 64 79 2E 


20 43 4F 


4E 


54 49 


4E 55 45 


2 3F 


28 aily. CONTINUE ?( 


e4C0 


59 2F 4E 29 


2E 2E 2E 


00 


FF 00 


FF 00 FF 


00 FF 




a4D0 
84E0 
84F0 
PC 


FF BC FF 00 

FF FF 

FF 00 FF 00 

SP SZHPNC 


FF FF 

FF 00 FF 

FF 00 FF 

AF BC 


00 
00 
00 
DE 


FF 00 
FF 00 
FF 00 

HL 


FF 00 FF 

FF 00 FF 

FF 00 FF 

IX lY 


08 FF 

00 FF 

00 FF 

AF' 


00 






BC' DE' HL' 


2BB0 
? P 
DEBUG 


21FE 000000 


0000 0000 0000 0000 


0000 0000 0000 


0000 0000 0000 


15 now OS 














TRSDOS 


READY 














DEBUG 
















Figures. The sixth 


section of code to enter if you don 


'[ have 


an editor/ assembler. 



character keyboard input. If it is not Y, 
y, N, or n, it goes back and waits for 
another keystroke. If you hit the N or n 
keys, execution jumps to Quit (lines 
2870-2880). Otherwise, execution re- 
turns to Print from STOPPR through 
Fault. 

Indent sets the left margin for the 
printout. Each time INDl is executed, 
the program scans the keyboard. If you 
press the Fl key (01 hex), execution 
jumps to Stop. There, the program 
prints the portion of the STOPl mes- 
sage (starting a: F4B5 hex) that slates 
CONTIIVUE ?(Y/N).... As with the 
STOPPR routine, a Y or N response ei- 
ther returns execution to the point 
called from or ends the program via 
Quit. 

Creating Docufist 

An obvious way to create the Docu- 
list program is with an editor/assem- 



bler. If you don't have one, you can 
create Doculisi using the TRSDOS 
Debug facility. At the TRSDOS Ready 
prompt, type DEBUG ON and then 
type DEBUG. The normal Debug 
screen presentation (as shown in the 
TRSDOS 2.0 reference manual) ap- 
pears. Type M8200 and then press the 
Fl key. At this point, enter the code 
shown in Fig. 3. When you enter all 128 
bytes, the cursor returns to the first byte 
on the 8^)0 line. Press F2 to save this 
code in memory. Note that Fig. 4 starts 
at address 8280, so type M8280 and 
then press the Fl key. Enter these 128 
bytes, type F2 and then continue this 
process for Figs. 5-8 until you've 
Call the RAM command by pressing 
the M key, and double-check all entries 
for accuracy. You may wonder why the 
listing begins at 0F2(X) hex, though you 
enter the code through Debug at 8200 
hex. Since Debug does not allow you to 



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• Ten 40 minute lessons on auOio 
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• A driver program lo make your TRS-80' 
video monitor serve as a blackboard lor 

the instructor 

• A display program lor eacn lesson lo 
provide illustration and remtorcemenl tor 
what you are hearing 

• Slep-by-step dissection of complete and 
useful routines to test memory and to 
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• How to access and use powerful routines 
in your Level II or Model III Basic ROM 

AVAILABLE FOR MODEL 1 & 3 

REMASSEM it.p.i $74.95 

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Your disk system and you can really step 
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assembly language, intended for the student 
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COURSE INCLUDES 

• Two 45-minute lessons on audio cassette 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80- 
video monitor serve as a blackboard for 
the instructor. 

■ A display program for each lesson lo 
provide illustration and reinforcement for 
what you are hearing, 

• A booklet of comprehensive, fully 
commented program listings illustrating 
sequential file I/O random-access file 
I/O and track and sector I/O, 

• A diskette with machine readable source 
codes tor all programs discussed in both 
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• Routines to convert from one assembler 
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[)«jMr inqtflrias Itivittd 

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'RS-80' S A TRADEMARK OF 'ANDV COPP 




^ Micro, November 1983 • 191 







Program Listing. The 


Assembiy-language Doculist program. 






00010 


11HH...H. ..,♦.,,,,,., 


• ^••((••(•••••lllll.*.!!,..! 






00Q20 


■ 


DOC 


J L I S T • 






00030 
00040 












' SOURCE'DOCULIST/ASM 


OBJECT-DOCULIST/CMD • 






00050 




1982 J.J. BABBARELLO * 






00060 


• ABSTRACT: This prograr creates BASIC listing:; • | 






00070 


• in 


a form suiutable £ 


Dr easy inspection and * 






Q00B0 


* undecstandinq , It is 


3 Model II version of the * 






00090 


* Model I progiran- by riorris Jones which appeared ' | 






00100 


* in 


the Nov. 1931 issjc of 80 Microco^r.putirig . ' | 






00110 


'■ '• 


••••.*•..•••»...•» 


■•^'••••••••••(•••■■>...ii. 


F20O 




00120 ORG 


0F200H 




F200 


212DF4 


00130 LD 


HL, INTRO 


POINT TO 5CPEEN MSG 


F203 


0633 


00140 LD 


B.'Jl 


51 CHAR LONG 


F205 


DC0D 


00150 LD 


C,0DH 


PLUS EXTRA CPLF 


F2fl7 


3E09 


00160 LD 


A, 9 


PRINT IT USING SVC 9 


F209 


CF 


0017 K^T 


8 




F20A 


ED7300F7 


00180 LD 


(OF7O0H1 ,SP 


SAVE STACK POINTER 


F20E 


3180F7 


00190 LD 


SP,0F700ii 


NEW STACK 


F211 


DD212AFil 


200 LD 


IX, QUOTES 


START OF VARIABLE STORAGE 


F21S 


AF 


00210 XOR 


A 


A = 


F216 


DD770D 


2 2 LD 


llXtOl ,A 


QUOTES=0 


F219 


DD7701 


00230 LD 


(IX + 1) ,A 


CHARS=0 


F21C 


FD2A4F2B 


00240 LD 


lY, (2B4FHi 


2B4FH HOLDS START ADDR 


F220 


FD222BF4 


00250 LD 


(NXTLIN) ,IY 


GET NEXT LINE'S ADDR 


F224 


2:e6F4 


00260 LD 


HL,TITLE+3e 


BUFFER AREA FOR DATE 


F227 


0600 


00270 LD 


B,0 


INFO. 


F229 


3E2D 


0O2BO LD 


A, 45 


TRSDOS SERVICF i 45 


F22B 


CF 


00290 RST 


8 


(GET DATE INFO) . 


r22C 


2160F4 


00300 TITLEl LD 


l!L, TITLE 


BUFFER AREA FOR FULL 


F22F 


0632 


00310 LD 


D,50 


TITLE (50 BYTES) . 


F231 


0E0D 


00320 LD 


C,0DH 


ADD ON A C/R AND SEND 


F233 


3E13 


00330 LD 


A, 19 


TO PRINTER VIA SVC 19. 


F235 


CF 


00340 RST 


a 


DO IT! 


F236 


C4I6F4 


00350 CALL 


NZ, FAULT 


IF UNABLE, GOTO FAULT 


F239 


41 


360 LD 


B,C 


SEND ANOTHER C/R TO THE 


F23A 


3E12 


0037tl LD 


A, 18 


PRINTER VIA SVC 18 TO 


F23C 


CF 


00380 RST 


8 


SKIP A LINE. 


F23D 


F02A2BF4 


00390 START2 LD 


lY, (NXTLIN) 


NEXT LINE ADDR INTO lY 


F241 


DD21C7F4 


00400 LD 


IX, BUFF 


DEFINE START OF BUFFER 


F24!i 


FD4E00 


00410 LD 


C, ( IY*01 


LSB OF NEXT LINE ADDR 


F248 


FD23 


00420 INC 


IV 




F24A 


FD4600 


0043 LD 


B,(IY+01 


MSB OF NEXT LINE ADDR 












Luring connnued 



access the memory area above 0F3FF 
hex, you must enter the code at an ac- 
cessible memory area, and then relocate 
the code as you dump it to disk. At this 
point, press the escape key and then O 
to turn Debug off. Finally, type the 
following: 

DUMP !XX:ULIST/CMD START = 8200, 
END = 84C6.RELO = F200 

and press the enter key. When 
TRSDOS READY returns, you have a 
stored program called Doculist/CMD. 

Using Doculist 

To use Doculist, you must load it into 
memory, defme its starting address, and 
then call it with the USR command. At 
TRSDOS READY, type LOAD DOC- 
ULIST/CMD and press the enter key. 
This loads the program from disk to 
memory. In Basic, you accomplish this 
by typing SYSTEM"LOAD DOCU- 
LIST/CMD" and hitting the enter key. 
You don't need to reload the program 
as long as the Model II remains 
powered unless you use another ma- 
chine-language program that resides in 
memory area F200-F4C6 hex. 

To defme its starting address, you 

Conlaaied on p. 196 



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5m our olh«r ads on pagct 69 4 27. 



i92 • 80 Micro. November 1983 




LAST NIGHT, 39 MUSICIANS HAD A 

CompuServe conference, So did 31 M.D.S, 
49 Sports Fans And 640 Apple polishers, 

AND No ONE Had TO LEAVE HOME. 



The Electronic Forum, 
Cheaper than Long Distance 
and Much More Rewarding. 

Every night on the CompuServe 
Information Service, professional 
and social groups discuss a wide 
range of subjects. From what's new 
in medical technology to what's 
nouvelle in continental cuisine. 

And every day more computer 
owners who share a common 
interest are discovering this exciting 
new way to exchange ideas and 
even transfer hard copy data. 



^ Sw Ust of AOwtlava on Page 307 



And besides electronic forums, 
they leave messages for each other 
on our national bulletin board, 
"talk" informally on our CB simulator, 
and communicate via CompuServe's 
electronic mail. 

But best of all, in most cases, 
CompuServe subscrit>ers get all of 
these state of the art communications 
options, plus a w/orld of on-line 
information and entertainment for 
the cost of a local phone call plus 
connect time. 

To become part of this flexible 
communications network, all you 



need is a computer, a modem and 
CompuServe. CompuServe connects 
with almost any personal computer, 
terminal, or communicating word 
processor. 

To receive an illustrated 
guide to CompuServe and learn how 
you can subscribe, contact or call: 



CompuServe 

Consumer IntormaliO'i Service PO BO" 20213 
5000 Ariinqlon Centre Bivd Colurvtbus OH 43?20 

800-848-8199 

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An H&H B'ocK Con^wv 

80 Micro, November 1983 • 193 










'2]^ ^!S^-^ 







'!5I i6]- CO 'feo /7, 



Stretch the Twelve Days of 



Give a gift subscription to 80 Micro today 
and relax . . , you can't find a better gift for ac- 
tive computerists. Every issue gathers to- 
gether the latest programs and projects for 
Radio Shack's personal computers, business 
computers, and portables. Your favorite com- 
puterist will be busy year round with: 

Powerful Utilities— save time and effort 
and do more computing than ever before. Re- 
cent issues have included ways to improve 
Electric Pencil*, a program-to-program data 
transfer, and a cassette operating system. 

Progranuning Techniques— learn how to 

program and spend less on software. Pick up a 
second language for special applications. Get 
faster results with machine -language sub- 
routines. . .the monthly column "The Next 
Step" shows how. 

Hl-res Graphics— make better business 
presentations with fancy printouts. Illustrate 
games with eye-catching details. Create unique 
3-D art. It's all possible with articles on ad- 
vanced graphics techniques. 

Business Applications— increase office ef- 
ficiency. Learn the business models' different 
capabilities. And keep abreast of develop- 
ments for the Model 100* with reviews, appli- 
cations, and utilities in "C'Notes." 



Exciting Games — enjoy arcade games, ad- 
venture games, and simulations. Use the pro- 
gram listings to add features to other games. 
Or record high scores in "The Gainer's Cafe." 

Two-way Communication— get defmitive 
answers to technical questions in "Feedback 
Loop." Respond to articles, editorials, and 
news with "Input." Or submit an article for 
publication. 80 Micro is a forum for ideas, not 
a one-way street. 

"News" & "Remarks"- discover the latest 
industry trends and how they'll affect con- 
sumers. Leam about new services or novel ap- 
plications. And get the inside story with pub- 
lisher Wayne Green's outspoken editorials. 

Home and Hobby— break the ice at a party 
with a singing computer. Or make electronics 
projects easier with a circuit-board scanner. 
Whatever the subject, there's always some- 
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Buyer's Guides — comparison-shop from 
home and save hundreds of dollars. Get all the 
facts on graphics software, printers, utilities, 
disk drives & disks, and more. 

Candid Reviews— use "Reviews " and "Re- 
view Digest" to find out a product's strengths 
and weaknesses before it leaves the store. 




micro 



in* m«gaztrM for TfiS-80' usars 



yc •;>-.. 
















vb?;^,)>^ ^ 





a 






ir 




Christinas into Twelve Months 



Know al! about the latest releeises with "New 
Products." Now every purchase can be a 
sound investment. 

Hardware Projects— get quality equip- 
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Model II* capacitance meter. Diagnose acous- 
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ize any system to meet specific needs. 

In-depth Series— become a local expert in 
any field. Leam computer cryptology. or how 
to use data files. Give the Model I/III* color 
capability. Discover APL. Assembly, Lisp . . . 
and more. 

Give a gift subscription to 80 Bilcro today 
and relax. Why hassle with holiday crowds 
and pushy salesmen when you can avoid the 
last-minute rush? Christmas shopping has 
never been easier. 

Just fill out the coupon or the attached card 
and return it now to 80 Micro Subscription 
Department. P.O. Box 981, Farmingdale NY 
1 1737. A full-year subscription is only $35.97. 
That's a savings of 27% ofi" the newsstand 
price. . and convenient home delivery is 
FREE. 

Give SO Micro. Your favorite compulerlst 
will thank you again and again and again. 



• Eletlrir Pencii (s a registered trademark of Michael Stirayer. 

• TRS-80. ModeMOO. Model U. and Model t/UI are registered 
iradetnarks of Radio Shaik. a dii'ision of Tandy Corp. 



Dear Santa, 1 want to give a year's subscription to 
80 MICRO for the Holidays (12 issues for $24.97). 



D Check enclosed 
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D AE □ BILL ME 



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Please enter a one year gift subscription to: 
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Ail gifi subsrrlpilons begin with January 1984 issue 



micro 



PC Box 981 
Farmingdale. NT 11737 



MNM 




Laimg coniimtrd 












F34D P023 


00440 




ItK 


lY 




F24r 78 


80450 




LD 


A,B 


;TEST IF B-0 AND C-B 


F2S0 Bl 


BB46B 




OR 


C 


!IF SO, EMD OP PROGRAM 


F251 CA21F4 


BB470 




JP 


Z.OOIT 


; SO JUMP TO 'QUIT' . 


F254 F:D432SP4 


08488 




LD 


(NXTLIN) ,BC 


jELSE STORE THE ADDR . 


F2S8 FDSEBI 


00490 




LD 


E, [IY+0) 


;GET LSB OP PROGRAM 


F25B PD13 


00500 




INC 


lY 


; LINE NUMBER. 


F25Q FD560e 


00510 




LD 


D, (IY+0) 


;GET MSB OF PROGRAM 


F26I FD23 


80528 




IHC 


lY 


1 LINE NUMBER. 


F262 DDE5 


0053B 




PUSH 


IX 


I TRANSFER BUFFER ADDR 


P264 El 


00540 




POP 


HL 


; TO HL REGISTER. 


F2GS 06flB 


00550 




LD 


B,e 


;HEX — >ASCII DEC COKV 


F267 3E15 


00568 




LD 


A, 21 


! OP LINE NUMBER PER 


P269 CF 


00578 




RST 


S 


; SVC 21. 


F26A B6B5 


00580 




LD 


B,5 


;INC BUFFER POINTER TO 


F2GC DD23 


00590 


lf4C 


INC 


IX 


; BYTE PAST 5 DIGIT 


F26E IIPC 


0B600 




DJNZ 


INC 


; LINE NUMBER. THEN 


F270 3E20 


00610 




LD 


A,20H 


1 SAVE A SPACE [20H) 


F272 007700 


00620 




LD 


(IX + O) ,A 


1 AND POINT TO NEXT 


F275 DD23 


00630 




INC 


IX 


! FREE BUPPER BYTE. 


F277 FD7E0B 


00640 


A2 


LD 


A, [IY + 0) 


(GET NEXT CHAR 


P27A FD23 


00650 




I»C 


I¥ 


;INC CHAR POINTER. 


F27C CB7F 


0066B 




BIT 


7, A 


IBIT 7 SET? [TOKEN) 


F27E 200B 


BB67B 
08688 




JR 


NZ, TOKEN 


lYES. GOTO TOKEN 


F280 B7 


0B690 




OR 


A 


;N0. A-07 


F281 2B54 


BB7BB 




JR 


Z.LINEND 


lYES, END OF LINE. 


F2a3 CDEBF2 


BB71B 




CALL 


TAB 


iCHECK FOR TAB 


F28G 18EF 


00720 
00730 


( 


JR 


A2 


[AND RETURN FOR NEXT CHAR 


P2BB FE:92 


BB74B 


TOKEN 


CP 


92H 


]ELSE7 


P2BA 2011 


BB75B 




JR 


NZ, REM ARK 


;N0. MAYBE REMARK 


P28C PD7EPD 


0O76B 




LD 


A,(IY-3) 


jYES. CHECK FOR 


F28F FE3A 


0077B 




CP 


3AH 


1 ■::-? 


F291 2802 


00780 




JR 


NZ.NCOLON 


i»0. GOTO NCOLON {HO COLON) 


F293 DQ2B 


00790 
00800 




DEC 


IX 


lYES. DELETE ONE OF THEM 


F295 FD7EFF 


0BB1B 


[*COLON 


LD 


A,(IY-1) 


;GET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


F298 CDP6F2 


00820 




CALL 


SPOCK 


[DECODE TOKEN 


r29B ISOA 


00830 
00848 




JR 


A2 


;RETUBN FOR NEXT CHAR 


F29D FD7EPP 


00858 


REMARK 


LD 


A, tlY-l) 


jGET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


P2AB PE9B 


00860 




CP 


90H 


iHEM TOKEN? 


F2A2 2BP1 


00870 




JR 


NZ.NCOLON 


!N0. DECODE TOKEN 


F2A4 PD7E00 


00888 




LD 


A, [IY + 0) 


lYES. GET NEXT CHAR 


F2A7 FEFF 


80890 




CP 


0FFH 


I AND CHECK FOR '7 


F2A9 2BB8 


00900 




JR 


Z.APOS 


;YES. DECODE APOSTROPHE 


P2AB PD7EFF 


00910 




LD 


A, (IY-1) 


[NO. GET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


F2AE CDP6F2 


00920 




CALL 


SPOCK 


[DECODE TOKEN 


F2B1 1811 


00930 
00940 




JB 


HEMLIN 


; REMARK STATEMENT FOUND 


F2B3 FD23 


00950 


APOS 


INC 


lY 


;MAKE FF CURRENT CHAR. 


F2B5 PD7EPD 


00960 




LD 


A, IIY-31 


; AND CHECK FOR ■•.'7 


F2B8 FE3A 


00970 




CP 


3 AH 




F2BA 2BB2 


00980 




JH 


NZ, APOSl 


;N0. GO FORWARD 


F2BC DD2b 


00990 

01000 




DEC 


IX 


;YES. WASTE COLON 


F2BE FD7EFF 


01010 


APOSl 


LD 


A, IIY-11 


.■CURRENT CHAR 


F2C1 CDF6F2 


01020 
81030 




CALL 


SPOCK 


.■DECODE ' 


F2C4 DD36BBFr 


01040 


REMLIN 


LD 


[IX+fll ,8FFH 


.-SAVE FFH IN BUFFER AS A 


P2CB DD23 


01050 




INC 


IX 


; START OF 'REM ' FLAG. 


F2CA FD7Efl0 


01060 


REMl 


LD 


A, [lY + fl) 


jCURRENT CHAR 


F2CD FD23 


01070 




INC 


lY 


jPOIfJT TO NEXT CHAR 


F2CF B7 


0I0BB 




OH 


A 


!A-0? 


F2D0 2605 


01090 




JR 


Z.LINEND 


;YES. END OF LINE 


F2D2 CDE0F2 


eiieo 




CALL 


TAB 




F2D5 18F3 


01110 

01120 




JR 


rem: 


;W0. GET NEXT CHAR 


F2D7 DD7700 


01130 


LINEND 


LD 


[IX+0] ,A 


.■SAVE END OF LINE BYTE 


F2DA CD3CF3 


01140 




CALL 


PBINTl 




P2DD C33DF2 


01150 
01160 




JP 


START2 


jPROCESS NEXT LINE 


F2EB FE09 


01170 


TAB 


CP 


09H 


! IS CHAR A TAB I09H) 7 


F2E2 2BB6 


01180 




JP 


Z,TAB1 


lYES. GOTO TAB PHOCESSI>*C 


F2E4 DD77flB 


01190 




LD 


(IX + O) ,A 


SNO. STORE IN BUFFER 


F2E7 DD23 


01200 




ISC 


IX 


! INCREMENT BUFFER POINTER 


F2E9 C9 


B1210 




RET 




[RETURN FROM SUBROtJTINE 


F2EA 0607 


01220 


TABl 


LD 


B,7 


[CONVERT 09H INTO 8 SPACES 


F2EC 3E20 


01230 




LD 


A,20H 


[BY STORING EIGHT 20H BYTES 


f2EE DD77aO 


01240 


TAB 2 


LD 


IIX + 0) ,A 


[AND INCREMENTING BUFFER 


F2F1 DD23 


01250 




INC 


IX 


[EIGHT TIMES [7+1) . 


F2F3 ieF9 


01260 




DJNI 


TAB 2 


! IF BOO, CONTINUE 


F2F5 C9 


01279 
01280 


I 


RET 




[RETURN FROM SUBROUTINE 


F2F6 F5 


01290 


SPOCK 


PUSH 


AF 


iSAVE CURRENT CHAR 


F2F7 DD7EFF 


01300 




LD 


A, lIX-1) 


.-CHECK PREVOUS BYTE FOR 


F2FA rE2B 


01310 




CP 


20H 


; A SPACE l2aH) 


F2FC 2B0B 


01320 




JR 


Z.SPX 


;YES. GOTO SPl 


F2FE FE3a 


01330 




CP 


3 AH 


;HOW ABOUT A COLON? 


F300 2807 


01340 




JR 


Z.SPl 


[YES. GOTO SPl 


F3B2 3E2e 


01350 




LD 


A,20H 


[NOT ■ ■ OR : SO STORE A 


F3B4 DD77D0 


01360 




LD 


[IX+ai ,A 


[ SPACE PRIOR TO TOKEN 


F307 DD23 


01370 




INC 


iX 


[INCREMENT BUFF POINTER 


F309 Fl 


013BO 


SPl 


POP 


AF 


;GET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


F3aA E67F 


01390 




AND 


7FH 


[BIT 7-0. now CAN USE IT 


F3BC 47 


01400 




LD 


B,A 


; AS A POINTER IN TOKEN 


F3BD 04 


01410 




INC 


B 


TABLE AFTER ADDING 1. 


F3BE 215328 


01420 




LD 


HL,2B53H 


/TABLE STARTS AT 2B53H 


F311 7E 


01430 


SP2 


LD 


A, (HL) 


;GET BYTE FROM TABLE 


F312 CB7F 


01440 




BIT 


7, A 


[IS IT >80H [A TOKEN) ? 


F314 23 


01450 




iw: 


HL 


[POINT TO NEXT TABLE BYTE 


F31B 28FA 


01460 




JR 


Z,SP2 


: NO. GET NEXT TABLE ENTRY 


F317 IBFB 


01470 




DJNZ 


SP2 


[B-B-1, IF BO0, GOTO SP2 


P319 2B 


01480 




DEC 


HL 


[FOUND ITI 

Laling ctmfmued 



ContwntKi fnm p. 192 

can execute the command DEFUSR = 
&HF200 cither in the command mode 
or within a Basic program. You must 
redefine the entry point if you leave and 
return to Basic or if you redefine USRO 
when u^ng another machine-language 
program. 

To run the program, simply type 
X = USR(0). You can also include this 
command in a Basic [Hogram. When 
you execute X = USR(0), the screen 
clears and the title shown in line 2940 of 
the Listing appears. The first time you 
run the program, it accesses the disk to 
(^tain the date information. On further 
runs, disk access is not perfoniKd. 

If you press Fl, the Listing stops at 
the beginning of the next line and CON- 
TINUE ?(Y/N)... appears on the 
screen. The program accepts either an 



"7b use Doculisty 

you must 

load it into memory, 

define its starting address, 

and then call it 
with the USR command. " 



upper- or lowercase Y or N. If you enter 
an N, you'll immediately return to the 
READY prompt. A Y entry resumes 
printing. 

If printing is imable to resuriK, the 
screen message reads Printer N(X Ready. 
CONTINUE ?(Y/N).... Again, press- 
ing the N key returns you to the READY 
mode and a Y reinvokes the printing 
mode. This message continues until you 
can print again. When printing is done 
you return to the READY mode. 

As with normal listing to the printer, 
it is advisable to perform a Forms set 
prior to calling Doculist. This aUows 
proper pag^ of continuous form 
p^jer. 

One Modiflcatioa 

For those of you with 132-column 
printers, a change in line 22S0 is advis- 
able. Replace the '*72" (48 hex) with 
*'124*' (7C hex). This aUows a longer 
line to be pninted, but won't force a car- 
riage return by the printer. ■ 

Jim Barbarello can be reached at R.D. 
m, Box 24IH, Tennenl Road, English- 
town, NJ 07726. You can purchase 
Doculist on disk from him for $10. 



196 • dO Micro, November 1963 




s 



A Newsletter for Pocket Computer Fans! 



This is a Unely. conpact. easy reading 
publication that provides up to the ninute 
infornation of vital interest to people uho use 
pocket conputers -- and who Mant to know how to 
better capitalize on their capatiilities. Ue 
concentrate on the Sharp PC-1500 6 PC-1500A and 
Radio Shack PC-2 C PC-3 rwdels. But we also 
provide infornation about newconers to the field. 
Ue report prinarily on pocket and hand-held 
conputers that are capable of executing a high 
level language such as BASIC. Hany new nodels 
will be introduced in this year. 
Especially for Busy People 
This is a neusleiter. It is not a nagaiine. The 
naterlal we provide is condensed to 8 to 16 pages 
^i issue. This carefully selected infornation is 
presented in an easy to digest fornai that is 
ready assinilated by busy people. 
Product and Equipfient Reviews 
As new nodels and accessories becone available we 
publish forthright reviews as reported to us by 
actual users. Books, software packages and other 
kinds of supporting naterials also cone under our 
careful scrutiny. 

Inportant Operating Tips and Practical Advice 
Every nodel has its strengths and weaknesses, its 
ins and outs. Our p^Alication quickly conpiles 
critical infornation fron users and passes this 
on to you. Ue show you how to save keystrokes and 
naxinize perfornance. ue oftm uncover hidden 
features and are able to tell you about 
capabilities not discussed in the nanufacturer's 
literature. (Ue have, in particular, published a 
wealth of naterial about the actual nachine codes 
used in the PC-l500/PC-2i) 
Lots of Practical Program 
We publish all kinds of practical, useful 
prograns that eNwKe the use and enjoynent of 
your own personal unit. In past issues we have 
presented prograns that: convert nunbers fron one 
base to another, perforn linear regression 
analysis, plot aviation courses, solve for 
unknowns in triangulation problens, tally 
supernarket purchases, do polynonial arithnetic, 
display a calendar of any nonth over a ^00 year 
range, perforn linear Interpolation, calculate 
anortization. figure tab locations for corH>lex 
colunnar reports, perforn si»vle anination, dunp 
nenory, do curve fitting, renwiber all or part of 
a progran, and play a variety of anusing ganes. 
Ue are always on th« lookout for Uw highast 
quality prograns to bring to you. 
Delivered with a Sinple Ouarantae 
If, at any tine, you becone dlsatisfied with our 
publication, you nay sinply cancel your 
subscription and receive a refOnd for unnaiJed 
issues. 



v mmmmmmmm^fmmmimA 



'S 



i- 



Sft»«ift&B8SfSS»^fti 



Prcxiuct Reviews 

Programming Tips 

Timesavers 

Customizing 

Tutorials 

Short Cuts 

Technical Information 

Application Forums 



i 









AMsilable Only by Prepaid Subscription for a Calendar Year 
Period (January ~ Dacenber) . You are sent back issues for the 
calendar year to which you sUtscribe, at the tine you enroll . 

I w interested. Please send nore infornation, I have: 

_ a Sharp PC-1500 __ Radio Shack PC-2 

Enroll ne as a 1984 Subscriber (Issue nunbers 31-36) . 

$18.00inU.S. (U.S. $21.00 to Canada/Tlexico. Elsewhere 
U.S. $50.00 payable in U.S. funds against a U.S. bank.) 

Enroll ne as a 1983-84 Subscriber (Issue nunbers 21-36) . 

$S4.00inU.S. (U.S. $63.00 to Canada^exico. Elsewhere 
U.S. $80.00 payable in U.S. funds against a U.S. bank.) 

Enroll ne as a 1982-84 Subscriber (Issue nunbers 11-36) . 

$78.00 in U.S. (U.S. $95.00 to Canada/nexico. Elsewhere 
U.S. $120.00 payable inU.S. funds against a U.S. bv^.) 

_ Checkhereif paying by MasterCard or VISA. Please give 
credit card infornation below . 
Orders nust be acconpaniad by paynant in full. 



Nane: 
Addr: 
City: 



State: 



Zip; 



nC/VISA «: 
Signature: 



Exp. Date: 



/laiJ tAis order fortt u>: 
POCKET CflNPUTER NEWSLETTER 
P.O. BOK 252, SCVtMMt. CT 0MB5 .a 



.' So* Lisl ol Adyenisers on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 197 




CALC "HELPER" 

FOR THE TRS-80® MODa III 

• Enters most VisiCalc® 
commands with one keystroke. 

• Helps inexperienced users of 
VisiCalc learn quickly. 

• Helps experienced users work 
faster- 

• Does not alter program on disk 
or require knowledge of any 
passwords. 

• Uses only a few hundred bytes 
of VisiCalc® memory. 

$29.95 

MasterCard & Visa accepted 
Wisconsin residents add 5X sales tax 
Indicate DOS used and VisiCalc version 

The Business Software Team 
639 Brookridge Street 
Green Bay. Wl 54301 ^236 



POWER LINE 
PROBLEMS? 



SPK-SPIKER® ...TWSOUinON 

Protects, orgofiizes, controls cofnputers & 
sensitive electronic equipment. Helps prevent 
softwore "glitches", unexplained memory loss, 
and equipment domoge. Filter modds ottenuate 
conducted RF interference. 1 20V, 1 5 Amps. 
Ottier models ovailoble. Ask for free literoture. 

MLUXI POWER CONWU 

$79.95 

Tmtsitnt abMrlMr, duot S-stog* 
ni1«r. B individuoHy (witchtd 
lockctt, fuMd, main iwtlch, & liti. 

OUAD-II $59.95 

Irami«nt obMrtMr. Duol 3 itog* 
fiHir. 4H>cktls, litt. 

QUAD-I $49.95 

TronMnl abtortf, 4 sodMli. 

MINI-II $44.95 

IrgnsMnt obMrtar, 3 itogt fitMr, 
2Mdun 

MINI-I $34.95 

TrwMnt gb$«rt«r, 1 Mdtati. 




-485 



6584 Ruch M , D^)l 80 

BtttiWiwn. PA 18017 



315-137-0700 

Out of Slott Ordw Toll Ftm 

IM-521-9U5 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVino ■ CODi odd 13 00 + Ship 



Listing coniinueti 










F31A E67F 


01490 


AMD 


7FH 


jMAKE IT UPPER CASE ASCII 


F31C DD7700 


01500 


LD 


(IX + 0) ,A 


; AND STORE IN BUFFER 


F3iF DD23 


01510 


INC 


IX 


jCONTINUE STORING TABLE 


F321 23 


01520 SP3 


INC 


HL 


; ENTRIES UNTIL THE NEXT 


F322 7E 


01530 


LD 


A, (HL) 


: TOKEN IS ENCOUNTERED. 


F323 CB7F 


01540 


BIT 


7, A 


; THIS WILL STORE THE 


F325 2007 


01550 


JH 


NZ,SP4 


; ASCII CHARACTERS THAT 


F327 DD7700 


01560 


LD 


llXtO) ,A 


; SPELL OUT THE COMMAND 


F32A DD23 


01570 


INC 


IX 


;KEEP GOING UNTIL DONE 


F32C 18F3 


01580 


JR 


SP3 




F32E FD7E0fl 


01590 SP4 


LD 


A, [IY + 0) 


jIS NEXT PROGRAM CHAR A 


F331 FE20 


01600 


CP 


20H 


; SPACE (20H) ? 


F333 CB 


01610 


BET 


Z 


;YES. JOB DONE. RETURN 


F334 3E20 


01620 


LD 


A,20H 


;N0. SAVE A SPACE IN 


F336 DD7700 


01630 


LD 


[IX+0) ,A 


; THE BUFFER. INCREMENT 


F339 DD23 


01640 


INC 


IX 


! BUFFER POINTER, AND 


F33B C9 


01650 
01660 ; 


RET 




i THEN JOB DONE. RETURN. 


F33C DD21C7F4 01670 P8INT1 


LD 


IX.BOFF 


; POINT TO STABT OF BUFFER 


F340 CDDBF3 


01680 


CALL 


INDENT 


;SET LEFT MARGIN 


F343 DD4fc:00 


01690 All 


LD 


C, (IX+B) 


;GET FIRST CHAR IN BUFF 


F346 DD23 


01700 


INC 


IX 


; POINT TO NEXT 


F348 79 


01710 


LD 


A,C 


;IS CHAR STORED IN C 


F349 FE30 


01720 


CP 


30H 


. fi^ -0- 7 


F34B 200D 


01730 


JR 


NZ,A12 


;N0. GOTO A12 


F34D 0E20 


01740 


LD 


C,20H 


jYES. REPLACE WITH A 


F34F CDB0F3 


01750 


CALL 


PRJNT2 


! SPACE AND PRINT IT. 


F352 18EF 


01760 


JR 


All 


;G0 BACK FOR NEXT CHAR. 


F354 DD4E00 


01770 A6 


LD 


C, (IX + O) 


-GET FIRST CHAR 


F357 DD23 


01780 


INC 


IX 


; POINT TO NEXT ONE 


F359 79 


01790 


LD 


A,C 


■ TO TEST IT 


F35A FE22 


01800 A12 


CP 


22H 


- FOR QUOTES 


F35C 2007 


01810 


JR 


NZ,A5 


•NO. GO AHEAD 


F35E 3A2AF4 


01820 


UJ 


A, (QUOTES] 


YES, CHANGE 


F361 2F 


01830 


CPL 




THE FLAG 


F362 322AF4 


01S40 


LD 


(QUOTES) ,A 


AND STORE IT. 


F365 3A2AF4 


01850 A5 


LD 


A, (QUOTES) 


IF WE JUMPED HERE, NO 


F368 B7 


01860 


OR 


A 


QOUTES. 


F369 79 


01870 


LD 


A,C 


GET BACK CHAR. IF QUOTES 


F36A 2019 


01380 


JR 


NZ,A7 


FLAG, SKIP COLON TEST 


F36f FEFF 


01390 


CP 


0FFH 


IS IS A "REM" FLAG? 


F3SE 2008 


01900 


JR 


NZ,A1 


NO. JUMP TO Al 


F370 322BF4 


01910 


LD 


(REM) ,A 


YES. STORE FLAG IN (BEM) 


F373 DD4E00 


01920 


LD 


C, : IX+0] 


SKIP REM FLAG AND GET 


F376 DD23 


01930 


INC 


IX 


NEXT CHARACTER. 


F378 3A2BF4 


01940 Al 


LD 


A, (REM) 


IS CHAR PART OF REM LINE? 


F37B FE00 


01950 


CP 


0H 


(i.e. Not eqi;al to lero) 


F37D 2005 


01960 


JR 


NZ,A3 


YES. SKIP COLON TEST 


F37F 79 


01970 


LD 


A,C 


NO. GET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


F380 FE3A 


01980 


CP 


IhH 


CHECK FOR COLON 


F382 2816 


01990 


JB 


Z,A8 


YES. JUMP TO AB. 


F384 79 


02000 A3 


LD 


A,C 


GET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


F3B5 B7 


02010 A7 


OR 


A 


NO. IS A=0? 


F386 200D 


02020 


JR 


NZ,A10 


NO. JUMP TO A10(PBINT) 


F38B AF 


02030 


XOR 


A 


YES. A=0 CLEARS FLAG. 


F3B9 322BF4 


02040 


LD 


(BEM) ,A 


CLEAR REM LINE FLAG, SAVE 


F38C 322AF4 


02050 


LD 


(QUOTES) ,A 


QUOTES FLAG STATUS 


F38F 0E0D 


02060 


LD 


C,0DH 


AND SEND A CRLF 


F391 CDB0F3 


02070 


CALL 


PRINT2 


TO THE PRINT ROUTINE. 


F394 C9 


02080 


re:t 




RETURN 


F395 CDB0F3 


02090 A10 


CALL 


PRINT2 


PRINT THE CHAR IF '.>e 


F39B 18BA 


02100 


JR 


A6 


GET NEXT CHAR 


F39A C5 


02110 AB 


PUSH 


BC 


COLON FOUND, SO SAVE CHAR 


F39B 0E0D 


02120 


LD 


C,0DH 


AND PRINT A CRLF. 


F39D CDB0F3 


02130 


CALL 


PRINT2 


THEN SET LEFT MARGIN, 


F3A0 3E07 


02140 


LD 


A, 7 


7=5 (LINE 1) ♦ 1 (SPACE) 


F3A2 322CF4 


02150 


LD 


(CflABS) ,A 


+ 1 (CURRENT CHAR) 


F3A5 3E0B 


02150 


LD 


A, 11 


11=5 (MARGIN) + 6 (LINE 


F3A7 CDDDF3 


02170 


CALL 


INDl 


1 AND TRAILING SPACE) 


F3AA CI 


02180 


POP 


BC 


GET BACK CHAR (COLON) AND 


F3AB CDB0F3 


02190 


CALL 


PRINT2 


PRINT IT. 


F3AE 18A4 


02200 
02210 ; 
02220 PHINT2 


JR 


A6 


GO BACK FOR NEXT CHAR. 


F3B0 41 


LD 


B,C , 


PUT CHAR IN B. 


F3B1 7 8 


02230 


LD 


A,B 


AND ALSO IN A. 


F3B2 FE0D 


02240 


CP 


ODH 


IS IT A CB? 


F3B4 2elD 


02250 


JR 


Z,P1 


YES. GOTO PI 


F3B6 3A2CF4 


02260 


LD 


A, (CHARS) 


NO. GET CHAR COUNT. 


F3B9 3C 


02270 


INC 


A ; 


AND INCREMENT BY 1. 


f3BA 322CF4 


02280 


LD 


(CHARS) ,A : 


SAVE NEW CHAR COUNT. 


F3BD FE48 


02290 


CP 


72 ; 


FULL LINE YET? 


f3BF 2016 


023^0 


JB 


NZ,P2 ; 


NO. JUMP TO P2 


F3CI 050D 


02310 


LD 


B,0DH ; 


YES. SEND A CRLF TO 


F3C3 CDFi1F3 


02320 


CALL 


PRIt^T ; 


PRINT ROUTINE. 


F3C6 3E07 


02330 


LD 


A, 7 ; 


7=5 (LINE ») t 1 (SPACE) 


F3C8 322CF4 


02340 


LD 


(CHARS) ,A J 


+ 1 (CURRENT CHAR) 


F3CB 3E0B 


02350 


LD 


A , 1 1 


11=5 (MARGIN) + 6 (LINE 


F3CD CDDDF3 


02360 


CALL 


INDl ; 


» AND TRAILING SPACE) 


F3D0 41 


02370 


LD 


B,C ; 


GET BACK CURRENT CHAR 


F3d: 1804 


02360 


JR 


P2 ; 


AND PRINT IT. 


F3d3 AF 


02390 p: 


XOR 


A ; 


END OF LINE. SET CHARS 


F3D4 322CF4 


02400 


LD 


(CHARS) ,A ; 


COUNTER TO ZERO. 


F3D7 CDF4F3 


02410 P2 


CALL 


PRINT ; 


PRINT CHAR IN B 


F3DA C9 


02420 
243 ; 


RET 


; 


AND RETURN. 


F3DB 3E05 


02440 INDENT 


LD 


A, 5 


SET 5 SPACES FOR INDENT 


F3DD F5 


02450 INDl 


PUSH 


AF ; 


AND SAVE IT. 


F3DE 3E04 


02460 


LD 


A, 4 1 


PERFORM SVC 4 (CHECK 


F3E0 CF 


02470 


RST 


Q ; 


KEYBOARD FOR KEY 


F3E1 7 8 


02460 


LD 


A,B 


PRESSED (IF ANY) . 


F3t2 FE01 


02490 


CP 


01H ; 


WAS "Fl* PRESSED? 


F3E4 CCFDF3 


02500 


CALL 


2, STOP ; 


IF SO, GOSUB 'STOP' 


F3E7 3E01 


02510 1ND3 


LD 


A,l ; 


CLEAR KEYBOARD OF ALL 


F3E9 CF 


02520 


RST 


e ; 


PREVIOUS KEYSTROKES, 


F3EA Fl 


02530 


POP 


AF ; 


AND GET BACK A. 

Laimg conlinued 



1M " 80 Micro, November 1983 



LaMlg n-tMittd 












rjED o»2e 


02^40 




LD 


B,20H 


;DEFINE SPACE TO BE PRINTED 


F3ED C0F4F3 


025S0 


ItlD2 


CALL 


PRINT 


iPRlNT CHAR IN B 


FlfB 30 




02560 




DEC 


A 


lONE LESS TO PRINT 


F3P1 20FA 


02S7B 




JR 


NZ,IMD2 


tGOTO IND2 TILL DONE 


F3F3 C» 




025BB 
02590 


1 


RET 




} OTHERWISE, RETURN. 


F3r4 F5 




02600 


PRINT 


PUSH 


AF 


iSAVE CONTENTS OF A. . 


F3F5 3E12 


02610 




LD 


A, 18 


rSVC 18 tPRINTCHAR] 


F3F7 CF 




02620 




RST 


8 


;D0 IT NOW! 


FSFS C416P4 


02630 




CALL 


HZ, FAULT 


;IF UNABLE. GOSUB 'FAULT' 


F3FB n 




02640 




POP 


AF 


iGET BACK CONTENTS OF A. 


F3FC C9 




02650 
02660 




RET 




:JOB DONE. RETURN. 


J-3FD 21B5F4 


02670 


STOP 


LD 


KL,STOPl4'20 


;OEFINE CONTINUE NSC ONLY. 


Vieo 0612 


02680 




LD 


B,18 


;PRINT 18 CHAR HSC AND 


F4a2 0EO1 


02690 


STOPPR LD 


C,l 


f INPUT I CHAR FROM 


F404 I1A1F4 


02700 




LD 


DE, STOPl 


1 KEYBOARD VIA SVC 12. 


r407 3EBC 


02710 




LD 


A, 12 


J STORE CHAR AT STOPl. 


F40» CF 




02720 




RST 


8 


;D0 IT NOWl 


r4eA lA 




02730 




LD 


A,(DE) 


tGBT CHAR INPUTTED. 


F40B CBAF 


02740 




RES 


5, A 


fMAKE UPPER CASE IF HOT. 


F40D FE4e 


02750 




CP 


4 EH 


tIS IT "N"? 


F4BF 2810 


02760 




JR 


ZrQUlT 


tYES. JUMP TO QUIT. 


F411 FES9 


02770 




CP 


59H 


(NO. IS IT A "Y"? 


F413 20E8 


02780 




JR 


NZ.STOP 


; NO. TRY AGAIN. 


F415 C9 




02790 




RET 




; YES, SO RETURN 


F416 C3 




02600 


FAULT 


PUSH 


BC 


iSAVE BC IKFO. 


F417 21A2F4 


02S10 




LD 


HLrSTOPl*! 


;PRIKT 'PRINTER MOT READY' 


F4U 0625 


02B28 




LD 


B,37 


; MESSAGE, ETC USING 


F41C CO02P4 


03830 




CALL 


STOPPR 


t 'STOPPR' SUBROUTINE. 


F41F CI 




02840 




POP 


BC 


rCET BACK BC INFO 


F420 C9 




02tt58 
02060 




RET 




t AND RETURN. 


F421 rOTBOflPb 


02870 


QUIT 


UJ 


5P,(0F6OOH) 


t RESTORE STACK 


F425 C30028 


02880 




JP 


280 OH ;AND 


RETURN TO NODEL II BASIC 


F428 0000 


02890 


NXTLIN DGPW 







F42A 00 




02900 


QUOTES DEFB 







F42B 00 




02910 


REH 


DEPB 







F42C 00 




02920 


CHARS 


DEFB 







F42D IB 




02930 


INTRO 


DEPB 


IBH 




F42E 44 




02940 




DEFH 


'D C U L I 


5 T Press "Fl" to HALT list 


F42P 20 


4P 20 


43 20 


55 20 


4C 20 49 


20 53 20 54 20 


20 


F43F 20 


2D 2D 


20 20 


50 72 


65 73 73 


20 22 46 31 22 


20 


F44F 74 


6F 20 


48 41 


4C 54 


20 6C 69 


73 74 69 6E: 67 


2E 


F4SF 0D 




02950 




DEFB 


ODH 




F460 09 




02960 


TITLE 


DEFB 


09 




F4«l 09 




02970 




DEFB 


09 


iTWO TABS PRECEED MSC 


P462 20 




029 SO 




DEFH 


• DOCUHENTATIOK PROCRAH LISTING - 1 


F463 20 


20 20 


44 4F 


43 55 


4D 45 4E 


54 41 54 44 4F 


4E 


F473 20 


SB S2 


4F 47 


52 41 


4D 20 4C 


49 53 54 49 4E 


47 


P483 20 


2D 20 


20 20 


20 20 


20 20 20 


20 20 20 20 20 


20 


F493 20 


20 20 


20 20 


20 20 


20 20 20 


20 20 20 20 




F4A1 00 




02990 


STOPl 


DEFB 


OH 




F4A2 50 




03000 




DEPN 


'Pcinter Hot Ready. CONTINUE ?(Y/N)...' 1 


P4A3 72 


69 6E 


74 65 


72 20 


4E «F 74 


20 52 65 61 64 


79 


P4B3 2E 


20 43 


4F 4E 


54 49 


4E 55 45 


20 3F 28 59 2P 


4E 


P4C3 29 


2E 2E 


2E 










F4C7 




03010 


BUFF 


EOU 


$ 




F200 




03020 




END 


0F2OOH 




00000 TOTAL ERRORS 










Al 


P378 












AlO 


F395 












All 


F343 












A12 


F3SA 












A2 


P277 












A3 


F384 












AS 


F363 












A6 


F354 












A7 


F365 












A8 


F39A 




TAB2 


F2EE 






APOS 


P2B3 




TITLE 


F460 






APOSl 


F2BE 




TITLEl 


F22C 






wre 


F4C7 




TOKEN 


F288 






CHARS 


F42C 












FAULT 


P416 












INC 


P26C 












INDl 


P3DD 












1ND2 


P3ED 












IND3 


F3E7 












INDENT 


P3DB 












INTRO 


F42D 












LIHEND 


F207 












NCOLON 


F29S 












NXTLIN 


P42e 












PI 


F3D3 












P2 


F3D7 












PRINT 


F3F4 












PBISTl 


F33C 












PRIST2 


F3B0 












QUIT 


P421 












QUOTES 


P42A 












REH 


F42B 












REMl 


F2CA 












REHARK 


F290 












REMLIK 


P2C4 












SPl 


F309 












SP2 


r3ii 












SP3 


P321 












SP4 


F32E 












SPOCK 


F2Fe 












START2 


F23D 












STOP 


F3FD 












STOPl 


P4A1 












STOPPR 


F402 












TAB 


F2E0 












TABl 


F2EA 













TOOLKIT 

Sr*>»ii »••■*••• ft *(«00tM Attaaitn 

«.••■•«•• >» in* Model? •-« Moaei 3 

TOOLKIT t.>** f«» TOTAL ■£<•» ■« ALL o- 
<^* ••••» »•*» »'»v*'*>* '" **>" •-*>* *«ii "'*• 

9(CO0E'Ch*MCC'M(MOvC anr • • ■* >•*■-«'« 
0CCO0('ChAnC( •»* <■«(■•• «■&■ B*««>D>« 
CHftNCCaEMOvC anv iii* •■ai*«<iaA ■•<•> 
nCMOVI xniltd aaCKU^ •>•<■»»■• iMatfll 
at UOVl'AStlCN lT*l*n !•<• I'lxftHit* 
CMCalC •MfOtI* «><««tO<1 '•■••II 
CO»* «•'•(<«•■•(-••>•■'■>• 
SOni siKiieiy to «•<■ 
CHANCC a<tk ID* 

Oen* vtn • (up*i •••■ »*»■, ai->*" *•(> i» ■>(* 
Aac«-<i* ■«nfH*«« »>a4>aM TOOLKIT aa*t 
NOT ••«»■•• ani ■»«■ •'>a»i*09« B' 00» 



TOOLKIT .% 
■»«i •»• O'-** 



I170I *••« irtai 



Wii( >««r* (.Ilia (na *<r»>i ■■in Pt't ^, b^ia 
hatiin^ ** (.ar TOOLKIT a« n--- 

taa.aa' 

t*a<ifT MoaTiIOl a> m««jii>i •«».oh 
tt(w*Nt $or<w**C 

'«M >«l-«tl4 



*e ••• »'i 



■ las 11 )\ iK.vatitf 



MC visft anc 1 actvaiva 



MamDiii IM )*'0t 



SS WE WILL NOT BE SS 
UNDERSOLD 



EPSON 

RX80. MX60FTIII. MX100FTIII. 

FXeO. and-NEW FX100 
CALL-LOWEST PRICES IN USA 

PRINTERS 

Gemini 10X S329 

Gemini 15 $499 

Okidala82A. $419 

Okidata 92 $520 

8510 Prowrlter (P) $385 

8510 Prowriter (S> $569 

1550 (P) $679 

1550 {S) $759 

Brother HP 1 CALL 

Brother HR 1 5 CALL 

Smith-Corona TP1 ( LQF^ $549 

MODEMS 

Hayes 300 Baud $209 

Hayes 300/1 200 $485 

Novation Smartcat $487 

300/1200 
Shipping and Handling - AM 3% 
WCA VisfAd<l3%. C.O.O.i- Add $2.00 



THE COMPUTER STORF 



lOuis^fle !.Aj 1800) 824-2227 :-::e's C-> 

1 7 M 1 ? () 1 ' "i B i 



ao Mcro. November 1983 • 199 




r 



DISPLAYED VIDEO IS DRIVING DOWN 
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SHUGART NEW SLIMLINE DOUBLE SIDED 40 TRACK W/CASE & POWER SUPPLY $299.00 

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< 



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Displayed Video. 1 1 1 Marshall St . Ulchfield. Ml 49252 



UTILITY 



Color Correction 



by Danley E. Christensen 



Although I've been pleased with my 
Color Computer, I've been disap- 
pointed with my color television's per- 
formance as a monitor. I've adjusted 
the television for normal viewing only 
to find its color is disastrous the next 
time I use it as a monitor. 

To solve this problem, I needed a col- 
or bar generator — an electronic tool 
that produces special screen designs 
used to adjust the picture. Lacking such 
a tool, I wrote a program that serves the 
same purpose. 

My program runs in 4K and generates 



1 ONE HORIZONTAL BAR 


2 THREE HORIZONTAL BARS 


3 FIVE HORIZONTAL BARS 


4 ONE VERTICAL BAR 


5 THREE VERTICAL BARS 


6 FIVE VERTICAL BARS 


7 CROSSHATCH 


8 MULTIPLE COLORED BARS 


9 PICTURE CENTERING 


10 END PROGRAM 


Table 1. Dtsign selection menu. 



Get accurate color 
reproduction on your 
CoCo monitor using tliis 
color test pattern program. 



vertical lines, horizontal lines, a cross- 
hatch, and a solid screen in any of the 
colors the Color Computer supports. It 
also creates a set of horizontal bars 
showing all the computer's colors at the 
same time; this is particularly helpful 



1 GREEN 


2 YELLOW 


3 BLUE 


4 RED 


5 BUFF 


6 CYAN 


7 MAGENTA 


8 ORANGE 


Table 2. Color selection menu. 



Program Listing. Color ba- generator. 




509 CLS: PRINT 




510 PRINT " 1 - ONE HORIZONTAL BAR" 
520 PRINT ■ 2 - THREE HORIZONTAL BARS" 
530 PRINT ■ 3 - FIVE HORIZONTAL BARS" 
540 PRINT " 4 - ONE VERTICLE BAR" 


Uamg cotomued 



in adjusting a set's hue, tint, and 
brightness. 

The bar generator is menu-driven. 
After you type RUN, the program dis- 
plays the selection menu shown in Table 

1 . If you select options 1 -7 or 9, the pro- 
gram displays the color menu in Table 

2. The program constructs the design 
in the color you select and then goes in- 
to a "wait" state; it remains in this 
state while you use the design to ad- 
just the television. When you're done, 
press any key and the menu reappears. 
You can make another selection or end 
the program. ■ 

Write to Danley Christensen at 17 
Walnut mis, Springfield, IL 62707. 



Variable 


Function 


C 
KS 

L 
S 
X 
Y 


Color selection 
Key hit 
Print location 
Screen type selection 
Loop index 
Loop index 


Table 3. 


Variables list. 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
4KRAM 
Color Bask 



202 • so Micro, November 1983 



Lonnf (tMflnyMf 


550 


PRINT ■ 5 - THREE VERTICLE BARS' 


S60 


PRINT ■ 6 - FIVE VERTICLE BARS" 


57fl 


PRINT " 7 - CROSSHATCH" 


58e 


PRINT " 8 - MULTIPLE COLORED BARS 


590 


PRINT ■ 9 - PICTURE CENTERING" 


600 


PRINT "10 - END PROGRAM" 


650 


PR1NT:INPUT"WHICH SELECTION (1-10 


660 


IF S-1 THEtJ 1000 


670 


IF S-2 THEN 2000 


660 


IP S«3 THEN 3000 


690 


IP S>4 THEN 4000 


700 


IF S-5 THEN 5000 


710 


IF S«6 THEN 6000 


720 


IP S»7 THEN 7000 



TRY AGAIN.": PRINT 



730 IF S-e THEN 10000 

740 IP S>9 THEN 11000 

750 IP S"10 THEN CLS:END 

781) CLS 

790 PRINT "INVALID SELECTION. 

800 SOUND 200,5 

810 GOTO 510 

1000 GOSUB 12000: CLS0 

1020 FOR X-0 TO 63 

1030 SET(X,15,C) 

1050 NEXT X: GOTO 13000 

2000 GOSUB 12000: CLS0 

2010 CLS0 

2020 FOR X»0 TO 63 

2030 SET(X,8,C) :SET(X,15,C) :SET(X,22,C) 

2090 NEXT X; GOTO 13000 

3000 GOSUB 12000: CLS0 

3020 FOR X=8 TO 63 

3030 SET(X,1,C) :SET(X,B,C) :SET(X,15,C} :SET(X,22,C) :SET(X,29,C) 

3130 NEXT X: GOTO 13000 

4000 GOSUB 12000:CLS0 

4010 FOR X-e TO 31 

4020 SET(31,X,C):SET(32,X,C) 

4030 NEXT X:COTO 13000 

5000 GOSUB 12000:CLS0 

5010 FOR X-0 TO 31 

5020 SET(16«X,C) :SET(17,X,C) :SET(31,X,C) :SET(32,X,C) :SET(46,X,C) 

:SET(47,X,C) 

5030 NEXT X:GOT0 13000 

6000 GOSUB 12000:CLS0 

6010 FOR X*0 TO 31 

6020 SET(1,X,C) :SET(2,X,C) :SET(16,X,C) iSET(17,X,C) :SET(31,X,C) 

6030 SET(32,X,C) jSET(46,XrC) :SET(47,X,C) !SET(61,X,C1 :SET(62,X,C) 

6040 NEXT X:GOTO 13000 

7000 GOSUB 12000:CLS0 

7010 FOR X»>0 TO 63 

7020 SET(X,1#C) :SET(X,B,C):SET{X,15,C>:SET(X,22,C):SET(X,29,CJ 

7030 NEXT X 

7040 FOR X-0 TO 31 

7050 SET(1,X,C) :SET(2,X,C> :SET(16,X,C) :SET(17,X,C) :SET(31,XfC) 

7060 SET(32,X«C) :SET(46,X,C) :SET(47,X,C) :SET(61.X,C) :SET(62,X,C) 

7070 NEXT XiGOTO 13000 

10000 CLS0 

10010 C-127: L»-l 

10020 FOR X-1 TO 8 

10030 C-C-t-16 

10040 FOR Y-1 TO 64 

10050 L-L+l 

10060 IF L<511 THEN PRINT$L,CHR$(C) ; 

10070 NEXT Y 

10080 NEXT X 

10090 SET(62,30,e):SET(62,31,e):SET(63.30,e}:SBT(63,31.e) 

10100 GOTO 13000 

11000 GOSUB 12000: CLS(C): GOTO 13000 

12000 CLS: PRINT 

GRBEN" 

YELLOW" 

BLUB" 

RED" 

BUFF" 

CYAN" 

HAGENTA" 

ORANGE" 
PRINT 

WHICH COLOR" ;C 



12010 PRINT TABU0);"1 

12020 PRINT TABa0);"2 

12030 PRINT TAB(10);"3 

12040 PRINT TAB(10)f"4 

12050 PRINT TAB(10);"5 

12060 PRINT TAB(10);"6 

12070 PRINT TAB(10)i"7 

12080 PRINT TAB{10);"8 

12090 PRINT: PRINT: 

12095 INPUT " 

12100 IF C<1 OR C>8 THEN CLS: PRINT" 

N.": SOUND 200,5: PRINT: GOTO 12010 

12120 RETURN 

13000 K$-INKEY$ 

13010 IF K$-"" THEN 13000 

13020 GOTO 500 



INVALID COLOR. TRY AGAI 




CREATE: term*. lab«lt and form i*tt«r«. 



Tht* «kcnin« cad* word proc«««or can 

even HOD 'S'JiTBACT &O0»li««pin9 coIuba*. 

Cnan<}«. dcltce, add, iniart, nov«. copy 
<cnar«ctar(/ltn«i 'bloclti> o( tait f a*>. . 

SELECT: aaT^in*. page ler.gtn. number o( 
copiea, tabt, center line* / pa9«. line 
•pacing and LESU. PAPER LINE HUHBERtNG. 

MODEL I uiara qec: Model tJI ahift kay 
concfollad upper / lower caee letter«M 

EASIER to USE than o*,rier ajracews. Only 
* iteys control 96* of tne Lt* feacureiM 

TBY a LW for 3 MO-iTHS . !( not latiif- 

ted return it. we oiLl refund all out 
i3.S0 to cover poetage ■' nandling. !F 

fOt CAN NOT BET'JRS !T, DO NOT BVY IT. 

C. A. of K. y. rates nie IM purchate at 
'ore of tfie beat buy» i have n«de. *( 



Tape im Model 1/111 lyetMM (23 99 
DISK IIK Model l/lll ayetemt $37.99 



WE PAyitaN / us pottage on UL order*. 



VerbatiB MD!:5 01 <)i»H»: 10 for ili.iS 
Mieroaette CIS tap«*b©it: 20 for SiJ.SS 



590S Stone Hill Dl . 
9L0C-.:^r., CA 95677 



24 HOUR 

Coir.pJtPi Phone 
.916 624-3709 




fAST LOAD UBRARIES: 

COMWHO OO0« CAM M ff OW t O M 

nsLOCATAakf nu». 

INTERPRETER: 

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DOCUMENTATION: 

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SUPPORT SOFTWARE: 

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to ancirv T»M arNTAx o* a hmmmammo 
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REQUIREMENTS: 

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Ai«0 MMUM.I MR CP/M 



ORDERING: 






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eaw A tti •>!»»•. 

LTTkl MVTA MAWWAt. I 

umi ■MtATMANM.ATOH. .•M. 

vMA a« nwanncAiv 

n<AM NCbUn tMWWATIOHOim I 



(® 



rAH WEST trtTEMS. ■OPTWARE, MC. 
P.O. tOX WU. PA1.0 ALTO t4MB 

taiDMI-OlM 



-464 



80 Micro, Novemtter 1983 • 203 



unuTY 



10AP80 



Make Your Word(s) Count 



by Charies Knight 



I 



f you feel you could benefit from knowing 
the word count of a Scripsit fUe, try this 
valuable utility on your word processor. 



While Scripsit is a great word pro- 
cessor, it lacks one feature: it doesn't 
provide a word count. Professional 
writers, and often students, need to 
know the approximate word count of 
an article. Sure. Scripsit counts all the 
characters in a document, including 
those within format and comment lines, 
but that total is useless if you need to 
know how many characters go to the 
printer. 

Each word is always separated by one 
or two s[>aces, and may or may not con- 
tain punctuation. Two words can also 
be separated by only a carriage return or 
other text-boundary marker. 

So, then, you can count the separa- 
tions between the words instead of the 
words themselves, but you don't want 
to count consecutive word separators as 
more than one word. If words are set 
apart with a hyphen and two spaces in- 
stead of parentheses, the hyphen counts 
as one word. Dashed tines made up of 
periods, or other material entered with 
alternating spaces, are also counted as 
one word. 

Scripsit allows format and comment 
lines, so words within these lines won't 
be counted. Since the greater-than sign 
(>) indicates both format and comment 
Unes. shoukl the program encounter 
that sign anywhere in the text, it skips to 
the next carriage return or boundary- 
marker before resuming the count. 
Block markers always contain this sign 
as part of their identiftcation, so this 
program ignores all text between the 
greater-than sign and the concluding 
text boundary marker. 

If you hyphenate your text, check the 
hyphenation blocks before ruiuiing this 

204 • 60 Micro. Nwwnbw 1983 



program if the words and characters in 
the block are to be counted. It is unnec- 
essary to remove the hyphens them- 
selves. 

Header and footer blocks have their 
contents counted only once, even 
though they appear once on each page. 
They always have a format line within 
them, even if it is left blank. 



To Begin 

To use the program, type CDUNT. 
Then specify the name of the Scripsit 
file whose words are to be counted. You 
must have an extension on your Scrip- 
sit file. If you use/SCR, then you don't 
have to enter /exten^on when prompt- 
ed for filespec. The program adds the 
extension /SCR for you. 

The program echoes the filespec and 
begins scanning the file and counting 
the text characters and words. The 
count is continuously updated; when 
finished, it displays the final word count 
and number of characters in the file. 

The source code for this program is 
written using the EDAS editor/assem- 
bler from Misosys of Alexandria. VA. 
This assembler is more versatile and 
easier to use than Radio Shack's ED- 
TASM as modified by Apparat. 

The most obvious difference lies in 
the fact that multiple bytes are defined 
on a single line, as shown by the graph- 
ics in the sign-on message. If nothing 
else, this program makes possible 
publishing programs that would other- 
wise be too long for the magazine whose 
editorial span is at a premium. The 
equivalent EDTASM listing is approxi- 



mately 1 50 percent longer. Howcvct. by 
chan^ng this and the length of a few 
labels, you can easily adapt this listing 
to EDTASM. 

The COM and TITLE pseudo-ops at 
the program's beginning can be omitted 
since they write nonexecutable code seg- 
ments into an object file. And the DB 
statement must be changed to DEFB or 
DEFM. as appropriate; each byte in a 
DEFB must be on a line by itself. Ex- 
cept for the fact that all labels must end 
with a colon. I can think of no other 
changes required to use the Radio Shack 
Disk Editor/Assembler by Microsoft. 
Anyone with editor/assembler ^cperi- 
ence can make these changes easily. 

Tlie Program 

Lines 20(M30 define the external 
routines and values used by the code. 
All labels beginning with "@" are 
external to the program; EDTASM 
users should omit this sign in all la- 
bels. These routines are common to 
LDOS, TRSDOS. and NEWDOS80 V 1 
and most DOSes for the Model I as 
well. If you have a Model III, check 
your operating system manual to see 
that these routines are in the same place. 
Model III users have to use a DOS other 
than TRSDOS because of the calls to the 
print routine at X'4467'. LDOS and 
NEWDOS support this system vector on 
the Model III, but TRSDOS does not. 

You can write your own routine to 
accomplish the same thing. If you want 
to write an Assembly-language program 
doing disk I/O. you will need to know 
these routines. These DOS-callable rou- 
tines need memory to store their data; 



The Key Box 

Model I and m 
32KRAM 
Assembly Language 
EDAS or EDTASM 



IF YOU'RE QOINQ TO 

BE nCKY ABOUT ATI 

OPERATinQ SYSTEM 

SEE WHICH WAS 

HCKED BEST 



The readers of 80 Micro were 
asked to select their favorite 
operating system for the TRS-80 
liodel I&lll. LDOS, DOSFLUS, 
TRSDOS, MULXrDOS, WOBOS I and 
l*1EWDOS/80 were all on the ballot. 
They picked nEWDOS/80. 

The editors of 80 Micro have also 
awarded their Hall of Fame Awards. 
From among every software 
package on the market the editors 
picked only six that they felt made a 
lasting and significant contribution 
to the TRS-80 computer. 
riEWDOS/80 was one of the six. 

Since we first introduced the 
riEWDOS operating system we've 
been stating its features, capabilities 
and advantages. Thank you 80 Micro 
readers and MEWDOS/SO users for 
supporting us. 
Version 2.0 . . . 
High Performance DOS 

riEWDOS/SO Version 2.0 is our 
highest performance system yet. 
The versatility and sophistication of 
Version 2.0 includes features like: 
• Double density support on the 

Model 1 




Enhanced 
compatability tjetween 
Model 1 and III 

• THples directory size 

• Dynamically merge in BASIC {also 
allows merging of non ASCII 
format files) 

• Selective variable clearing 

• Can display BASIC listings page by 
page 

• Automaticrepeat function key 

• Routing for peripheral handling 

• Enhanced disassembler 

• Command chaining 

• Superzap to scan files 

• Fast sort function in BASIC 
Hard Dick Support now Available 

• Support for Apparat's and Radio 
Shack's Model 111 hard disk 
(optional-available upon request 
for additional $60) 



These 
features make 
nEWDOS/80 one 
of the most powerful 
additions you can make to 
your system. And Apparat's 
commitment to support assures that 
you've purchased a superior 
product, both today and tomorrow. 
At just $149.00 it could be the best 
investment you will make for your 
TRS-80. 

For more information see your 
local computer store or contact 
Apparat, Inc., 4401 S. "femarac 
Parkway, Denver, CO 80237, 
303/741-1778. 

TRS-eO and TRSD05 are re^tered trademarks of 
Tandy Corp., LDOS - Logical Syslema. DOSPLU5 - 
Micro Systems Software. MULTIDOS - Cosmopolitan 
Electronics. WOBOS 1 - Western Operations. 
nCWDOS'80 - Apparat. 




Apparotjnc. 



^ See Ust of Advenisers on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 205 



space is saved for this by the DS (DEFS) 
statements in lines 210-230. SECBUF is 
a buffer for loading a complete data 
sector: FCB is a file control block need- 
ed for any open file, and UREC is a buf- 
fer for each logical record that will be 



each character of the file in turn. UREC 
is needed only when the logical record 
length is a number other than 256. 

DCONV, the first routine, is a 
binary-to-ASCII conversion routine. It 
decodes a 2-byte value passed to it in the 



HL register pair and displays the ASCII 
equivalent at the current cursor posi- 
tion. It does so by checking the value of 
each digit in a table (DECTBL) and 
counting the number of times this value 
is subtracted from the count before the 













00110 t*** Wotd Count - Copyt 


igbt (C) 1962 by ••* 




00120 )•*• Charles P 


. Knight 2760 Roberts Cir. *** | 




00130 I*** Arlington 


, Texas 76010 


(617) 640-4453 *•* 




00140 I*** Counts words in a SCRIPSZT file V2.1 *** | 


flees 


00160 


TITLE 


'<SCRIPSIT Word 


Counting Pgrn.>' 


eeee 


00170 


COH 


•cCopyrlght 


(C) 


1902 by I >' 


0e0B 


001B0 


OOH 


■<0harle8 P. 


Knight>* 1 


52B0 


00190 


ORG 


5200H 




fmay be relocated 


5200 C39&5S 


00200 START 


JP 


BBGIH 




1 vector to program 


0100 


00210 SECBUP 


DS 


256 




fOisk I/O buffer 


0020 


00220 FCB 


OS 


32 




jfile control block 


0001 


00230 UREC 


DS 


1 




lUser record buffer 


0017 


00240 INBUF 


DS 


23 




jenough for fs/ext.pwid 


4428 


002S0 0CLOSE 


EQU 


4428H 




fflle close routine 


4473 


00260 0PEXT 


EQU 


4473H 




;add default extension 


441C 


00270 0PSPEC 


EOU 


441CH 




;nove fspec to fob 


4436 


00260 0READ 


EQU 


4436H 




I read logical record 


4424 


00290 0OPEH 


BOU 


4424H 




ifile open routine 


0033 


00300 9DSP 


EQU 


003 3H 




iROH display routine 


4467 


00310 0DSPLy 


EQU 


4467H 




jOOS display routine 


0040 


0032B 0KByiN 


EQU 


0040H 




;RON INPUT routine 


4430 


80330 0ABORT 


EQU 


4430H 




;error abort 


4409 


00340 TERROR 


EQU 


4409H 




fprint error message 


S33B 0000 


00350 COUNT 


DW 







{Storage for word count 


S33D 0000 


00360 CCOUNT 


DW 







;storage for char count 


e07P 


00370 HASK? 


EQU 


7PH 




;ina8k bit seven 60*001 


00flD 


00380 CR 


BQU 


13 




icarriBge return 


B00A 


00390 LP 


BQU 


10 




ilinefeed 


0003 


004B0 ETX 


EQU 


3 




;Terminator byte f/iBSgs 


0020 


00410 SPACE 


EQU 


t ■ 




f ASCII space 


533F 53 


00420 EXT 


DB 


•SCR* 




idefauit extension 


43 52 












5342 06 


00430 BACRSP 


DB 


8re,e,e,6feTx 


^Backspace over last ent 


06 06 06 06 03 










S34B 1027 


00440 DECTBL 


DH 


10000 




iDeclRtal conversion 


534A E803 


00450 


DH 


1000 




f table 


534C 6400 


00460 


DH 


10t 




lone word foe each 


S34E 0A00 


00470 


DW 


10 




I possible 


5350 0100 


00480 


DH 


1 




idlgit 


5352 PD214e53 00490 DCOHV 


LD 


lYrOBOTBL 




ipoint to start of tbl 


5356 AP 


00500 DCOHVl 


XOR 


A 




(Zero A reg 


5357 PO4601 


00510 


LD 


B,{IY+1) 




|BC"Decimal digit 


535A PD4E00 


00S20 


LD 


OMIY) 




ibeing used 


535D B7 


00530 


OR 


A 




fClear carry 


535E ED42 


00540 DC0NV2 


SBC 


HLrBO 




{Subtract be 


5360 3803 


00550 


JR 


0,DC0NV3 




idiglt done? 


5362 3C 


00560 


IHC 


A 




fHo, Increment count 


5363 ieP9 


00570 


JR 


DCOHV 2 




It repeat 


5365 09 


00560 DC0HV3 


ADO 


HL*BC 




Mdd it back 


5366 C630 


00590 


ADD 


A,*0» 




rnake It Into ascli 


5366 €03300 


00600 


CALL 


0DSP 




{display it at cursor 


536B 79 


00610 


LD 


A,0 




{When C-1, we're through 


536C PE01 


00620 


CP 


1 




ISO we'll go back 


536E C8 


00630 


RET 


Z 




fwhere we cane from 


536P PD23 


00640 


IHC 


ly 




{Otherwise add 2 to ly 


5371 P023 


00650 


IHC 


ly 




;to nxt slot in dectbl 


5373 leei 


00660 


JR 


OCONVl 




{and do it again 


5375 IC 

IP 

5377 ec 


00670 SIGHON 


DB 


2e«3i 




{Clear screen first 


00680 


DB 


140^40^40 


,140 


,140,140,140,140,140,140 


8c ec ec ec ec ec ec 


ec 








5361 ec 


00690 


DB 


U9,U9,U9 


.140 


,140,140,140,140,140,140 


ec 8C BC 8C BC BC BC 
Be 


BO 








5386 ec 


00700 


DB 


140,140,140 


rl40 


,140, 140, 140,140, 140,140 


BC 8C 8C 8C 6C BC BC 


BC 








5395 BC 


00710 


DB 


140,140, 140 


.140 


,140,140,140,140,140,140 


ec 8C 8c 8c 8c ec ec 

BC 


ec 








539P 80 


00720 


DB 


140,140,140 


,140 


,140,140,140,140,140,140 


BC BC BC BC BC BC 80 


BC 








8C 










IMmttwmm^ 



206 • 00 Micro. Nowmber 1983 



result falls below zero. When this hap- 
pens, the effect of the last subtraa is 
reversed and the next digit is dealt with 
similarly. No value over 65535 is dis- 
played because of the limitation impos- 
ed by a 16-bit byte pair, but this is no 
problem since Scripsit files cannot be 
larger than memory anyway. 

The program code begins at line 
1030. The sign-on message is displayed 
starting with the characters 28 and 31. 
They clear the screen like the statement, 
PRINT CHR$(28);CHR$<3I); in Basic. 

The routine @DSPLY is the DOS 
print routine. Text printed under this 
routine can contain any character ex- 
cept the delimiters 03 or 13. If 03 is the 
final byte, the cursor is positioned im- 
mediately after the last character 
printed; if 13 is the fmal character, the 
cursor is placed at the start of the next 
Une. To call the routine, HL must pK>int 
to the first character of the text, then 
CALL X*4467' and the message are 
printed beginning at the current cursor 
position. 

The Input Statement 

The display routine call described 
above displays the prompt message. A 
03 terminator byte keeps the cursor on 
the same line and then a CALL is made 



to the input routine in ROM at 0040H. 
To call this routine, load HL with a buf- 
fer to receive the characters, and load B 
with the number of characters to allow, 
plus one for the concluding carriage re- 
turn. The routine @KEYIN returns 
whenever the enter or break key is 
pressed. If the break key is pressed, the 
carry flag is set, allowing the program 
to be aboried at that point, if desired. 
Register B, on exit, contains the actual 
number of characters input. 

If you have a filespec, and want to 
open that file with a logical record 
length of one, first move it to a file 
control block to determine that it is a 
valid filespec. The call to ©FSPEC does 
this under LDOS and NEWDOS80. and 
also performs any necessary lower- or 
uppercase conversion. 

To call this routine, load DE with the 
address of the FCB and HL with the 
location for the input data. Since HL 
still points there from the last call, it 
isn't necessary to do it again. After this 
call, the FCB contains the filespiec fol- 
lowed by a carriage return. The file can 
now be opened, but first add a default 
extension, if none was supplied, and 
print the resulting filespec on the screen. 

The DOS routine @FEXT adds the 
default extension only if the user did not 



supply an extension. Call this routine by 
loading HL with the address of the 
three-letter extension to be added. If 
fewer than three letters are to be added, 
they should be padded on the right with 
blanks. After adding the default exten- 
sion, the @DSPLY routine is called 
twice: first pointing to the message 
"File = *', and next with HL pointing to 
the FCB where all characters of the file- 
spec, up to the carriage return, are 
printed. 

To open the file, first put the address 
of the 256-byte sector buffer (SECBUF) 
into the HL register pair. Next, load DE 
with the address of the FCB. Then, load 
the logical record length of the file into 
the B register — this is zero for 256-byte 
LRL— and you can call the ©OPEN 
routine. The zero flag is set so that the 
statement in line 1260 causes an abort if 
the file can't be opened. Since, in the 
event of an error, the A register already 
contains the error code, all you have to do 
is abort to @ERROR at 4409H, and 
DOS displays the proper message for you . 

Up until now the DOS author has 
done most of the work for you. You 
should also have seen sufficient reason 
to replace that bootleg copy of XXX- 
DOS with a legally purchased one. 
After all, the better they do in the finan- 



CONVERT YOUR SERIAL PRINTER TO PARALLEL 



CONVERT YOUR PARALLEL PRINTER TO SERIAL 



The UPI serial printer interfaces allow an ASCII serial printer 
to be connected to the parallel printer port of the TRS-80 
computers or any other compuier which has a Centronics 
compatible parallel printer port. 

Software compatability problems which normally result 
when a serial primer is used are totally eliminated because, 
the computer "thinks" thai a parallel primer has been con- 
nected. Special driver programs and changes to the operat- 
ing system are not required with computers designed to 
work with a parallel primer. 

The UPI interfaces are completely self contained and ready 
to use. A DB25 socket males with the cable from your serial 
printer. The ribbon cable attaches to the parallel printer 
port of your computer. The UPI interfaces convert the out- 
put of your parallel printer port into serial data in both the 
RS232-C and 20 ma. loop formats Switch selectable features 
include: 

• Linefeed after Carnage Return 

• Handshake polarity 1RS232-CI 

• Nulls after Carriage Return 

• 7 or 8 Data Bits per word 

• 1 or 2 Stop Bits per word 

• Odd. Even, or, No Pantv 

• Baud rates 110 to 9600 

UPI-3VB for TRS-80 I & III $149.95 

UPI-2VB for TRS-80 II & 16 $149.95 

UPI-3VB-6 tor TRS-BO I & III with 6 (t cable $159.95 

UPI-2V8-6 for TRS-80 II & 16 with 6 (i. cable $159.95 

Models for most other computers available at $159.95 



NEW SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACES 

The SPC SERl At to PARALLEL interfaces convert serial ASCII 
data into parallel format for use with Centronics type paral- 
lel printers. A DB25 socket accepts serial data from your 
computer. The 36contaa ribbon connector plugs into your 
parallel printer. Can be used to add a second parallel printer 
port to computers which reliably support both serial and 
parallel primers. 

Switch selectable options include the following: 

• 7 or 8 Data Bits per serial word 

• Odd or Even parity for serial word 

• Parity or No parity for serial word 

• 1 or 2 Stop Bits per serial word 

• 300, 600. 1200. 2400. or 4800 BAUD 



SPC-1 as described above 
SPC-CC with DIN plug and cable 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer 



$89.95 
$69.95 



All prices U.S. funds. VISA. MASTER CARD, COD. Purchase 
Orders accepted from schools, major corporations, and 
government agencies. Shipping and Handling on U.S. 
orders $4.00. Ten day return period. Ninety day warranty. 



bd 



BINARY DEVICES 

11560 TIMBERLAKE LANE 
NOBLESVILLE. IN 46060 
(317)842-5020 ^to6 



TRS-80 n i trademark of TANDV 



l.iUing conimwtt 



53A9 8C 00730 DB 

8C 8C 8C 8C 8C 8C 8C 8C 
BC 

53B3 8C 00740 DB 
8C 6C 8C 

53B7 57 00750 DB 

4P 52 44 20 43 4P 55 4E 

54 45 52 20 2D 20 

53C6 66 00760 DB 

6P 72 20 S3 4J 52 49 50 

53 49 54 20 66 69 6C 65 

73 20 28 43 29 20 31 39 

38 32 20 62 79 20 43 68 

61 72 6C 65 73 20 50 2B 

20 4B 6B 69 67 68 74 2E 

00770 DB 

83 83 83 83 83 



53F7 83 

83 83 83 

83 
5401 83 00780 

83 83 63 63 63 83 83 

83 
540B 83 



DB 



83 



00790 
83 83 83 83 83 83 83 



DB 



63 



83 
5415 83 



541F 



00800 
83 83 63 83 63 
83 
83 



63 83 83 



DB 



00810 DB 

83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 

83 
5429 83 00820 DB 

83 83 83 83 63 63 63 83 

83 
5433 83 00830 



83 
83 

5437 0A 
0D 

5439 0A 



83 83 



00840 



DB 
DB 



43 

77 

6E 74 20 
30 30 03 
5455 0A 



00850 MSGl DB 
75 72 72 65 6E 74 20 
6F 72 64 20 63 6F 75 

3A 20 30 30 30 



20 3A 20 
546A 0A 
46 



5489 45 



00860 HSG2 DB 
46 69 6E 61 6C 20 77 6F 

72 64 20 63 6F 75 6E 74 
03 
00870 HSG3 DB 

69 6E 61 6C 20 74 65 
78 74 20 63 68 61 72 61 
63 74 65 72 20 63 6F 75 
6E 74 20 3A 20 03 

00880 INHSG DB 
6B 74 65 72 20 74 68 65 
20 66 69 6C 65 73 70 65 

63 20 6F 66 20 74 68 65 
20 S3 43 52 49 50 53 49 
54 20 66 69 6C 65 20 77 
66 6F 73 65 20 77 6P 72 

64 0A 

54BC 63 00890 DB 
6F 75 6E 74 20 69 73 20 
74 6F 20 62 65 20 64 65 
74 65 72 6D 69 6E 65 64 
20 2F 53 43 52 20 61 73 

73 75 6D 65 64 20 3A 20 
03 

54E6 46 00900 MSG4 DB 
69 6C 65 20 2D 2D 2D 3E 
20 03 

S4F1 49 00910 ERRl DB 
6C 6C 65 67 61 6C 20 46 
69 6C 65 73 70 65 63 20 
2D 20 74 72 79 20 61 67 
61 69 6E 2E 0D 

550F BA 00920 ERR2 DB 
44 69 73 6B 20 72 65 61 
64 20 65 72 72 eF 72 21 
0D 

5521 210F55 

5524 F5 

5525 CD6744 
5528 110353 
552B CD2844 
552B Pi 
552P C30944 
5532 21P154 
5535 CD6744 
5538 C33044 



00930 READERR LD 



00940 

00950 
00960 
00970 
00980 
00990 



PUSH 

CALL 

LD 

CALL 

POP 

JP 



01000 PSERROR LD 



01010 
01020 
01030 BEGIN: 



CALL 

JP 



140,140,140,140,140,140,140,140,140,140 

140,140,140,140 
•WORD COUNTER - ' 

'for SCRIPSIT files (C) 1982 by Charles P. Knig 



131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131 
131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131 
131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131 
131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131 
131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131 
131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131,131 

131,131,131,131 

LFfCR 

LP, 'Current word count : 00000', ETX 

LP, 'Final word count : ',ETX 

LP, 'Pinal text character count : ',ETX 

■Enter the filespec of the SCRIPSIT file whose 



'count is to be determined /SCR assumed t ',ETX 

■File > ',ETX 

■Illegal Pilespec - try again. ',CR 

LP, 'Disk read errorI',CR 



HL, ERR2 

AF 

@DSPLY 

DE,FCB 

eCLOSE 

AP 

eBRROR 

HL,ERRl 

^DSPLY 

@ABORT 



(•point to error message 

fsave error code 

fpcint message 

fset up to close file 

fclose it 

; recover error code 

idisplay msg k abort 

;point to error message 

jdiEplay error msg 

laboet 



tiiimt ronimued 



208 ■ SO Micro, November 1983 



cial department, the better off we'll be 
in the code department. 

The next task is to display the word 
count message and enter the loop that in- 
dividually reads each byte from the disk 
file and makes a decision regarding it. 

To read a byte from an open file, 
load DE with the FCB and call the 
©READ routine. If the LRL is a 
number other than 256, you must tell 
@READ where to put the logical 
record. This value is UREC, and its ad- 
dress is passed to @READ in the B 
register. If no error occurs, the zero flag 
is set. If there is an error, you can test it 
and branch to an error-handling 
routine. In line 1330, you put the 
character from UREC into the A 
register and do some decision-making. 
{A in line 1340 sets the zero flag if the 
value in A is zero.) Since a Scripsit file 
always ends with a zero-byte, this is a 
way to test for the end of the file. 

Other word processors, such as Lazy 
Writer, do not use this EOF mark of 
zero, so this program may not work 
properly with them. Also, since a Scrip- 
sit file not saved in ASCII has the high 
bit set on all nontext characters, you 
must either mask out that bit, or require 
the operator to save the file in ASCII. 
The latter is easy to circumvent. By 



ANDing with 7FH, which is 01 1 1 1 1 1 1 
in binary, the seventh bit is reset and the 
requirement that the file be in ASCII is 
gracefully avoided. 

To see if you're in a format line, check 
for the greater-than character. If you 
are, call a routine, FLINE, to find the 
end of it without counting anything. 
Then see if the character is a space or 
anything that could be a control code, 
since these are separate words. If you 
find a space or control character, call 
the routine BUMPIT, which increments 
the word counter, and find the next byte 
that is not a space or control character. 
This keeps you from counting the five- 
space indent at the beginning of a para- 
graph as five words. The BUMPCHR 
routine counts each character outside a 
format line, thereby counting charac- 
ters of actual text material. 

Once the file is read, end the pro- 
gram. But first you want to display the 
final word and the final character 
count. The code in lines 1740- 1830 does 
this. You should never exit a program 
without closing files. To close, load DE 
with the DCB and call ©CLOSE. 

There is a routine in all the popular 
DOSes called @CKEOF that is sup- 
posed to verify the end of the file and 
return the information in the flags. 



Since this routine (444BH in LEXDS) 
either varies in location or works differ- 
ently among the various DOSes, I have 
opted for the less elegant method of 
checking for the EOF byte instead. Be- 
cause of this, if you have a file that 
causes COUNT/CMD to either abort 
with an Input Past End error or to hang 
up the computer entirely, load the file 
back into Scripsit and save it again. 
Something has either happened to its 
EOF byte, or it wasn't a Scripsit file in 
the first place. This can also happen on 
a Scripsit file that was saved under one 
DOS and had its word count attempted 
under a different one. While you 
shouldn't mix DOSes or their data disks 
anyway, this sometimes cannot be 
avoided. 

If you need a larger version of this 
program that not only counts words, 
but scrolls text across the screen, 
calculates average word length, and 
combines the counts from more than 
one file into a single total as well, 
send me $15 and I'll send you both the 
source and object code on an LE>OS 
data disk. ■ 



Contact Charies P. Knight at 2708 
Roberts Circle, Arlington. TX 76010. 



Nouu for Mod III and 4 



Droui 

The GroFi/x Solution" for your Creotivity 




Improved GrafyH. DAAUJ is a pouicrfut 
grophics and text •diting pockog* which 
diouis vow imogiootton to crcot« a 
picture or design a grophics screen with 
Grofyx Solution. Micro-Lobs' Gratt/x 
Solution is o pK>g-in, dip on board which 
gives ^ou 98,304 points in o 512 x 192 
motrtx. Thot's sixteen times as mony 
points OS Q stondord Model IHI 

Ultimate GrafyH. The DARUJ progrom 
contoins olmost 10,000 instructions and 
is mr'Aten In modiine longuogc For 
ultimate speed and ncxibility. Bv moving 



the cursor with the arrow itei^s and 
entering one letter commands, you con 
set, clear or complement points, lines, 
cirdes, or twxes. The size of the points 
that vou are setting con be changed at 
onv time. Vou can even reverse or shift 
the entire screen in onv cfirection. Rnv 
section of the screen mo^ be saved so 
it con be moved or copied elsewhere. 
Sections of the screen con olso be filled 
in with potterns. 

Procticol GfoFyH. DflflUJ is obviouslv a 
must for generoting computer ort or 
graphic designs, but is also o necessity 
for anvone, no matter whot his 





application. Businessmen and scientist 
con use DRflUJ to odd text tobels or other 
refinements to previouslv generated 
graphs. Once the picture is centered, 
labeled and refined, it con be saved on 
disk/tope or printed on any of 20 
populor printers. RH of this is done with 
single letter commonds without ever 
leovmg the DflflUJ progrom. 

The Grofyx SoliAion pockoge is shipped 
from stock and includes the board, 44 
programs, ond a 54 poge monuol all for 
$299.95. The DflRUJ progrom, twelve 
hires pictures, ond manual is $39.95. 
Shipping is Free on pre-poid or COD 
orders. (Tx. res. odd 5% soles tox.) 

Micro-Labs, Inc. 214-235-0915 

902 PinetTPsi, Ruhjrdson, Texas 75080 ..46d 



^ Soe List at Advonisers or Page 307 



80 Micro. November 1983 • 209 



Lmmk vtmiMutd 



553B 217553 
553E CD6744 
5541 218954 
5544 CD6744 
5547 212453 
554A 0616 
554C CD4000 
554P D8 
5550 119353 
5553 CD1C44 
5556 20DA 
5558 110353 
555B 213F53 
555E CD7344 
5561 21E654 
5564 CD6744 
5567 210353 
5S6A CD6744 
556D 210352 
5570 110353 
5573 0601 
5575 CD2444 
5578 C20944 
557B 213954 
557E CD6744 
5581 110353 
5584 212353 
5587 CD3644 
558A C22155 
558D 3A2353 

5590 A7 

5591 2856 
5593 E67F 
5595 FE3E 
5597 280A 
5599 Pe21 
55 9B DCBA55 
559E CD0P56 
55A1 18DE 
55A3 110353 
55Afi 212353 
55A9 CD3644 
55AC 3A2353 
55AF A7 
55B8 2837 
55B2 E67F 
55B4 FE20 
55B6 3BC9 
55Btl 18E9 
55BA F5 
55BB 214253 
55BE CD6744 
55C1 2A3B53 
55C4 23 
55C5 223B53 
55C8 CD5253 
55CB CDD055 
55CE Fl 
55CF C9 
55D0 110353 
55D3 212353 
55D6 CD3644 
55D9 CDflF56 
55DC 3A2353 
55DF A7 
55E0 2807 
55E2 E67P 
55E4 FE21 
55B6 28E8 
55E8 C9 
55E9 215554 
55EC CD6744 
55EF 2A3B53 
55F2 CD5253 
55P5 216A54 
55F8 CD6744 
55FB 2A3D53 
55FE CD5253 
5601 3E0D 
5603 CD3300 
56B6 110353 
5609 C02844 
S60C C32D40 
560F 2A3D53 

5612 23 

5613 223D53 
5616 C9 
5200 



01040 LD HLrSIGNON .-point to message 

B1050 CALL eoSPLY [display signon message 

01060 LD HLflNMSG ;INPUT prompt 

01070 CALL gDSPLY ;print it 

01080 LD HL,INBUF ;input buffer 

01090 LD B,24 ;max I Chc6 to IHPUT 

01100 CALL gKEYlN jget filespec 

0111B RET C [terminate on break key 

01120 LD DEfPCB ;hl at inbuf 

01130 CALL eFSPEC jmove it to fcb 

01140 JR NZ.FSERROR [illegal filespec 

01150 LD DE,FCB [point to fcb 

01160 LD HL,EXT [point to extension 

01170 CALL @PEXT [add default extension 

011BC LD HL,MSG4 [file > 

01190 CALL gDSPLY [display it 

01200 LD HL,FCB [point to filespec 

01210 CALL eDSPLY [display it 

01220 LD HLfSECBUF [sector buffer 

01230 LD DEjFCB jpolnt to file control bk 

01240 LD B,l JLRL = 1 

01250 CALL eOPEN ;open the file 

01260 JP NZ,eERROR labort if unsuccesaf ul 

01270 LD HLpMSGl [display word count 

01280 CALL gDSPLY [message 

01290 GETREC LD DE,FCB [file control block 

01300 LD HL,UREC [buffer for character 

01310 CALL gREAD jread first record 

01320 JP NZ,READERR [disk read error 

01330 LD A,(UREC) ;put char in a 

01340 AHD A [Check for EOF mark 

01350 JR Z, THROUGH [exit if EOF 

01360 AND HASK7 [Mask bit 7 

01370 OP '>' ;is it a format line? 

01380 JR ZfFLINE [find next cr 

B1390 CP SPACE+1 [it it a space? 

01400 CALL CfBCHPlT ;bump word cnt 

01410 CALL BUHPCHR ;incr char count 

01420 JR GETREC [loop through file 

01430 FLIHE LD DE,FCB [point to fcb 

01440 LD HLfUREC [point to buffer 

01450 CALL gREAD icead next record 

01460 LD A,(UREC) [Char in a 

01470 AND A [Check for EOF 

01480 JR 2, THROUGH [exit if so 

01490 AND MASK7 [mask bit seven 

01500 CP SPACE [is is less than space? 

01510 JR C, GETREC ;return if it is 

01520 JR FLINE [keep looking 

01530 BUHPIT PUSH AF [hang on to chc & flogs 

01540 LD HL,BACKSP jprint backspace 

01550 CALL gDSPLY [over Old count 

01560 LD HL, (COUNT) [get word count 

01570 INC HL ;bumpit 

01580 LD (COUNT) ,HL [S put it back 

01590 CALL DCONV [print current word count 

01600 CALL NOHSPC [find first non-space 

01610 POP AF (restore flags 

01620 BET [return 

01630 NONSPC LD DE,FCB [file control block 

01640 LD HL,UREC [record storage 

01650 CALL gREAD [read record 

01660 CALL BUMPCHR [increment character cnt 

01670 LD A,(UREC) iput it in a 

01680 AND A [Check for EOF 

01690 JR Z^THROUGH [exit if so 

01700 AND MASK7 [mask bit 7 

01710 CP SPACE+1 lis it <= space? 

01720 JR Z, NONSPC ;Vep, bump rec t 

01730 RET ;go back 

01740 THROUGH LD HL,MSG2 [final word count 

01750 CALL eoSPLY [display it 

01760 LD HL, (COUNT) [pick up word COUnt 

01770 CALL DCONV (display it 

01780 LD HL,MSG3 (final character cnt 

01790 CALL eoSPLY [print it 

01800 LD HL,(CCOUNT) [Character count 

01810 CALL DCONV [display it 

01820 LD A,CR ;end with cr 

01830 CALL eoSP [print it 

01840 LD DE,FCB [Set up tO... 

01850 CALL 9CL0SE [close the file 

01860 JP 402DH [Back to DOS 

01870 BUMPCHR LD BL,(CCOUNT) [get current » Chars 

01880 INC HL ;add 1 to it 

01890 LD (CCOUNT) ,HL [StOte it back 

01900 RET [back where we came fro» 

01910 END START 



210 • 80 Micro, Novvmber 19B3 




My wonderful upgrade offer: 

If you bought my accounting software a while back, 
itls good news. 

If you didnt, it's a good reason to buy it now. 



You're probably growing. My software keeps 
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for CP/M, TRSDOS and MS/DOS (the IBM PC). 
It's a natural outgrowth of my support. Talk to 
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get a few nevtf ideas. 

Early on, I resolved that none of my customers 
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started over four years ago: 

No matter when you bought, I'll upgrade any of 
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the same machine for $25. If you've upgraded your 
machine, I'll give you a replacement system for 
either $25 or the difference between what you paid 
for your software originally and the price of the new 



software. If you've gone from a TRS-80 Model I to a 
Model 11/16 or an IBM PC, say you get a full credit 
for whatever you paid me for your Model I systems. 
Just send me your old disks and I'll send you the 
new ones. 

It's this simple. If you ever buy any of my 
software, you'll never lose your investment. 

I wish the whole world were that simple. 

Taranto ^,„ 

& ASSOCIATES, INC 

Model I. Mod*l III and Modal 4 ■yaUms: Accounts Payable Accounts 
Receivable. General Ledger. Inventory Control. Invoicing, Payroll 
Model n. Iilodal 11/12/16, CP/M and IBM PC aystems: General Ledger, 
Accounts Payable,' Purchase Order. Accounts Receivable (Open Item or 
Balance Forward), PaytoU/Job Costing, Inventory Control 
Post Office Box 6216. 121 Paul Drive, San Rafael CA 94903 Outside 
California, toll free (800) 227-2868. In California. (415) 472-2670. 



CP/M is a tiademaik of DiBUal Research Caiporaiion THS 80 and TBSDOS are liaderoarks of Tandy Corporaiion MS.'DOS is a t.ademark of Microsoft Corpo.aiion 

^st>eUstotAdwiisef,onP8geX7 80 Micro. November 1983 • 211 



TUTORIAL 



Using Unix-Xenix— Part I 



by James Hawkes 



T 



his is the first instalhnent of a new series 
exploring the Unix-Xenix operating system 
that gives 16-bit micros mainframe capabilities. 



An enormous amount of Unix ihun- 
der currently exists in the microcomput- 
er trade press, but only a sprinkling of 
microcomputer systems (including 
Radio Shack's Model 16) actually use 
this powerful multi-user, multi-tasking 
operating system. This is bound to 
change as micros become 16- and 32-bit 
machines and owners want the compu- 
tational power and operating system of 
a mainframe. Anticipating that, I'll 
provide an overview of the Unix system 
from the perspective of a new user. 

Unix, originally developed on mini- 
computers, is now found on main- 
frames and microcomputers. Because 
of the operating system's popularity, 
Unix clones are abundant: Idris, Co- 
herent, and Unous to name a few. Mi- 
crosoft calls its entry into the Unix 
look-alike market Xenix. Radio Shack 
distributes Xenix with its Model 16 
under the name TRS-XENIX. 

There is much to learn about the 
Unix operating system: over 100 utili- 
ties, a shell language, a sophisticated 
language called C, and the responsibili- 
ties required to maintain a multi-user 
environment. I'll cover each facet of the 
Unix s>-stem in upcoming articles, but 
first some pros and cons and a short his- 
tory of Unix development. 

Unix Pros 

The Unix operating system offers a 
great deal of software. Its development 
system contains in the neighborhood of 
7 million bytes of code and costs ap- 
proximately $700. Not a bad deal even 
though an individual user is unlikely to 
212 • ao Micro, November 1933 



use all the features the system provides. 

Software written with the Unix 
system is portable. If you write soft- 
ware, then you arc painfully aware of 
the time required to convert programs 
for different hardware. This problem is 
especially troublesome if the software is 
written in Basic, since most manufac- 
turers create a dialect unique to their 
machines. 

For example. Quant Systems just fin- 
ished converting a statistical package 
from TRSDOS Basic to Microsoft Basic 
5.0 for CP/M. This process required 
approximately four months of tedious 
and unpleasant labor even though the 
Basics are very similar. 

For programs written in C under the 
Unix operating system, moving the 
software to another hardware configu- 
ration required only a few days' work at 
most. 1 recently heard someone from a 
large software house say he moved a 
10,000-line program without having to 
make a single change. Thai's portability. 

Because it is written in C, a structured 
high-level language, you can customize 
it and tailor the operating system com- 
mands to suit your own needs. For ex- 
ample, if you think a command is too 
cryptic to remember, you can change it 
in a flash. If a command doesn't exist, 
you can create it with existing off-the- 
shelf utility programs. This is vaguely 
similar to creating do-files in TRSDOS 
but better because of piping, I/O inde- 
pendence, and a host of programs to 
glue together through what is called the 
CsheU. 

Unix is a multi-user, multi-tasking 



operating system. Although many 
micro users enjoy the independence of 
having their own systems, there is still a 
strong need, especially in business, to 
share data. Many still regard the time- 
sharing envirofunent as the most effec- 
tive means to accomplish this goal, 
although networking is an increasingly 
attractive alternative. 

Excellent word processing tools are 
available, including programs that 
check grammar and literary style, as 
well as the more mundane spelling 
checkers and automatic index genera- 
tors. However, one of the most exciting 
aspects is its ability to direct your output 
to a line printer or typesetter. You can 
set type directly on many different type- 
setters without modifying the text for 
the peculiarities of the t\pesetter. And 
since the system is designed for people 
who write scientific articles, the word 
processing capabilities also permit the 
representation of complex equations. 

Unix Cons 

Unix has gone through a number of 
different versions; each new version 
correas perceived problems in the 
system. The difficulty in discussing the 
drawbacks of the system is thai it has 
been commercially produced without 
any real standards. Thus, problems in- 
herent in one commercial ad^tation 
are not always problems in another. 

Two of the most frequently heard 
complaints are the complexity of com- 
mand statements and the unforgiving 
nature of the command interpreter. In 
the three operating systems 1 frequently 
use (TRSDOS, CP/M, RSTS/E), none 
of the command interpreters are espe- 
cially forgiving if you incorrectly type in 
a command. As for the complexity 
problem, almost any system that pro- 
vides enormous flexibility of operation 
is inherently complex to use. 

Two other complaints are the lack of 



system security and the lack of record 
and flic locking. These are important 
considerations to potential busirKss 
users. However, most (X>niineFcial ver- 
sions of Unix successfully address these 
problems. 

Unix is also described as feature- 
laden. The package includes so much 
software that a potential purchaser 
mi^t doubt the need for the entire 
package. At least one commercial ven- 
dor is unbundling the system and selling 
the writing took or the Programmers 
Work Bench as separate entities. 

Another legitimate complaint is the 
shortage of business software. The sys- 
tem, new in the business environment, 
will eventually receive serious attention 
from business software vendors. 

History of Unfai 

In 1969 one of Bell Labs' employees, 
Ken Thompson, tired of the opo^ing 
system (more precisdy, the lack of an 
operating system) he was u^g on the 
PDP-7 minicomputer. He created Unix 
to create a computing environment with 
which Bell coiild pursue its program- 
ming research. 

At least one of Thompson's initial 
nwtives for creating Unix was the desire 
to implement a program to simulate 
movement in the solar system. Because 
the program required enormous 
amounts of time on the mainframe sys- 
tem, he deckled to move the program to 
an infrequently used PDP-7. Because 
no programming envirormient existed 
on the PDP-7, he had to write and mod- 
ify all his software on the mainframe, 
punch it out on paper tape, and load it 
into the PDP-7 for execution. If you 
have done any programming, you can 
imagine the frustration of such a cli- 
mate. In his initial effort to develop 
tools, Thompson wrote an operating 
system, an assembler, and several utility 
programs for the minicomputer (there 
were no micros in 1969), and Unix was 
bom. 

Although micros had not yet arrived 
in 1969, the "micro spirit" was very 
much alive at BeD Labs. This spirit is 
more or less the desire to control our 
own computing destinies — to be free of 
the bureaucrat. Any user of a large 
system understands the frustration of 
not being able to use system resources 
when needed. It is ironic that Thomp- 
son's initial effort on a small sin^user 
system grew into today's large multi-us- 
er Unix environment. 

Thompson's colleague, Dennis Rit- 
chie, took a langua^ Thompson had 
devek)ped. made significant modifica- 
tions, and called it C. Ritchie then 

^ S»» U9t ot AOmVttn on ftg* 307 



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$0 Micro, November 7983 • 213 



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rewrote the Unix operating system in C. 
Thus, Unix is one of the first operating 
systems written in a high-level language. 
The system then moved to the PDP-11. 

The first Unix system Bell used re- 
quired about five man-years of work. It 
included an assembler, Fortran, and 
various utilities. During the initial years 
people at Bell wrote generic programs 
to help write other programs (boot- 
striping at the software level). In the 
ensuing years Unix grew into a software 
colossus. 1 speculate that the current 
version of Unix required hundreds of 
man-years of labor. 

Since 1969 the Unix system has gone 
through continuing improvements. In 
1978 Bell Labs released version 7 and in 
1981 System III. In January 1983, they 
armounced System V. 

The commercialization of Unix has 
been a slow process. At the beginning of 
this decade commercial vendors took 
Unix out of the academic setting and 
transfwrted the system to the many 
architectures designed — the Motorola 
68000 for one. 

Xenix 

Thank goodness the people at Radio 
Shack didn't develop their own multi- 
user operating system for the Model 16. 
Rumor has it that they tried. However, 
at some point they decided to let Micro- 
soft implement Xenix on the Model 16. 
Everyone, including Radio Shack, will 
benefit from this decision. 

The operating systems we now see on 
the Model 11/12/16 pale in size and func- 
tion. As previously mentioned, the 
Xenix development system contains 
around 7 million bytes of code, at least 
70 times more than that on either 
TRSDOS or CP/M. 

Xenix is Microsoft's adaptation of 
the Unix operating system. After Tandy 
"postponed" development of their 
multi-user system they contracted with 
Microsoft for a version for their Model 
16. One of the problems that Microsoft 
and other commercial developers of 
Unix faced is the absence of several fea- 
tures — such as record and file locking, 
and the handling of flawed disk sec- 
tors — which are mandatory in commer- 
cial environments. 

At about the same time Microsoft 
developed Xenix, they were also work- 
ing on PC-DOS or its generic form MS- 
DOS. Microsoft continued develop- 
ment on MS-DOS and in its latest 
release (2.0) seems to have clearly moved 
in the direction of Unix/Xenix. There is 
even a shell language with pipes in the 
new MS-DOS. Microsoft's apparent in- 
tention is to make MS-E>OS compatible 



with the Xenix shell. This raises some 
interesting possibilities. Like the MS- 
DOS applications being very portable to 
Xenix and the Model 16 and vice versa. 
This means we should see better soft- 
ware in a more competitive environ- 
ment, which is a boon to consumers. 

Hiuilware Environment 

Thompson and Ritchie, Unix's 
authors, estimated in 1979 that Unix 
can run on hardware costing as little as 
$40,000. Things change fast in the mi- 
crocomputer field. Radio Shack now 
offers a three-user Xenix system for 
about $12,000. In addition to a Mode! 
16 or equivalent, the Radio Shack sys- 
tem requires a minimum of 256K of 
memory and a hard disk. Some of the 
applications programs require the addi- 
tion of a second memory board. It 
would not be surprising to see some 
manufacturer offer a 16-user box for 
under $10,000 in the near future. 

It is true that Unix and Xenix require 
a substantial amount of computing 
horsepower, but better horses seem to 
be designed every year. For Unix-like 
ports, Motorola's MC68000 is by far 
the most frequent target CPU. In fact, 
many compare the 68000 to Digital 
Equipment's VAX series of super mini- 
computers. Recently, Intel (80286) and 
National Semi Conductor (16000) intro- 
duced processors that they claim sur- 
pass the 68000's capabilities. No matter 
the claims and counterclaims, current 
16-bit CPUs are at least in a class of the 
nud- and late 1970b minicomputer CPUs, 
and thus the operating software de- 
signed for these systems appears to be a 
natural transition for state-of-the-art 
systems. 

However, there is much more to a so- 
phisticated architecture than the CPU. 
Coinciding with CPU development was 
a significant research effort in support 
devices, especially in the area of memo- 
ry management, floating p>oint proces- 
sors, and input/output processors of- 
fering more and more computational 
power for less and less money. One of 
the not-so-obvious reasons for this price 
reduction is the nonproprietary market- 
ing effort of the integrated circuit 
(microchip) manufacturers. Two intelli- 
gent, hard-working individuals with 
sufficient background can produce a 
complex system architecture in a fairly 
short period of time, especially if the 
individuals have atxess to a sophisti- 
cated computer-assisted design work 
station. ■ 

Contact James Hawkes at 25 Bain- 
bridge Drive, Charleston, SC 29407. 



214 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



Three Good Reasons To Buy Software 
From Mumford Micro Systems: 

1. Ci^Uclllty. Mumford Mirro has been selling sofluare for the TRS-80 sintt- 1978. Nobody survives in tftis competilive 
market for that long on poorly written st»ftware. Our best referentes are lliousands of satisfied and repeal customers, but if 
you haven't spoken to one of them, our 10 day ni<tney-ba<-k guarantee might secure your confidence. Our rate of return? 
Less than one in 200. 

^. Price Quality software al exorbitant prices is no bargain. Don't be misled by our low prices. Mumford Micro is known 
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O. OGrVICC We are not distributors or "middle men." We are llie original producers of every package we sell. If you 
have a problem with one of our programs, you can often call and talk to the author. On those occasions when a problem 
cannot be resolved on the phone, prompt technical help is available from a programmer who is intimately familiar with the 
program you purchased. 



INSTANT ASSEMBLER 

The Inslanl As&embLeT !s a p'^^vtHul assemblv language dei-eiopmcnt system for the 
TRS'80 H you are a]rea<iv ati assenibiy language programmer, iB uriique design u/ill gre*»[Jy 
increase your producnvirv H you are (ust getting started thete rs no better assembler to help 
you learn machine language programming Some of its unique features ate immediale 
assembly, wtiich delects syntax errors as source is entered, and a compact source formal thai 
allows you lo write programs nearly three Pmes as large as other assemblers m the same 
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debugging with the buih-in debugger, and also produces relocatable code modules that can 
be saved on disk or tape and linked together in memory lot large or modular assemblies You 
can quick^' su/itch from assembler to debugger without losing your source The built m 
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The Instant AisemtileT package ir^ludes six separate programs. The assembler itself 
includes Ihe editor and built-in debugger The Linkir)g Loader is included in several versions 
for different memon,' siies A stand-alone version of the debugger (MicroMind) ls also 
induded MicTaMind can be relocated in memory and has commands lo single-step, se' 
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Mumford Micro otters two lelccomcnunicacons programs TELCOM I has most of the 
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character keys 

TELCOM II IS an expanded vers>on of tho pro-am for the most demanding leiecommunica 
nons applications The terminal mode now has a help menu and a large pnntci spooler for 
high baud rates Krom within the lerminal mode you can k>ad disk files into the memory 
buffer, type into the buffet ttansmil the buffer, or view the buffer or data that has already 
scrofled off the screen It has 10 different pro^ammable messages that can each be sent with a 
single command (or auto kigon or aulo diabng. and 5 different character translation tables 
TELCOM II also irxJudes an error corteclion file transfer mode which is compatible with the 
LYNC pro-am available on CP M systems and the IBM PC TELCOM II will exchange disk 
files with any computer running this protocol (including another TRS-80 running TELCOM 
11). and will automatkially detect and correct errors in transmission Files can be sent lo or 
(etched Irom an unattended computer The extreme ease of use TELCOM 1 is known tor has 
not been compromsed Reconfiguration of the pro^ammable features a done internally 
from dear menus tor last, easy operation Both versions of TELCOM come with complete 
instruction manuals, which are availalile separatety for $5 to help you decide which program 
IS best suited lo your needs 

Specify Model I or Model (11, TELCOM I $39 95 on disk 

Specify Model I or Model IIL TELCOM 11 $69 95 or disk 

MODEL I CLOCK MOD 

The SK-Zdock modification allows CPU speeds to be switched between normal, an increase 
ot 50% or 1(X}% OI a W^ reduction Speeds may be changed with a tog^ switch (not 
includedl or on software command It can be configured lo return lo normal speed any lime a 
disk is Bcfive and has provisions for adding an LED lo indicale when the computer is ncrt at 
normal sf>eed It mounts inside the keyboard unit with only 4 necessary ennncctions and is 
easily remcn.'ed if the computer ever needs service The SK-2 has been field proven by 3 
vears ot use and comes fully assembled with socketed IC's and illustrated instructions 
Model I onJy. SK-2 $24,95 



DISK INDEX 



DISK INDEX j-ill assemble a master index of your enlire program bbrary by automat>cally 
reading the program names and free space from each disk The index may then be 
alphabetized or searched for any disk, program, or extension li will alpfiabeOie 2400 
programs in k^ss than 50 secniKls and will find any program out at 2400 in less than 3 
seconds Disks ui programs may be added or deleted manually, and the whole mdex or any 
selected part may be printed on paper m several (ifferent totmals The iridex itself may also 
be stored on disk lot fuluie access and update A 4SK machine will hold up to 2.55 disks and 
over 2400 programs in each file, and you may build as many files as you need There is no 
hmil to the number of filenames it can read on any one disk It will run on either a Model I r>r 
Model 111 and catalog disks lor either machine regardless of which one is luntiiny it, though 
Model 1 owners must have double density to catakjg Model HI disks It will automatically 
recognize any DOS and disk densiti.' DISK INDEX wcirks with any operating system written 
for the Modd I or Model 111 except CP M and .s txtremely fast and easy to use 
Sperify Model I ot Model IIL DISK INDEX VERSION 3 $29.95 on dish 

INSIDE LEVEL II 

The Programmers Guide to the TRS-80 ROMS 

INSIDE LEVEL II is a comprehtnsiv,^ reierente yuide to th,' Mmi,'! 1 and Model 111 ROMs 
which alk)ws the machine language ot Basic progiammei lo easJy utili/e tlie sophisticated 
routines ihey tonlain Conast^ly explains set-ups, callir>g sequences, and vanabie passage 
tor number conversion, anthmeiic operations and mathematical functions, as well as 
keyboard, tape, arid video routines Pari 11 presents an entirely new composite program 
structure which kiads under the SYSTEM command and executes in both Basic and machine 
code with the speed and efficiency ot a compiler In addition, the Ifl chapters include a large 
body of otherinlormation useful lo ihcprogrammei SO Micro said "The Ixwik has no (laws il 
IS a perfect gem " Byre Magazine said 'I recommend this book lo serious machine language 
programmers " 
tr>clud« updates for Model III, INSIDE LEVEL IE $15,95 

DEMON DEBUGGER 

DEMON (tor DEbugger and MONitorl is a sophisticated tool with which you can explore arid 
debug machine language pro-ams It has two mocics ot operation In the STFP mode, il 
"emulates" the operation ot (he Z-80 and aibws you to step Ih rough any machine language 
program one insTrucfion al a time, showing you the address, hexadecimal value, Zilog 
mnemonic, re^ster contents and step counl for each instruction The I'J different STEP 
mode commands include step, step to a branch, run m step mode al a variable rate, run for a 
specified number o( steps, change fla^ ot regislers execute a CALL or RST set breakpoints 
in RAM or ROM. and break when a number in a defined range appears m any double re^sler 
The 26 commands in the MONITOR mode indude hex anthmetic hex to decimal conver 
sion. bkxk move fill memory, find bytes lump to address, disassemble lo screen, pnnler. 
disk, or tape k>ad memory (rom disk or tape wnle memory lo disk ot tape, full screen 
memory edit in hex or ASCII, and relocate other programs ot itself Screen displays may be 
routed to yout bne printer for hard copy. DEMON includes a compreherisive 40 page 
manual with many examples 
Specify Model I or Model III DEJtION S29 95 on t>pe ot disk 

8748 ASSEMBLER 



Assemble programs tor the complete Intel MCS-48 family of microcontrollers including the 
S741, H742, H74«, and S749 on yout Model I, 111, or IV Assembles from a source file untten 
on your text editor directly to an object file on disk It supports the slanclard Intel mnemonics 
and (eaturcs condibonal assembly and bsting, complete expression evaluation, ten signifitaiit 
characters (or symbols, a complete range ol pseudo-ops and informative error messages li 
comes wilh a comprehensive instruction manual which includes the insnuclion sel for each 
component and sample hstings for anthmetic and 10 subrouhnes We also offei plans 
schematic, and software to help you build yout own inexpensive H74)S programmer The 
8748 IS a readily available single chip computet that contains RAM, EPROM. dock oscillalot, 
a counter/It met, end 27 I O bnes in a sin^ 40 pin package A complete computet controllei 
can tie built wilh this one chip, a crystal, three capaalOTS. at>d a five volt power supply 

Specify Model 1 or Model 111 CASM48 $74.95 on disk 

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Quality softwar(> since 1978 



80 Micro, November! 983 • 215 



HARDWARE 



Real-World Control— Part 



by David Eagclhardt 



Y 



our Model m can give Fido some real competi- 
tion in keeping an eye on your house. Fu^t 
in a two-part series on real-worid control. 



A popular item in electronics stores 
today is the home controller — a device 
that lets you operate household appara- 
tus from a central location. Model III 
owners already own the centerpiece of 
the system, the computer controller. 
With a real-time clock and the hardware 
described here, you can put your com- 
puter to work controlling a bursar 
alarm and sprinkler system, as well as 
your own real-world applications. It 
might just make old Fido obsolete. 

This two-part article introduces a 
couple of ideas for a 16K Model III sys- 
tem that utilizes the real-world interface 
and real-time clock from the article 
"Real World. It's About Time" (80Mi- 
cro, March 1983, p. 342). If you have a 
different interface or clock, most of the 
information here still applies. 

I include listings for each system with 
detailed explanations on their functions 
as certain parameters allow you to mod- 



ify them if you require. Also included is 
a program called CMDTBL that lets 
you patch custom commands to the ex- 
isting Basic command table. 

This article, Part I, contains the sche- 
matic diagrams, parts list, instriictions, 
and test program that enable you to 
build the hardware and test it. The ap- 
plication programs will appear next 
month in Part II. 

The sprinkler and burglar alarm sys- 
tems use input/output (I/O) pons to 
sample and control the real world via 
machine-language programs. I designed 
both systems around a constructed 
hardware board which I refer to as the 
port 1/0 board. I use an S-100 plug-in 
card as I designed the whole system 
around the S-IOO plug-in card concept. 

The S-100 card 1 use, made by Vector 
Electronics, plugs into a Wameco 
QMB-12 motherboard. Feel free to lay 




the board out any way you like, espe- 
cially if you build the circuit on some- 
thing other than an S-100 card. 

If you choose a different plug-in 
card, it is probably smaller in physical 
size. You can build the port I/O hoard 
using smaller cards but you must split 
up the total circuit. Using smaller cards 
does not present any problems as you 
can link them together using ribbon ca- 
bles. You can easily adapt the required 
signals to your bus configuration as 1 la- 
bel the signals in the circuit schematics. 

The Port I/O Board 

Refer to Figs. 1, 2, and 3 for the sche- 
matics of the port I/O board. It is the 
heart of the system involving data I/O 
and control. The sprinkler and burglar 
alarm systems' machine-language pro- 
grams control this board. 

Interrupts and time control these two 
programs. This is where the real-time 
clock from the March article comes into 
play. It supplies the required time and 
interrupts needed for the two programs. 

Main Decoding Section 

The first and most impwrtant func- 
tion of a port board is to decode the de- 
sired ports when needed. Refer to Fig. 1 
for the port board's main decoding sec- 



The Key Box 

Model m 

16K RAM Cassette Basic 
32K RAM Disk Basic 
Assembl> Language 
Editor/ Assembler 
Hardware Project 



216 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



tion. Integrated circuits Ul, U4, and US 

perform the major part of this decoding 
function. Decoding is fairly simple and 
allows you the capability of many de- 
coded outputs. 

Ul is a 74154 integrated circuit with a 
primary function of decoding the need- 
ed ports. It causes any one of its 16 out- 
puts to go to a logical low state in re- 
spect to its decoded input. Address lines 
AO to A3, buffered and enabled through 
U2— a 74LS367 tri-state buffer— control 
Ul's output. 

Since the Ul uses four address lines 
as inputs, the combination of all four 
circuits gives a total of 16 different out- 
puts or address ports — zero to 15. Re- 
member when you select the desired 
port, the designated output line goes to 
a logical low state. Use the rest of the 
address lines to make the port selection 
unique, and to turn on the 74154 (Ul) 
only when you select it. 

Address lines A4 to A7 complete port 
decoding. The U4 circuit combines 
these address lines to eventually give on- 
ly one output which enables U 1 . The en- 
able inputs of U 1 (EO and E 1 ) are active 
low inputs. At the selection of pons ze- 
ro to 15 address lines A4 to A7 are logi- 
cal low. Since A4 to A7 are all ORed to- 
gether, the resulting output is low and 
turns on or enables Ul . 

Remember that you want the decoder 
to decode only when you select these 
ports. To ensure this, use control signals 
In and Out. Circuit U5a combines these 
two signals and the result combines with 
the output of U4d. 

This combination turns on U2 via 
U4c and allows the address lines to U I's 
inputs. You may notice that data lines 
DO to D5 go through a tri-state inverter 
buffer and you enable the buffer with 
an Out command. The data lines, in 
conjunction with an individual port ad- 
dress, activate specific devices. 

Refer to Fig. 2. This schematic makes 
up the output control section of the port 
I/O board. The schematk may look 
complicated but much of it is repeti- 
tious. Notice at the bottom of the sche- 
matic there is the Out command thai in- 
cludes different port addresses. 

Consider that section I of Fig. 2 con- 
sists of the Out command with port I's 
signal. Section 2 consists of the Out 
command with port 2's signal and sec- 
tion 3 consists of the Out command 
with port 3's and port 4's signals. With 
this in mind, consider that the output 
section consists of three parts which are 
identical in operation. 

Notice the data signals on the left side 
of the schematic. These data lines are 



i>0»' ' lOf jS€D 






L, 


■iv 

r. 








J5 




• 


J 


« 


T 


a 


» 


; 


II 


<• 


•3 











Oi I D4T» INPUTS 

n f ON 



Figure I. Port board decoding section. 



common to all three sections. This 
board uses the data signals in conjunc- 
tion with the Out command and the de- 
coded port to control a maximum of 16 
external devices. 

If you use all ei^t data lines you can 
control up to eight devices with just one 
port signal. In the case of the port I/O 
board, ports 1 and 2 each have six con- 
trolled outputs while ports 3 and 4 have 
only two, due to space requirements. It 
works out that when considering com- 
ponent placement on the board, you 
can use six data lines only for ports 1 
and 2. It is interesting to note that if 
each port uses all ei^t data lines for 
control, there is a possible combination 
of 1,024 different controllable ports 
(128 times 8). 

Hgure 5a is a close-up view for two 
control outputs. This view is a break- 
down of chips U6 and U14 in Fig. 2. 
Notice that each set of chips consisting 
of a 74LS32 and a 74LS73 controls two 
outputs. As shown in Fig. 2, there are 
eight pairs consisting of one 74LS32 
and one 74LS73 which provide 16 con- 
trollable outputs as shown. 

The gates in Fig. 5a require synchro- 
nized reception of the j^jpropriatc sig- 
nals to cause the flip-flop in U14 to 
switch. This flip-flop either turns on a 
transistor as shown or runs directly into 
another TTL/LS (transistor-transistor 
logic) dcvKe. This is up to you. I show 



the outputs controlling relays via a tran- 
sistor which eventually controls sprin- 
kler system zones and burglar alarm de- 
vices. 

The circuit operates as follows: When 
you execute an OUT 1,1 command, the 
required parameters consist of the port 
number and value sent via address and 
data lines. Address lines A0-A7 decode 
port I (see Fig. 1) and send the data val- 
ue from the CPU through the designat- 
ed data line or lines depending on the 
value. Remember from Fig. 1 the now 
inverted data lines operate in an active 
low state. 

The appropriate port number (port 1) 
ties to gates U6a and U6c which are at 
an active low state. Soon after, data line 
EX) goes to a low stale because you sent 
a value of 1 to this port. These two sig- 
nals combine through U6a whose out- 
put combines with the Out signal via 
U6b. If all the signals are logically low 
at the same time, the output of U6b 
goes to an active low and triggers one of 
U14's flip-flops which turns on an ex- 
ternal device. 

U 14 is a dual JK flip-flop triggered by 
a clock pulse input from an active fall- 
ing edge signal. This means that each 
time the output of U6b goes to a low 
state, the flip-flop triggers its ahemaie 
state. For this to happen, you must tie 
the JK inputs together to a 5-volt sup- 
ply. To shut off the device send out the 

80 Micro, November 1983 • 217 



same OUT 1,1 command. All 16 con- 
trollable outputs operate by this method. 

Notl<^ the resistor (Rl) and capacitor 
(CI) in Figs. 2 and 5a. These two com- 
ponents initiate a power-up time delay 
that allows time for all of the flip-flops 
to reset themselves. Resetting the flip- 
flops on start-up requires an active low 
agnal. At the first supply of power CI 
acts like a dead short for an instant. 

At this instant, all of the flip-flops re- 
set before CI charges up through Rl to 
the 5-volt power supply level. I feel this 
is a required feature to prevent external 
devices, like an alarm siren, from acti- 
vating when you turn on the power. 

As I mentioned earlier, you can apply 
the outputs of the 74LS73 flip-flops to 
transistors or other TTL/LS devices. 
Figure 5a shows relays being controlled. 
I use a transistor to drive the relay be- 
cause the 74LS73 doesn't have the pow- 
er capability to do it alone. The relays I 
control also control the sprinkler system 
zone valves and the alarm devices for 
the burglar alarm system. 

Figure 4 is the schematic of the sys- 
tem relays. Notice the six outputs la- 
beled 1-6. These are the same outputs 
decoded from Fig. 2. The outputs 
shown in Fig. 4 (with relays) pertain to 
port 1, with activating bits of 1, 2, 4, 8, 
16, and 32. So, to turn on sprinkler zone 



3, the command in Basic is OUT 1, 4. 
Zone 6 is OUT 1 , 32. An Out command 
of OUT I, 63 activates all the relays. 

The activate bit table in Fig. 4 gives 
you an idea of what data value you need 
to control the designated relay. (See 
Table 2 for the master bit table on all 
I/O control.) Use spare outputs 
depicted at the lower-left comer for fu- 
ture control points. 

I bought my relays from a local elec- 
tronics surplus store. Potter & Brum- 
field manufaaured the relays (part 
numbers R10-E1-X2-V185 or RlO-El- 
E2-V185). They are double-pole, dou- 
ble-throw (DPDT) relays. Basically, for 
the sprinkler system, any DPDT relay 
with a contact rating of at least 1 amp 
sufficiently covers all types of sprinkler 
valves. 

Depending on the alarm devices you 
use for the burglar alarm system, rate 
the relay contacts for at least 2 amps. 
Radio Shack sells a relay that works for 
all the above apphcations and is ap- 
proximately the same physical size as 
those I use (Radio Shack part number 
275-206). These relays should carry a 
12-volt rating. 

Notice the diodes across each coil of 
the relays. The diodes eliminate most of 
the noise generated by the deenergized 
relay coil. Relay coils can generate volt- 



age spikes of thousands of volts. Voltage 
spikes can cause major damage when in- 
duced into electronic circuits, so I high- 
ly recommend that you install diodes. 
Make sure you install them with reverse- 
biased polarity as shown in Fig. 4. 

I use DPDT-rated relays for a specific 
purpose. To do a control to a certain re- 
lay, I need to verify whether it is on or 
off. I use the extra set of contacts to in- 
dicate the condition of the relay. I wire- 
ground one side of the relay contacts 
and run the other side to an input point 
on the port I/O input section. 

Notke the close-up view of the extra 
set of contacts in the lower-right comer 
of Fig. 4. I show the extra contacts only 
on relay 6 but it is the same for all the 
relays. I will discuss more on the extra 
set of contacts in the input section. 

Port I/O Input Section 

To see what the real world is doing, 
you must be able to sample inputs 
somehow. The port I/O input section 
fulfills this requirement and Fig. 3 de- 
picts this section. Since 1 use four ports 
to control the real world, 1 also use four 
ports to sample it. Sample through 
74LS367 tri-state buffers that you turn 
on with the combination of the port val- 
ue and INP (input) command. 

Each port samples up to eight differ- 



ouTPur » I 

OUTPUT •; 

OUTPUT a; 

tXlTBUI • 7 
OUTPu' #8 

Output *i 



fCU'PJT 
'OUTPU' 
lOU'PU' 




OUTPUT •lO, 

■ OUTPUT # M 

■ OUTPUT #i;l 
OUTPUT • t I 

■ OUTPUT #5 
OUTPUT as 



ICE 

M T"»u l"J ' 
1114 THitlJ U7I 



'CONTINUES 

TO 
FIG * 






21ft • 80 Micro, November 1983 



Figure 2. Pon board output control section. 



Now First For Any Dos . 



• • 



EBASIC 



Extended Basic for the Model I and Model III. Adds 
graphics, sound and llne-labeling to Basle. Works with 
DOS PLUS 3.5,LDOS, NEWDOS80, TRSDOS, and 
MULTIDOS. $49.95 



Assembly language programming has reached a new era. 
Unlimited nesting of conditional assembly. 
Unlimited nesting of INCLUDING files. 
Absolutely will not accept a bad OPCODE. 
Positively the fastest full featured assembler. 



ZEUS 

Editor Assembler 

INTRODUCTORY 
Price $79.95 



• Built in hex and decimal calculator. 

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• Automatic syntax check on line entry, 

• Forward and reverse scrolling. 

• Conditional assembly. 

• Include source text from disk file. 

• Over 34,000 bytes for source text. 

• Creates object code for 794 instructions 

• Creates object code ZVz to ZVz times faster. 



Other Products Available From C.E.C. 

MULTIDOS Version 1.6 for either the Model 1 or the Model III $99.95 

Z'DOS Version 1.0 for either the Model I or the Model III $39.95 

BOSS/RENUM90 Machine language Basic program debugging/renumbering 

utility. 

BOSS/RENUM90{tape) $24.95 

or BOSS only (disk) $15.95 



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t' Sm U*i of AOvtfllsafs on Page 307 



80 Micro, November 1983 • 219 



NEWBASIC 2.0 



Adds over 40 commands to 
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• Customize NEWBASIC-include 
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• Over a dozen easy-to-use and 
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• Pre-defined and definable keys. 

• Disk-based spooler /despooler. 

• Execute strings, label lines. 2-byle 
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line, bk)ck memory move, set 
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• 70 page manual & summairy card. 

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Check, money order, VISA. M/C. and C.O.D. 
( + $2) accepted CA restdenis add 6% tax. 
Foreign orders (exc. Canada), $5 shipping, 
US funds only. Both Modell & III versujns on 
same disk. Requires 48K & 2 disk drives. 
(Nol copy protected— personal backups OK ) 
Works wilh most majO'r DOS's. 



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' TR3-90 IS a Iracte-mark o( TanOy Cwp 







GOOjrO 


UiJ TO U2T 


PIN le 


PiW 8 


U2! 


Pin 14 


Pin 7 




NO'E 
THEM SWITCHES 

ctwTACTs fon 

IMC SI»H|iHKLER 
S'SIE" (SEE 
f»5 41 



TO EXPiWSIO*! •MTEHFACE -MTa IWOTS 



Figure 3. Port board decoded input section. 



ent points with the INP command. 
Each 74LS367 tri-state buffer inputs six 
points each and spli'ts these up between 
four and two input enable lines. Pin 1 
envies the four-input group and pin 15 
the two-input group. Wkh a combina- 
tion of 6 pius 2 and 4 fJus 4, you can ob- 
tain eight inputs for each port using two 
chips. 

Port 1 samples the sprinkler system 
and burgiar alarm system relays. Since I 
currently use only six relays, I need only 
one tri-state buffer to obtain these ex- 
ternal readings. Figure 3 shows this at 
bottom right. 

The circuit works as follows: The two 
signals that read the ports conast of the 
INP command signal and the decoded 
port signal. Refer to Fig. 5b for a close- 
up view of orK sectiton of U22 in Fig. 3. 
liie tri-st^e buffer requires an active 
k)w on either pin 1 or pin 15 to activate 
the appropri^e inputs. At the coirxn- 
dcnce of the INP and port agnal, the 
tri-state turns on and the data line corre- 



sponding to that particular input reads 
dther a bgical hi^ or logical low. 

NotKe in Fig. 3 that I tie together all 
data lines to the computer. Since the 
74LS367S are tri-state buffers, the com- 
puter only reads the activated port as all 
other ports are deactivated and in a high 
impedance state. Also notice that I label 
each port's input to a data line X, Y, or 
Z. This labeling keeps track of the in- 
puts mixed up due to the two and ax 
combinations. 

The resBtors on the tri-state g^es are 
pull-up resistors. If you do not ground 
the inputs, the computer senses a logical 
hi^. In normal operation with every- 
thing off, a value of 255 (decimal) re- 
turns with an INP conmiand. 

When you close a relay or switch to 
ground, thjtf data Une is k)w and the 
INP value is smaller than 255. The best 
way to see whkh data line or lines you 
want to ground is to perform a PRINT 
255 - INPPQ, where X is the port num- 
ber. The printed value shows exactly 



220 * 90 Micro, Novmbf 1963 



ACTIVBTE SIT TABLE 


(PORT 


1) 


an VALUE 


1 


' 


4 


B 


16 


J? 


HELH » 


1 


2 


^ 


4 


5 


6 



OUTPUT* I y 



OUTPUT H^ 



OUTPUT • ! > 




OUTPUT #2 y 



OUTPUT •*> 




ALAR** BUZZER I 
RS •J73-055 'i' 



THESE OUTPUTS CAN BE 
USED TO CONTROL UOftE 
iRCtAYS USING TRANStSrOHS 
1 OR JUST HUN tJlRfCTLI INTO 
I TTL on L5 LOGIC 



RUN WIR£S 
TO US7, , 



•THESE CONTACTS ON ALL 
THE BELAYS B'LL BE 
USED TO VERIFY OPEN OR 
CLOSURE OF The RELav 
iTSELF 

NOTE 

'(ELAYS MUST BE WOT 

(RADIO SiaCK •Z7S-206 OR EOUIV ) 

DI0DE5 ABE R S •a76-'l04 



Figure 4. Sprinkler head and miscellaneous control circuitry. 



what corresponding data line or lines 
are at ground potential. 

The extra relay contacts run to U27's 
inputs (Fig. 3) and read the relay status 
of the sprinkler and burglar alarm sys- 
tems. Input ports 2 and 3 sample points 
for the burglar alarm system. Port 4 is 
for future applications. I don't use port 
zero because the Alpha Jo^ick uses 
this port. 

Here I split the functions of a port. 
Even though 1 use ports 2 and 3 for bur- 
glar alarm inputs, I can still use the out- 



puts for something other than a burglar 
alarm system. Remember the eight pos- 
sible controllable outputs assigned to 
each port. You can use these outputs to 
control a train set, or whatever, as long 
as there is no requirement for relay sta- 
tus sampling. 

Port I/O CoDstnictioii 

Since all of the integrated circuits are 
either TTL or LS, don't worry about 
static charges as you do with CMOS 
chips. Refer to Fig. 6 for board layout 





OUT PORT • 




I RELAY 

(contacts 



T 



,; lOOXfl 



'OweH-UP «!f T 



Figure 5a. Partial breakdown of output section. 



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80 Micro. November 1983 • 221 




Figure 5b. Partial breakdown of input section. 

and component placement. Be sure to 
use sockets for all integrated circuits 
and transistors. For hookup wire, I use 
wire-wr^ from Radio Shack. This wire 
comes in various colors and is easy to 
work with if you use a wire stripper. 

I recommend colored wire-wrap be- 
cause if a problem arises with the cir- 
cuitry, it is easier to troubleshoot and 
locate problems. It also makes con- 
struction easier. I use the blue for ad- 
dress lines, yellow for data lines, green 
for control signals, and red for power. 

In regard to all of the control signals, 
I use the standard S-100 bus designa- 
tions as my guideline. You can obtain 
this list from various manufacturers of 
S-100 products or with the purchase of 
the Wameco QMB-12 motherboaixl. If 
you use something other than the S-100 
design, the placement of these signals is 
at your discretion. If you use smaller 
boards to construct the port I/O board, 
use the 16-pin DIP (dual in-line pack- 
age) Jumper (Radio Shack part number 
276-1976) to link the boards together. 

I mounted all of the pull-up resistors 
(30 of them) for the port data inputs on 
the port 1/0 board. You can mount 
them as I did or mount them in 14- or 
16-pin component carriers which look 
like IC sockets with no top. It is easier to 
mount them on the board next to the 
power supply. This makes it so the 



MOTE 

US TO Ull ■ T»LSJJ 
Ul* 10 u;i ■ 'tL57 J 
u;)TOUJS. T»LS)S7 
01 TO SIS ■ IfiiOB 




Photo I. Relay box. 



external device has only to supply a 
ground. 

When you complete the construction, 
check your circuits carefully for wiring 
errors, opens, and shorts before you ap- 
ply power to the board. If you decide to 
mount the 5-volt regulator on the card 
as I did, be sure to measure the voltage 
before you plug in the integrated cir- 
cuits. This is a good rule to follow at all 
times. 

If the voltage is less than 4.9 volts, 
add a 75 microfarad (/tF) electrolytic ca- 
pacitor on the regulator's input lead. 
This boosts regulation to approximately 
5 volts. Be sure to install .01 /aF capaci- 
tors between the power and ground pins 
of each integrated circuit as a filter. 



HEUT 
CONIBOL 

OUTPUTS 





POBT ? 


POUT INPUT 
SOCKET |iG OIKI 




POffT a 


1 


£ 

E 4_> 


* 




Pl»<« 2 




UZ7 





Figure 6. Port I/O layout. 



Sometimes when ICs switch at high 
speeds, they generate noise that the .01 
fiF c^acitors help filter out. 

RefatyBox 

Now that you've finish«i the port 
I/O board you must interface the relays 
to the port board. The cable exits the 
top center of the port board (labeled RC 
#1 in Fig. 6) and connects to the relay 
box as shown in Photo 1. This 14-wire 
ribbon cable supplies control for 12 
relays, 12 volts, and ground to the relay 
box. I obtain the 12 volts I need for re- 
lay supply from the bus via one of the 
S-100 card edge connectors. 

I use a 14-pin socket in the relay box 
as shown into which I plug the ribbon 
cable. Take the 12-volt line and make a 
common cormection to one side of the 
relay coils for all the relays. Run each of 
the relay control signals from the ribbon 
cable to the other side of each relay coil. 
When you turn on the transistor, it sup- 
plies the ground needed to actuate the 
relay. Remember to put the noise-sup- 
pression diodes across the relay coils. 

The relay contacts that I use for 
sprinkler control run out via two pins 
within the cormector shown. This pro- 
vides complete electrical isolation from 
the external hardware, especially the 
sprinkler system valves which operate at 
approximately 28 volts ac. 

If you use the 12-volt supply internal 
to the relay box for an alarm or buzzer, 
you need only one output pin instead of 
two. For heavy current devices, I use 
large cormectors mounted on the back 



222 • 80 Micro, November 1983 




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what a turbo-charger can do for an auto engine, that is what NICE does for a 
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NICE makes development and using software - EASY. Based on a new concept this 
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at your fingertips! Run word-processors, spell-checkers, spread-sheet programs, 
utilities, application programs without remembering command sequence or 
constantly checking the manuals. Everything you need is on the screen. Create 
your own applications and add them to the system - use menus, relational files, 
customized screens, special forms. In a matter of hours, you zip through the 
programming projects you usually expected to take months. All thanks to a 
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IS YOUR WORDPROCESSOR WORKING? 

THEN THOSE SCREENS OUGHT TO BE IN YOUR SYSTEM ! 

Using a computer should not be difficult - no more complicated than driving a car. 
With NICE you are no longer required to know all of the intricate internal 
operations of the computer. Creation of all types of screens, menus, inquires and 
reports or customized forms is as simple as writing a letter - type it on your 
word-processor, save it to disk, and it is ready for use. You don't have to be a 
programmer - just a computer user. 

It's NICE for you! 

NICE system consists of: 

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Menu and Screen management facilities (MSF) $75. 

Database facility (DBF) $75. 

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Library Support Option (LSO) $75. 

Minimal NICE configuration — ICPL+MSF+LSO. 

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Sa» List 0/ AOMfTisefs on Page XT 



80 Micro. November 1983 ■ 223 



10 REM •*** BASIC LISTING NUMBER 1 **•* 

20 REM ••** PORT ACTIVATE AND STATUS READ SECTION **** 

30 REM 

40 CLS 

50 OUT23fi,16 ' •**• TURN ON INTERNAL BUS •*•* 

60 INPUT"ENTER PORT NUMBER - "jP 

70 INPUT'ENTF.R ACTIVATE BIT VALUE =";AB 

80 OUT P,AB 

90 FOR I=1TO10:NEXT ' •*•• RELAY CONTACT TIME DELAY •••* 

100 PV= 255-INP(P) 

110 PRINT'PORT VALUE READ BACK IS " ; PV 

120 GOTO 6 

130 REM 

140 REM •*•• PORT INPUT TEST SECTION •*** 

150 REM 

160 CLS 

170 OUT236,16 ' **•• TURN ON INTERNAL BUS **** 

180 INPUT'ENTER PORT NUMBER TO SCAN UNTIL BREAK KEY IS HIT";P 

190 PRINT 255-INP(P) ; 

200 GOTO 190 

210 END 

Program Listing. Port lest program. 



of the relay box instead of the small 
connector pins. This way you can inter- 
face the relay box for external control. 

I use the ground signal that runs to 
the relay box to sense the relay status via 
the extra set of contacts. Connect the 
ground to one side of the rontacts and 
equalize all the relays from which you 
want status. I send the other side of the 
contacts back to the port board's input 
section. A ribbon cable cormects the re- 
lay status inputs from the relay box and 
plugs into the socket labeled pin 2 in 
Fig. 6. 

I use the socket labeled pin 1 in Fig. 6 
for port 2's and 3's burglar alarm in- 
puts. A ribbon cable plugs into this 
socket. The other end of this cable con- 
nects to a switch block that I use to at- 
tach the burglar alarm switches. 1 use 
barrier strips that Radio Shack sells 



(part number 274-670). You can obtain 
these strips from electronics surplus 
stores as well. 

I use quite a bit of ribbon cable, and I 
find it expensive to buy with 14- or 
16-pin connectors on each end. So I 
purchase the connectors themselves and 
buy the ribbon cable from an electron- 
ics surplus store at a fraction of the re- 
tail cost. As it turns out, I can build each 
jumper at about one-fourth the retail 
price and I can make them specific 
lengths. 

Spectra Strip manufactures self-strip- 
ping and self-locking connectors (part 
number 805-1401-001 for the 14-pin 
connector and 805-1601-001 for the 
16-pin connector). 

Hardware Oieckoul 

Once you construct and hook up all 



Ul 


74154 




U2,LI23-U27 


74LS367 




m 


74LS368 




U4.U6-U13,U22 


74LS32 




US 


74LS08 




UI4-U2I 


74LS73 




Rl 


lOk ohm 'A wait 




CI 


50;J^@25Velecirolytic 




Caps (Filter) 


.01 mF @ 25V disc 




R (Figure 3) 


4.7k ohm % watt 


Quantity of 30 


R (Figure 4) 


100k ohm '/* wall 


Quantity of 6 


Tnosigtors 


2N5308 


Quantity of 16 


Relay Diodes 


R.S. W76-1104 


Quantity of 16 


Rday9(16) 


R.S. #275-206 or equivalent 




Sirei 


R.S. #49-525 




Buzzer 


R.S. #273-055 





Mbc: Suitable enclosure for the relays, wire-wrap, IC 

sockets, hardware, PC board, ribbon cable 
with connectors. 

If used: Wameco QMB-12 motherboard 

Vector 8802-1 S-lOOcard 

TaNe !. Port I/O board and relay parts list. 



of the hardware, test it for normal oper- 
ation. The Program Listing is a very 
short and limited Basic program that 1 
use to test ail available relays for opera- 
tion. The program asks you the port 
number and data value to send out. The 
data value is the same as the activate bit 
that differentiates each relay control 
within the same port. Refer to Table 2 
for the aaivate bit codes. 

Run the Basic program and answer 
the port question with a value of I. 
Look at Table 2 for the corresponding 
bit that activates the desired relay. Press 
the enter key and listen for the relay to 
switch. Read the relay port lo see if the 
relay switches. 

The time delay routine at line 90 al- 
lows time for the relay to switch. Other- 
wise, the INP command reads the state 
of the relay prior to activation. If the re- 
lay is turned on, the value read back and 
printed should be the same value you 
sent to activate the relay. Performing 
the same command turns the relay off 
and the program displays a value of ze- 
ro on the screen. 

Run the above test for all of the re- 
lays. Once the relay operates correctly, 
test the INP command for ports 2, 3, 
and 4. You check port 1 when you read 
the relay status. Run line 160 of the list- 
ing to test the INP function. If you have 
no grounded inputs, the value read back 
should be 255. 

Line 190 subtracts the value from 255 
to show the actual data line that is put to 
ground. If you tie each data line starting 
from DO to D7 to ground and you lift 
them, one at a time, the program prints 
values 1, 2, 4, 8. 16, 32, 64, and 128. 
Run line 160 to test all the prorts. The 
program scans the selected port until 
you hit the break key to stop the pro- 
gram. If ports 2, 3, and 4 check out, you 
have a totally functional port I/O board 
and relay box. ■ 

Write to David Engelhardt at 10221 
W. Wist Place. Bmomfield. CO 80020. 

Real- World Control— Part II will 
cover applications programs for the 
controller and will appear in 80 Micro 's 
December issue. 





1 


2 


ActKale Bits 
4 8 16 


32 


Port 1 


#1 


#2 


#3 


#4 #5 


#6 


Port 2 


tn 


#8 


#9 


#10 #11 


#12 


Port 3 
Port 4 


#13 
#15 


#14 
#16 


- 


UNUSED 





Note: #'s refer to control output numbers in 
Fig. 2. 

Table 2. Master activate bit table. 



224 • 80 Micro, November 1983 



for the TRS-80 from Micro-Mega 



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See Ust ot AOMftlsen or Page 307 



80 Micro, November1983 • 225 



PUT YOUR 

TT?S-80* 

DM CONTROL 




Interface your TRS-80 to out- 
side devices. Learn with the 
projects in TRS-80 as a Con- 
troller. You can use your 
computer to control lights, 
switches, and even a small 
computer you build yourself. 

All it takes is a minimum 
knowledge of electronics and 
programming. Circuits are 
simple. Most programs arc 
fewer than fifteen lines long. 
The instructions are clear and 
fully illustrated with photo- 
graphs, schematics, and 
figures. 

Jerr>' O'Dell has designed 
these projects to be 
both easy and 
inexpensive. You 
don't need disk 
drives, plotters, 
digitizers or 
other fancy 
units. 




You don't have to be 
an expert and you 
don't have to be rich. 

All vou need is a TRS-80 
Model III with 16K RAM. Level 
II BASIC, and a few other 
parts that you will no doubt 
find useful at a later date. (Vou 
can also use a Model I. with 
the conversions provided in an 
appendix.) The components 
you'll need are all readily 
available. 

The book begins with a de- 
scription of the Model III and 
7.80 and all the chips, circuits, 
prototyping boards, and other 
devices used in TRS-80 inter- 
facing. There are also helpful 
suggestions throughout for ex- 
panding the projects into more 
complex applications. 



Jerrv-W. O'Dell. Ph.D.. is a 
psychology professor at Elast- 
em Michigan University. He 
has published many articles, 
including several in 80 Micro 
and the Encyclopedia for 
the TRS-80. 

BK7394 $ 1 2.97 soflcover 
7 by 9 approx. 176 pp. 
ISBN 0-88006-061-1 
Way-ne Green Books 1983 

Credit card orders call TOLL-FREE 
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RETAIL CATALOG. 



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UNBTT 



226 • 80 Micro, November 1963 



YOUR TRS-80 
NEEDS HELP 




It needs software before it can do anything. And good software 
is as valuable as any piece of hardware you can buy. 



The Encyclopedia for the TRS-80* is a ten-volume 
reference series with over 200 programs for the 
Model I, Model III, and Color Computer In each 
volume, you'll find: 



* Business 


* Hardware 


"Education 


* Interfacing 


* Games 


* Tutorials 


* Graphics 


* Utilities 



Photographs, schematics, and program listings 
provide the essential detail you need for pro- 
gramming and tinkering. 



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Don't put up the white flag! Loaders and soft- 
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80 Micro, Nowmber 1983 • 227 



TUTORIAL 



Basic, Faster and 
Readable— Part 




by John Corbani 



(The first two parts of this series ap- 
peared in June, p. 104, and July, p. 
200.— Eds. J 

Basic loops are among the most ele- 
mentary of programming techniques, 
yet they seem to cause a lot of confu- 
sion. An inefficiently designed Basic 
loop deprives the user of the technique's 
full time-saving potential. This month 
I'll explain how you can use loops to im- 
prove program speed and flexibility. 

In general, loops are sections of code 
that repeat according to some predeter- 
mined set of conditions. The conditions 
can be the number of times through the 
loop or any Boolean test (where the op- 
erators = , >, and < are applied to 
variables or constants). 

Loops that execute based on the 
number of iterations have the form: 

(!) 10 FOR A =0 TO 5 

20 PRINT A 

30 NEXT A 

40 PRINT "ENDING VALUE IS" A 

50 STOP 

Line 10 defines the value of variable A 
at the start of loop execution. Unless 
otherwise specified in the For state- 
ment, the loop's step increment is one 
and the polarity positive. 

Line 20 performs any useful func- 
tion. If the purpose of the loop is only 
to mark time, you don't have to have an 
operand in this line. 

Line 30 increments the loop variable 
using the indicated step and compares A 
to the limiting value. If the loop has not 
exceeded its limit, line 30 continues exe- 

228 • 80 Micro, Novemtwr 1983 



Improve the speed and 
flexibility of your 
Basic loops with these 
simple, time-saving tips. 



cution at the end of the For statement in 
line 10. Naming the loop variable in line 
30 isn't necessary, but it's a good prac- 
tice when you nest many loops and 
might get confused. 

When the program satisfies the con- 
ditions of the loop, program flow pro- 
ceeds to the statement following the 
Next command. The loop variable (A 
here) maintains its last value. When 
program execution reaches line 40 in the 
above example, the value of A is 6. 

The listing below illustrates an alter- 
n^ive form of the same loop when writ- 
ten in one line to count backward. The 
final value of A in this case is - I . 

(2) 10 FORA = 5TO0STEP-IiPRINT 

A: NEXT: PRINT "ENDING 
VALUE IS" A: STOP 

The second Basic type of loop has the 
form: 

(3) 10 A-0 

20 PRINT A 

30 A = A+1:IFA<5THEN20 

40 PRINT "THE ENDING VALUE 

IS" A 
50 STOP 



This loop performs the same function 
as the first example, but il does so more 
slowly. In loops 1 and 2, Basic For... 
Next statements allow the program to 
count and compare at machine-lan- 
guage speed. This is at least an order of 
magnitude faster than the interpreted 
version in example 3. The advantage of 
loop 3 is that you can perform non-nu- 
meric tests. 

The example below illustrates a key- 
board polling loop using A$ as the test 
variable. 

(4) 10 AS = INKEYS: 

IFAS = " "THEN 10 ELSE 
IF AK> "B" THEN 10 ELSE 
PRINT AS;: GOTO 10 

This loop performs one or two tests 
on A$ and prints a B if A$ is a B. No 
matter what the character, execution 
loops back to the start of line 10. This 
kind of loop allows unlimited testing 
and break -out at any point in the loop. 



Breaking Out of a Loop 

You shouldn't leave a For.. .Next 

loop in the middle of its count. You 
gain extra speed by storing all the 
loop information in an area of memory 
caUed the slack. The program removes 
data in the st^k after executing the 
final Next of the loop. If the loop never 
reaches its natural end, that data re- 
mains in memory. If you have enough 
of these leftovers, they can fill memory 
completely, crashing your program. 
This doesn't mean that you can't 



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